Theses and Dissertations Collection

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    Communities and conservation in West Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: participation, costs and benefits Lokalsanilimn og naturvern i Vest-Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: Deltakelse, kostnadcrog nyttc
    (Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 2015) Mariki Sayuni Bildad
    This thesis contributes to the current debate on how to balance conservation and development objectives. The extent of land under protection globally has increased enormously over the last 30 years, and there are still plans to expand the current protected areas (P/Xs) and create new ones. Their establishment is associated with impacts on local communities who live in the proximity of such areas. Different actors have proposed local participation and benefit sharing for people affected by these conservation initiatives. Despite their implementation over three decades, the social, economic, and political impacts of establishing and maintaining PAs remain debatable. It is in this context that this study was conducted in the I'nduimet Wildlife Management Area (WMA). the Kilimanjaro National Park, and the West Kilimanjaro Forest Plantation in Tanzania. I he specific research questions of the study are: What are the social and economic impacts of the expansion and establishment of conservation areas on local people in West Kilimanjaro; and how are the impacts distributed along gender lines? ii. iii. How are the conservation benefits shared with local communities in West Kilimanjaro? How do the conservation benefits and costs alTect local peoples* attitudes towards and perceptions of conservation? iv. What are the factors that drive human-wildlife conflicts? Data were collected using qualitative methods through the combination of in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, informal interviews, and participant observation. Secondary data in the form of written sources on the study area were used in addition to the primary data gathered. The research results are presented in four separate but interrelated papers. Paper I investigates the gendered impacts of the creation of the Enduimet WMA and expansion of the Kilimanjaro National Park during recent years. The results of Paper 1 indicate that the establishment of these PAs has caused local people to lose rights to land and resources, harassment by PA staff, and increased conservation costs. The costs were found to be distributed along gender lines. However, women are affected more than men, due to inequality in the division of labour and resources at household level. Furthermore, relatively wealthy men and women suffer less compared to their poor counterparts because they are capable of buy ing natural resources such as fodder and firewood, an option which is less available to the poor. Furthermore, women in female­ headed households suffer more, compared to women in male-headed households, because they lack sufficient labour power for collecting natural resources and thus spend more time and energy in doing so. In addition, some are poor hence they lack the money to purchase these resources, while others are of old age and do not have relatives willing to help. Collecting natural resources forces poor women to spend more time and labour, which affects their health and restricts their time for participating in economic activ ities. Paper II explores the local benefits and transparency concerning the collection and distribution of tourism revenues from the Enduimet WMA. The results of Paper II show that the benefits channelled to local people who bear the costs of conservation are modest, and the system lacks transparency. The Enduimet Community-Based Organisation is entitled to receive 65 % of non­ consumptive tourism revenues accrued from the WMA. In practice, it receives less than 65 % after the revenues collected have passed through the non-transparent central government system. In 2011 each village received about 3.6 % of the tourism fees, and altogether the member villages received 32.5 %. When taking into account the uncompensated costs that some villagers bear in terms of increased crop damage, livestock loss, and loss of human life caused by increasing wildlife populations, the practice docs not match the ‘win-win’ discourse, that the Enduimet WMA will secure a sustainable source of income for local communities. Paper III compares the Kilimanjaro National Park and the West Kilimanjaro Forest Plantation in terms of local participation and benefit sharing, and how these alTcct relations between local communities and the two areas. The results of Paper III show that the Kilimanjaro National Park cams about 17 million USD per year, but from the inception of the park outreach programme in 1994 to 2011 (17 years), the park has spent only about 1.6 million USD to support 39 out of 90 neighbouring villages. Only one village among the three studied was supported by the park in 2002/03, in the form of the constniction of a water intake and storage tank worth 13,571 USD. The headquarters claim that they offer 7.5 % of the park's operational budget to neighbouring villages, but in practice, it is much less. Revenue sharing in the park is affected by bureaucratic procedures hampering applications for community projects, political influence, lack of transparency, mismanagement, and misuse of funds by national parks headquarters. It was found that some income was used to support parks (hat generate insufficient income. In addition, there is generally a lack of communication between the park and villagers. Villagers feel resentment towards the park that leads them to withdraw park resources illegally. They referred to the park stall'as ‘enemies' who do not care about their livelihoods. On the contrary, the West Kilimanjaro Forest Plantation has had a positive impact on neighbouring villages. Local communities benefit through the legal collection of forest products, farming opportunities, logging businesses for registered customers, and casual labour opportunities. Income from casual labour and agriculture serves as a source of income for them and their families. Nevertheless, casual labourers are paid too little (2.5 USD/day) and the process of allocating farming plots is affected by favouritism. The differences observed between the two areas are related to sectoral legal reforms in the 1990s to accommodate locally-based and decentralised approaches to natural resources management following the economic crisis of the late 1970s to the early 1980s. and the resulting declining capacity of government agencies. Based on inspiration drawn from the field of political ecology. Paper IV applies ‘webs of relation' approach to unwind inter-related factors behind cases of elephant killings in West Kilimanjaro. In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in elephant killings in Africa, for ivory'. I lowever, the ivory market is not the only reason why elephants are killed illegally. The results of Paper IV show that resistance to conservation is a reason behind elephant killings in this case, following appropriations of large tracts of land for conservation by external actors without the participation of local people. Local people suffer costs such as crop raiding, property damage, livestock deaths, and a threat to their own lives as they try to sustain a living on the remaining land that lies between conservation areas. In addition, they lack government support in chasing wildlife away from their fields, and they are not compensated for w ildlife damages. They are denied access to natural resources in the PAs. they are ill treated when found in the PAs. and they receive little or no benefits from conservation. Moreover, they lack land security, as there are more proposals from conservationists to create new conservation areas. This leaves people with an increased feeling of being marginalised and disempowered, with limited possibilities of influencing the situation through democratic means. Thus, local people resist conservation by killing wildlife. All areas studied (Enduimet WMA. Kilimanjaro National Park, and West Kilimanjaro Forest Plantation) share a centralised structure in terms of decision making on the management of natural resources and benefit sharing. Local people are not able to participate in decision making in the management of the areas, and it is difficult for communities to influence or challenge the way the structure operates. In Enduimet. the WMA was proposed as community-run conservation area. In practice, the communities do not have the power to collect revenues, decide on shares, or to verify whether they receive the income they are entitled to receive. The central government collects the revenues and channels the percentage to local people. The Kilimanjaro National Park was found to involve local people only when there is a fire outbreak; thus local people claimed to be used as ‘tools’. The park management system docs not allow space lor local people’s opinions. Most of the collected revenues are retained by the national parks headquarters and local people do not have any power or influence over the revenues. In practice, the park operates under a strict “fences and fines’ or 'fortress conservation’ strategy. In the West Kilimanjaro Forest Plantation, local people do not have any power or share of the revenues collected from the sale of logs and poles, apart from payment received from casual labour. The income from logs sold is remitted to the central government. In all three areas, participation is used as ‘means’ to improve environmental conservation and a way to accrue more revenue for the government.
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    Population ecology of Beamys hindei and Rhynchocyon petersi in selected coastal forests of Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2016) Sabuni, Christopher Andrew
    This thesis is prepared according to ''Publishable manuscripts" format of the Sokoine University of Agriculture. The study on the population ecology vis-a-vis: distribution. population dynamics, space use and behavior, genetic diversity and structure of Beamys hindei and Rhynchocyon petersi was conducted from 2010 lo 2014 in selected coastal Ibrests (Kwamsisi, Gendagenda, Madeie, Mbulizaga, Askari and Zaraninge) within and around Saadani National Park, Tanzania. Distribution of B. hindei was assessed using Sherman traps while for R. petersi camera traps were used. Capture mark recapture was used for population dynamics of B. hindei in Zaraninge forest. Radio telemetry together with camera traps was used to determine home range and activity patterns for R. petersi in Zaraninge forest. Standard genetic methods were used for development of microsatellites and determining genetic diversity and structure of R. petersi in the Zaraninge, Mbulizaga, Askari and Gendagenda. Results on distribution indicate R. petersi was found in all forests while B. hindei was found in some forest and absent in some other forests. Population fluctuation, demographic patterns of B. hindei in Zaraninge forest, showed a mean survival rate of 0.72 (range 0.65-078) with a recruitment of 1 animal/28 days and a litter size of 2.8 indicating a low abundance with stable population. The average home range of R. petersi from radio telemetry was 2.6 ha. Activity pattern differed between seasons with more activity observed on dry season (F =9.75, df 1, 28, p 0.004. Eight polymorphic microsatellites using next generation sequencing technology based on eighteen R. petersi were genotyped. Developed eight microsalellites were used to determine diversity and structure of R. petersi. Results indicate extant R. petersi have descended from a single population of high effective size (Ne) with no forest distinctive signal. In contrast, B. hindei was more genetically structured. It recommends further investigation if the 'population robustness’ of R. petersi in the fragmented coastal forest applies to other parts of its range, notably in the East Arc Mountain forests. Conservation status of R. petersi should remain as vulnerable while B. hindei should be reviewed to vulnerable. Conservation program are required lo sate guard these species
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    Factors affecting wildlife based domestic tourism in the northern tourist circuit, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University Of Agriculture, 2006) Mariki, Sayuni
    The study on factors affecting domestic tourism was carried out in northern Tanzania tourist circuit. The study had the following objectives: (i) To determine the characteristics of domestic tourists, (ii) To assess the trend in tourism and domestic tourism, (iii) To identify and assess factors affecting domestic tourism, (iv) To assess efforts undertaken to promote domestic tourism, (v) To propose ways by which domestic tourism can be improved. A sample of 140 domestic tourists, 142 selected individuals from markets and streets, 27 tour operators, 5 Protected areas (PAs) management staff, 6 PAs gate clerks and park guides, and 2 tourist organizations were interviewed. The results revealed that: (i) The age group of 26 - 37 was the most active group in visiting protected areas. The age groups of <20 years and >49 years rarely visited the PAs (ii) Low income was indicated as the main constraint (77.0%) affecting the growth of domestic tourism, followed by lack of awareness (71.8%), tourism education (53.0%) and lack of interest to travel (53.0%). (iii) There was a linear increase in the number of tourists in the three PAs from 1998 — 2003 due to the improvement of activities, facilities and services, (iv) Tourism education to all people, and improvement of services and facilities were the opinions given for the improvement of domestic tourism. It is recommended that, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism through its departments and organizations should put more efforts in domestic tourism promotion and marketing by using many and different ways since many factors found to affect domestic tourism in the country that had different weights of importance.
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    The role of local communities in wildlife management: a case study of the Serengeti regional conservation project, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2003) Ngowe, Nollasco Matozi
    The study was conducted in the western corridor of the Serengeti National Park between October 2001 and January 2002. Tire study area included villages bordering the Ikorongo-Grumeti Game Reserve, Ikoma Wildlife Management Area, and the Serengeti National Park. Specifically, the study was intended to assess the effectiveness of local communities in wildlife management; assess the relationship between the local community and wildlife authorities; and assess if there is any decline in poaching in the study villages. The study involved four villages of 14 villages under the SRCP where in each village, at least 5% of the households were sampled. Primary data were obtained from questionnaire survey, focus group discussions, check list and the researcher’s observations. The study revealed that both village natural resources committees (VNRCs) and village game scouts (VGS) were significantly effective in combating poaching than expected (%2 = 108.3, p<0.001 and %2 = 90.13, p<0.001, for VNRCs and VGS respectively). The relationship with wildlife authorities was said to be excellent by 29.2% of the respondents, 69.2% said there was good relations while 1.7% said it was poor. Furthermore, 98.3% of respondents said poaching has decreased since the introduction of community-based conservation by SRCP. Poaching was ranked as the most important threat to wildlife conservation, followed by lack of community participation in wildlife management, increasing livestock numbers, and agriculture. Other problems in the area included severe shortage of water for livestock during the dry season was pointed out by 83.3% of the respondents while 50% stated the shortage of grazing area. Crop damage was also a problem and the most problem animals mentioned by respondents were bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) (84.2%), vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) (77.5%), olive baboon (Papio anubis anubis) (55.0%), and the elephant (Loxodonta africana) (44.4%). On the other hand, communities received a total of 36 millions TAS (equivalent to 45.5 thousands USD) from 1998 to 2001 as a form of tangible benefits from the community wildlife hunting and 44 million TAS (equivalent to 48.1 thousands USD) from non-consumptive photographic safaris. The study concludes that active participatory approaches that are used by SRCP have contributed to the success of the project in winning support of local communities at the grass root level. Local communities arc treated with respect, as equal partners in conservation, not as targets of conservation or education projects. Decision making power is shared, and the role of the project staff is to act as catalysts and intermediaries. Based on the study, the following recommendations are given: -More support should be provided to the village game scouts. -There should be integration between crop and livestock production system. -Wildlife conservation education should be added in the primary school syllabus. -The use of non-lethal deterrents for crop protection against wildlife especially elephants should be researched in the area. -Villages should be assisted in exploring the potential investors especially on photographic tourism and tourist hunting.
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    Land use changes along wildlife corridors and their implications to conservation: a case of Saadani-Wami-Mbiki Wildlife corridor, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2013) Kileo, Lawrence Ebenezeri
    Wildlife corridors are facing conservation threats as a result of land use changes within and along them. The understanding of changes happening in the corridors over time is important for establishing the management baseline data. This study aimed at identifying land use changes along Saadani-Wami-Mbiki wildlife corridor and their implications to wildlife conservation. Specifically the study determined the rate of land cover changes in the corridor between 1975 and 2011 and assessed the associated land use practices towards corridor land cover change. Land sat imageries of 1975. 1995 and 2011 were used to assess the rate of vegetation cover changes as a result of various land use practices carried out in the corridor. Household survey and key informants interview methods were used to obtain socio-economic data which were analysed using SPSS while satellite imagery data were analysed using the ER.DAS IMAGINE 9.1 and ArcGIS 9.3 programmes. In the past 36 years (1975-2011). the cultivated land increased by 25%, settlement by 13%, open forest by 10% while closed forest and grassland decreased by 18% and 3% respectively. Shifting cultivation, over grazing, charcoal making and settlements were identified as major land use practices threatening the corridor. Basing on the results, it is recommended that, deliberate measures are needed to address about poverty of local communities around the corridor. Among the potentials include ecological and cultural tourism and beekeeping.
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    Diversity of terrestrial small mammals and prevalence of haemopathogens in rattus rattus of Mafia island, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2022) Sirilo, Tecla Mageni
    This study presents the diversity of terrestrial small mammals and prevalence of haemopathogens in Mafia Islands and the small islands (Chole, Jibondo, Juani and Shungimbili) which are associated with Mafia. Terrestrial small mammals comprise a group of mammals including volant and non-volant which are cosmopolitan and successful due to their wide range of feeding, adaptive reproduction strategies and habitat occupation. A study on the diversity of small mammals and their haemopathogens prevalence was conducted in Mafia Island and small islands associated with it from August to October 2021. A total of 120 rodents were captured by direct method using Sherman traps and indirectly using camera traps. Each directly trapped individual was immobilized with ethanol and parameters such as weight and sex were recorded. The samples that were taken include an earpiece which was preserved in Eppendorf tube containing 90% ethanol for further confirmatory species identification using molecular techniques. For the purpose of molecularly identifying the hemopathogens, 0.5 ml of blood was collected from the retro-orbital sinus using a capillary tube and kept as a dried blood spot on filter paper (Whatman paper). According to the findings, all of the collected rodents were classified as Rattus rattus and belonged to the RrC lineage I. One Crocidura hildegardae shrew was also trapped.Our camera traps recorded black and rufous sengi Rhynchocyon petersi, blue monkey Cercopithecus mitis, blue duiker Cephalophus monticola, the introduced Small Indian Genet Viverricula indica, and the red bush squirrel Paraxerus palliatus. Of the 120 Rattus rattus, 13.33% tested positive for Bartonella DNA. Prevalence between the six studied sites was significantly different (df = 5 and p-value <0.001). None of the rickettsia, leptospira, brucella, anaplasma, coxiella and trypanosoma was detected. Despite the limited time of data collection, our results show that there is low diversity of small mammals on the Mafia islands, with R. rattus dominating in all small islands. Also, the results show the presence of Uncultured Bartonella spp among other haemopathogen being obtained in R. rattus. The study recommends further studies in the rest of forest patches in Mafia and to also explore the diversity of flying mammals which was not included in this study but also to explore more on the prevalence of haemopathogens within the island. Key Words: Diversity, Small mammals, Rattus rattus, Haemopathogens, Bartonella, Mafia
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    Rodent community structure and their damage in cotton crop fields in Kilosa district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2022) Seif, William
    Rodent is the one of vertebrates group causing a significant crop loss from planting, harvest to storages. This study assessed abundance, diversity, age structure, sex ratio, damage level and food categories of rodent at different cotton growth stages (seedling, vegetative as well as flowering and boll development stages). The study was conducted in Kilosa, Tanzania in two different habitats (cotton fields and fallow lands) between March 2020 and August 2020. Rodent population was sampled through capture-mark-recapture (Peterson methods) trapping technique and individual stomachs were collected from snap traps. In all cotton growth stages, Mastomys natalensis predominated at seedling stage (63.64%) as well as at vegetative stage (50%), while at flowering and boll development stage, Leminscomys zebra dominated (50%) of all captures. Higher damage levels observed only at seedling stage (33%). Different types of foods were consumed in fields, but seeds, invertebrates and plant materials were predominantly consumed. The findings highlight clearly that rodents were more abundant at seedling stage and M. natalensis was dominant at that stage, also cotton damages were observed at that stage while no damages were observed in other stages. The study confirms that large population of rodent and damage of cotton crops largely occurred at seedling stage. Therefore, management actions may be more effective at seedling stage of cotton growth in the fields.
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    Patterns of fish community structure in protected and non-protected marine areas in Tanzania mainland
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2022) Salema, Fausta
    Over the years Marine Protected Areas (MPA) have excelled in protecting marine biodiversity contrary to other less protected areas. However, information on the performance of protection on the condition of fish stocks is less well documented in Tanzania. The survey was done on fish landing sites located in Tanga and Mtwara regions to assess patterns of fish community structure particularly on the fish abundance, species diversity, growth patterns, and maturity stages based on catches landed from sites differing in protection status. The fish abundance from protected areas was significantly lower than in non-protected areas (p=0.002). Species’ diversity was relatively higher in catches from non-protected (H=2.742) than in protected areas (H=2.232). High percentage of species (63.24%) exhibiting negative allometric growths were observed in catches landed from non-protected areas. Further, large number of matured fish was observed in catches from protected areas compared to non-protected areas (p<0.01). These indices are useful indicators of the performance of MPAs. The observed negative allometric growth in fishes and low fish maturity in the non-protected area strongly suggest the role of high or uncontrolled extractive pressure and disturbances caused by the fishing gears on the fish stock. Continued high extraction may induce a decline in general fish size due to constantly selecting for large trait fish stock, potentially causing evolutionally change in morphological traits. In contrast the lower abundance and species diversity from the protected area is reflective of low catch effort, a common strategy of regulating fishing pressure in MPA rather than indicating the actual diversity in the fish stocks in these protected waters. Based on these findings more regulatory strategies of fishing in the open waters are recommended to allow for more time for the fish to attain the appropriate size and to ensure the effective protection of marine resources.
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    Influence of agro-pastoralism on herbaceous plants diversity and livelihood of communities in Western Serengeti
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Kavana, Pius Yoram
    First of all I would like to thank the Almighty God for granting me life and strength that enabled me to execute this study. I wish to acknowledge the financial support from my employer (Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute) through AfricanBioServices project No. GA 641918 of which this work would never have been completed without the grant provided to me. I would like to acknowledge my sincere gratitude to my supervisors, Professors Ephraim Mtengeti, Christopher Mahonge and Anthony Sangeda who have supervised this PhD thesis with invaluable enthusiasm. Their valuable advice and insightful criticism over the whole thesis have been of the utmost significance in an entire period of my study. Special thanks to Dr. Robert Fyumagwa for logistics and proper arrangement of field trips without his administration skills I would never have completed data collection in the wild of western Serengeti. I would like to extend my deepest sense of both personal and professional gratitude to Dr. Bukombe John Kija for inspiration and professional guidance both while in the field and during data analysis. Special thanks to Dr. Renalda Munubi for tireless encouragement and support that pushed me to apply R statistical software in data analysis. I would like to extend my sincere gratitude to Dr. Stephen Nindi for not hesitating to mention my name during nomination of candidates to pursue PhD studies. I believe I have not let him down as I have managed to push this work to its demise! I am grateful to all TAWIRI colleagues and fellow PhD students who assisted me in one way or another till I managed to reach the demise of this challenging course of action. I will never forget you my friends!x My heartfelt gratitude goes to my wonderful wife Rose, who accepted and encouraged me to begin field work in the wild of Serengeti ecosystem by purchasing two pairs of tough boots that enabled me to avoid prickles of acacia thorns for the entire field work. Thank you so much! I am deeply grateful to my precious daughters Josephine and Mwasi for their calmness as they missed my love and care during my absence. Lastly but not least, I am indebted to my father the late Rev. Yoram Jonathan Kavana and my mother Josephine Nehemia Baruti who laid a foundation for me to adore education. May God bless abundantly all people who helped me in my endeavour to climb an academic ladder!
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    The ecology of large herbivores in the Miombo woodlands of South East Tanzania
    (The University of of Nairobi, 1979) Rodgers, William Alan
    The studies described in this thesis arose from an ecological survey of part of the eastern side of the Selous Game Reserve in south east Tanzania from 1967 to 1975* The intensive study area contained two major, ecologically distinct, habitats, an area of tall grass miombo woodlahd and a smaller area of short grass scattered tree grassland. Several species of large grazing ungulate utilised thefce habitats, namely: buffalo, hartebeest, impala, sable, warthog, wildebeest and zebra* Seasonal changes in the environment such as the six month drought and widespread annual fires affect the pattern of habitat utilisation exhibited by each species. This thesis examines such utilisation and shows that each species has developed its own ecological and feeding strategies in order to maximise nutrient inputs and reproductive success in what is seasonally a harsh environment In many ways the miombo (Brachystegia) woodlands remain the least studied of the East African habitats This lack of data on the miombo in general and the Selous Game Reserve in particular means much of the thesis is taken up by descriptions of the physical and biotic environment of the study area. Following an introductory chapter the thesis is divided into three parts. Part one, with three chapters, describes the physical environment: geology, soil, climate, water and prehistory; the vegetation: community description, distribution and species composition, floristics and vegetation dynamics; and range factors of productivity and forage nutrient content Part two contains chapters on animal numbers, distribution patterns, feeding and nutrition and a chapter examining growth and reproduction as indices of population performance Part three concludes the thesis with a chapter reviewing the miombo woodlands and the Selous as a wildlife habitat and a final chapter discussing management policy for the Selous Game Reserve. The study area is low lying (100 - 700m asl) with a single rainy season from late November to early May (average 760mm p.a.) Despite a long hot dry season, surface water is relatively plentiful Habitat distribution is primarily controlled by geology and soil type with major modifications by fires and past human activity. The upland Karoo and post karoo sandstones give rise to infertile acidic red sandy soils which carry a climax-thicket formation These have been degraded into woodland by fire and settlement activity Lower down the drainage slope the flat Pleistocene river terrace of grits and sands has produced a hard alkaline sodic soil carrying short grass scattered tree grassland The drainage sump of recent alluvial clay carries tall floodplain grasses The vegetation is diverse, collections to date totalling over 1200 vascular plants including 150 grass species. The woodland vegetation shows strong affinities to the Zambezian flora,and the thicket, riverine and alkaline communities show affinities to the East African coastal flora o The thesis contains species lists and a vegetation community map. Fire has opened up the thickets producing tall grass woodlands of various types. Grasses, mainly Andropogonae, are coarse tussock perennials with very low nutritive values when dry* No burning allows the spread of woody and climbing species which engulf the grass layer and rapidly reduce grazing values* Late dry season fires reduce woody elements and plant diversities and leave coarse grass growth thoughout the dry season* Cooler early dry season fires maintain mixed woodland communities and a mixture of grass species and, where water tables allow, rapidly produce a flush of nutritious regenerating grass growth* Crude protein content of such growth can reach 20% although standing crop is low* The alkaline soils carry a short grass sward of mixed annual perennial species of high nutritive values in the rains* There is no flush after burning and dry season grazing values are low* Chapter 5 discusses techniques of animal census in detail* A vehicular ground sample census using fixed systematically placed transects was used for common ungulates* Rainy season densities on the short grass habitats are as follows: Impala 28*7/km2, wildebeest 27,2/km2, zebra l6*2/km^ and warthog 9*4/km2# Wildebeest and impala densities have remained unchanged for six years, zebra and warthog densities have increased significantly* Less detailed data are given for other species* Distribution data have been collected at several different scales from Tanzania wide, to the Selous, to the study area, to the different facets of a miombo valley-ridge catenary system* It is ‘shewn that 'salile *nd'‘L±ch’fcnrteins .'S* : ns hartebeest are restricted to tall grass woodland habitats, wildebeest and impala must have access to short grass areas in the rains and that buffalo, zebra and warthog, are more habitat tolerant but achieve higher densities on short grass habitats . Within the study area virtually all impala, warthog, wildebeest and zebra concentrate on the short grass areas in the rains, moving into the woodlands following the onset of burning Within the woodland habitat wildebeest and impala concentrate on the green flush of the valleys and avoid the unburnt areas and ridge tops. Sable and hartebeest are distributed throughout all categories and warthog and zebra are intermediate showing some selection of valley and green areas The onset of the November rains signals a return to the short grasslands Studies of feeding behaviour showed buffalo, hartebeest and wildebeest to be total grazers whilst sable and impala took significant proportions of browse in the dry season and warthog diet changed to perennial monocot roots and rhizomes. Feeding studies concentrated on wildebeest and impala and much data was obtained from post morterm analysis. By assuming that extrapolation of data from other large ungulate studies was unlikely to cause large relative errors it was possible to make estimates of protein and energy intakes and of theoretical nutrient needs for these two species. the rainy season both species had inputs greater than During theoretical requirements for maintenance, i e i positive nutritional balance. they were in As the dry season progressed T both male and female wildebeest which remained on the dry short grass habit entered a period of negative nutritional balance• However wildebeest moving to fresh flush in the woodlands were shown (albeit on less evidence) to maintain a positive balance. Impala at the onset of the dry season changed their diet to nutrient rich browse components and so maintained a positive nutritional balance. These two ! strategies of habitat change and dietary change have resulted in peak nutritional inputs at different times of year. Impala have peak inputs in September and wildebeest in i December periods. Onset of parturition coincides with these peak The nutritional load of gestation is minimal compared to that of lactation. Calving season therefore allows lactation and wearing of calves at the nutritional optimum time of year. Other species show different strategies, which allow a separation of niche space reducing competition for food resources Chapter eight shows that individual growth rate, body condition and fecundity rates are as high or higher than other populations in Africa., and that populations here are well adapted to the ecological conditions of this part of the Selous Game Reserve. This chapter discusses why the wildebeest population is stationary when nutrition is adequate, condition is good and fecundity is high. Predation by lion is put forward as a major limiting factor* The concluding chapters look at the miombo woodlands throughout Africa as wildlife reserves and suggest that only when tall grass woodlands are adjacent to other habitats such as short grassland or floodplains do animal densities reach levels high enough to warrant major conservation inputs* The importance of fire in providing dry season graze is stressed and fire management polices for the Selous are discussed* Past, present and future human impacts on the wilderness values of the Selous are examined and a plea is made for definite land use policy statements for south east Tanzania and the reserve*
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    Spatio-temporal dynamics of land use and land cover, wildlife habitats and populations in the greater Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Kija, Hamza Khalid
    Land use and land cover (LULC) change is a common phenomenon and of great concern to conservation in many terrestrial ecosystems, including the Serengeti Ecosystem (SE) in Tanzania. LULC changes can pose profound impacts on wildlife habitats, abundance and spatio-temporal distribution of wildlife species. This situation needs close monitoring, as it is not clearly known how the future ecological conditions of the ecosystem might be, if these changes remain unchecked. Previous studies on LULC changes, drivers, wildlife habitats and species distributions in the ecosystem are fragmented, focused either on specific habitat types or only on predicting spatial distribution and habitat suitability for particular wildlife species inside the protected areas (PAs). The above-mentioned studies provided limited information on the long-term prediction, imposing difficulties to infer the causes of wildlife populations fluctuation and observed changes in distribution pattern. Knowledge of dynamics of LULC and habitats quality, and the drivers of change is imperative for maintaining healthy wildlife populations and ecosystems integrity. In lieu of this, therefore, the study aimed to carry out a spatio-temporal dyamics of LULC, wildlife habitats and populations in the SE (1975-2015). Specifically, the study sought to: i) characterize LULC change; ii) assess drivers of LULC changes; iii) assess quality of wildlife habitat; and (iv) determine the dynamics of herbivore distribution and habitat selection. For objective one, the random forest classification algorithm was employed to classify the Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (+ETM) and Operational Land Imager (OLI) was used to characterize LULC into eightiii main classes and extracted quantitative data for assessing the corresponding changes during 1975-1995, 1995-2015 and 1975-2015. For objective two, LULC data for 1995 and 2015 derived from Landsat imageries (objective 1), and nine predictors of change (human population density, precipitation, distance from rivers, soil moisture, fire frequency, distance from roads, elevation, slope and elephant density) were used to ascertain their negative and positive influence for the changes using Binomial Logistic Regression. Drivers of change in LULC, have implications for wildlife habitat quality and spatio-temporal dynamics of wildlife species, therefore, for objective three, we mapped and evaluated changes in habitat quality (1975– 2015) using the Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model, whereas, in objective four, Bonferroni confidence interval, with the Chi-square goodness-of-fit test and kernel density were used to assess herbivores habitat selection and distribution for browsers (grant’s gazelles and giraffe), grazers (wildebeest, zebra and buffalo) and mixed feeders (impala and elephant). Results revealed that grassland, shrubland and woodland were the major LULC types throughout 1975-2015 with percentage coverages of 50.6%, 23.7% and 20.9% for 1975; 54.2%, 23.5% and 15.9% for 1995; and 57.0%, 23.8% and 8.9% for 2015. Woodland cover (-11.1%) was the most converted to other cover types during 1975-2015. Overall habitat quality declined over time (1975–2015) in unprotected and human-dominated areas surrounding the ecosystem, intermediate deterioration rates in less heavily PAs (Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs), Game Controlled Area (GCA), Game Reserves (GRs) and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) and the least rate in the most heavily protected Serengeti National Park. Significant clustered distribution pattern was observed for alliv herbivores across space and time, with contracted distribution ranges for browsers and an expanded one for grazers and mixed feeders for 2015 in comparison to 1995. The obtained information on species distribution, habitat selection and use are useful in determining high priority areas for effective conservation practices. Generally, increasing human population size, agriculture, settlements and policy changes, fires and elephant browsing pressure are central to LULC and habitats quality dynamics in the ecosystem. The study recommends a more protection effort to halter LULC changes and habitats degradations in order to enhance quality habitat conditions for both browsers and grazers in the ecosystem. For less PAs (e.g. WMAs and GCA) improvement strategies are needed to strengthen conservation and management practices. Effective management of the key drivers of LULC and habitats change in the SE are of paramount importance. Wet and dry season herbivores coverage is needed to examine species guild’s spatio-temporal changes.
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    Impacts of recreational infrastructure on rodent communities and their associated haemoparasites in Serengeti national park, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2022) Bupamba, Happiness C.; Bupamba, Happiness Charles
    Rodents are a vital component of ecosystems influencing various ecological aspects such as community structure, stability, and diversity. However, they are very sensitive to environmental change, thus act as indicators of environmental suitability in their respective ecosystems. Rodents’ haemoparasites are zoonotic and have great potential of causing rodent borne diseases when transmitted to humans. Recreational infrastructures constructed in protected areas to support leisure and recreation activities for tourists, may disrupt the natural environment of rodents and influence dynamism in their communities and associated haemoparasites, an may lead to transmission of these haemoparasites to the human communities. Capture- Mark- Release was used to collect data in Serengeti National Park to assess the effects of recreational infrastructure on rodent communities and their associated haemoparasites. Four transect lines of 100 meters; set 10 meters apart were used for setting traps in selected trapping sites; and capillary tubes were used to collect blood samples for assessment of prevalence of haemoparasites. A total of 128 rodents belonging to 9 species were captured, of which Mastomys natalensis was the dominant species (53.1%). Generally, areas with less active infrastructure had more diverse community, but lower breeding pattern. Bacillus spp was the only haemoparasite observed to prevail in 24% of all captured rodents, with higher prevalence in adult males. The study concludes that different recreational infrastructure with regards to visitors’ occupancy do not affect rodent communities in their natural environment; rather the dynamism in rodent communities are influenced by the nature of the habitat and environment surrounding the infrastructure. Thus, we recommend that more detailed studies should be done in relation to potential agents of diseases within PAs. This would help in understanding if there are potential risks to tourists and wildlife, and solving them before any outbreak occurs, as the two communities have been found to interact.
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    Socio-economic and conservation effects of banning live wild animals trade: the case of communities bordering Nilo nature forest reserve, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2022) Saidi, Abdallah Selemani
    The Live Wild Animals Trade Ban (LWATB) has been imposed temporarily by the Tanzania government since March 2016. The ban implied a national revenue loss of about 1.83 billion Tanzanian Shillings (TZS) per year. One among the reasons for such a ban was a breach of the Wildlife Conservation Act (WCA) No. 5 of 2009 by some of the actors. Subsequently, the government has been thinking of imposing a total ban. However, the social-economic and conservation effects of the ban on the communities are not well known. This study was conducted in the villages found adjacent to the Nilo Nature Forest Reserve (NNFR) in the East Usambara Mountains. The objectives were to ascertain the effects of LWATB on income, poaching, and communities’ coping mechanisms post LWATB. Household questionnaires and key informant interviews were used for data collection. Both inferential and descriptive statistical analyses were conducted. Findings revealed that the LWAT contributed TZS 709 057 400/= of the total income to local communities, whereas other Income Generating Activities (IGAs) contributed TZS 192 455 000/= yearly. This showed a significant difference between the income earned from LWAT and other IGAs (t=21.455, p < 0.05) before the ban. Furthermore, the ban has contributed to decreasing poaching incidences by 38.4%. These results commensurate with secondary data that showed that there was statistically significant difference on poaching incidences before and after the ban (z = -2.938, P < 0.05). Moreover, 98% of respondents who were engaging in the trade before the ban have shifted to the other IGAs. Ultimately, LWATB has negative impacts to the income of the local communities and positive impacts on conservation through reducing income and poaching incidences after LWATB by 78.7% and 38.4% respectively. Therefore, it is recommended that the government should uplift the ban on non-threatened species and facilitate local communities to conduct their activities sustainably.
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    Effect of Hormonal baits (Levonorgestrel and Quinestrol) on Fertility of Commensal Rat (Rattus rattus linnaeus, 1758)
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Selemani, Mwajabu
    This laboratory-based study examined the effects of quinestrol and levonorgestrel (singly and in combination) incorporated in bait on body mass and reproduction of the roof rat (Rattus rattus ). A total of 140 R. rattus, (70 males and 70 females) were provided with 10 g of bait containing quinestrol (QU) or levonorgestrel (LE) or a combination of levonorgestrel and quinestrol (EP-1) at concentrations of (10 ppm and 50 ppm) for seven consecutive days consecutively. After 7 days, animals were dissected and the ovary, uterus, testis, seminal vesicles, and epididymis were weighed and examined. Bait consumption and body weight decreased significantly (p = 0.0001) in treated compared to control animals, with a minor difference between sexes. Quinestrol and EP-1 at 10 ppm and 50 ppm increased the mass of the uterus and ovary of females (p = 0.0001), which was associated with edema in the uterus. The mass of epididymis, testis, seminal vesicles, were reduced and sperm counts and motility were significantly reduced (p = 0.0001) particularly in the animals with QU and EP-1 at the higher concentrations. To determine the effects of contraceptive hormones on reproduction, 50 ppm of QU and EP-1 were used. A total of 160 animals of equal numbers and sexes were paired, keeping the ratio of one female to one male. Pregnancy and litter production was significantly reduced (p = 0.0249) in the treated pairs when compared to controls. It is concluded that quinestrol and EP-1 have a significant impact on both males and females R. rattus reproduction compared to levonorgestrel alone. These hormones will be very valuable when used as a fundamental method in controlling R. rattu reproduction.
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    Effects of prescribed burning on rodent community ecology in Serengeti national park, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2020) Manyonyi, A. M
    A study on the effects of prescribed burning on rodent community ecology was conducted in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. The study aimed at generating ecological knowledge on the changes in rodent communities when areas of the park are intentionally burned to regulate grasslands or reduce undergrowth that can lead to uncontrolled forest fires. A Complete Randomized Design (CRD) factorial layout with two treatments (burned and unburned) and two replications was applied. A total of 148 animals comprising six species of rodents and one insectivore were captured over 2,940 trap nights. Among the trapped individuals, 41.9% were adults, 16.1% juveniles and 41.9% sub-adults. Males and females were at parity between treatments. Species abundance was estimated using the Minimum Number Alive method for different rodent species and was found to vary with treatment, where Mastomys natalensis declined in burned plots whilst Arvicanthis niloticus increased. However, species diversity did not differ across treatments (F1, 10 = 0.15, p = 0.70). Differences in the reproductive condition of female M. natalensis (z = 4.408, df = 15, p = 0.000) and A. niloticus (z = 2.381, df = 15, p = 0.017) were observed between treatments showing that higher numbers of reproductively active females were observed in burned plots in March, whilst in unburned plots it was from November to February. Conservation strategies involving periodic habitat burning should, therefore, consider small mammal reproductive periods to ensure that potentially at risk species are not adversely affected and able to rapidly recover from the effects of burning on temporarily lowering food resources and longer term impacts of increased predation caused by reduced cover.
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    The contribution of wildlife management areas on womens’ Well-being in enduimet division, Longido district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2019) Temu, S. J
    Wildlife management and conservation in Tanzania has passed several stages from colonial management programmes, to the establishment of the Wildlife Act of 1974. In addition, Wildlife Management Areas were established in 2003 as a way of ensuring communities bordering wildlife areas benefit from them. The Wildlife Management Areas are expected to contribute to the well-being of the surrounding communities. This study was undertaken to assess the contribution of Enduimet Wildlife Management Area on women’s well-being. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying the economic activities supported by it in the study area, assessing its contribution to women’s well-being and to examine the challenges faced by the women who are engaged in it. The study employed multistage sampling whereby Enduimet was purposefully selected and simple random sampling was used to select the study wards, villages and the respondents. The study used a cross-sectional research design to collect data from 120 respondents from Olmolog and Tinga Tinga villages. The findings show that the main economic activities supported by Enduimet Wildlife Management Area (EWMA) include provision of financial grants, road construction support, and provision of torches for scaring crops destructive animals. The study finding further show that EWMA contributes significantly (p ≤ 0.001) to women’s income at p=0.001. In addition, it also contributes to the women’s social well-being through provision of water services, gender training, building of classrooms and provision of scholarships to some families. The main challenges found in this study include destruction of crops by wild animals, injuries, and death of people and livestock. The study concludes that EWMA contributes to women’s well-being economically and socially. Based on the finding of the main challenges it is recommended that Wildlife Village Game Scout, District Game Officers, and Livestock and Extension officers should design, develop and advise communities on better methods of preventing destructive wild animals from destroying people’s crops and livestock.
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    Rodent diversity and habitat association in Handeni Hill Forest Reserve, North Eastern Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2019) Bayo, M. J.
    The distribution and diversity of rodents is influenced by various factors such as vegetation characteristics, climatic conditions, disease, predation and habitat modification due to anthropogenic activities and food abundance. This study was conducted in Handeni Hill Forest Reserve from November 2018 to March 2019 with the aim of assessing the influence of habitat characteristics on the abundance and distribution of rodent species. Four permanent grids of 70 m by 70 m with 49 Sherman live traps were established in miombo woodland and evergreen forest habitats respectively. In each habitat type one pitfall drift fence was also established. A total of 102 individuals of 8 rodent species from 4704 traps nights were captured namely Praomys sp, Gerbilliscus vicinus, Grammomys dolichurus, Rattus rattus, Mastomys natalensis, Acomys wilsonii, Lemniscomys rosalia and Mus minutoides. Species such as G. dolichurus were restricted to the thickets in the evergreen forest and Praomys sp was restricted in a higher altitude of the Miombo woodland habitat. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used in showing a relationship among species, grids and habitat characteristics. The CCA ordination plot revealed factors such as shrub height, moisture and ground cover to have influence in species diversity and distribution. The study concludes that habitat factors such as ground cover and shrub height have strong influence on the species abundance in the area followed by moisture content.
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    Population density, distribution and habitat association of Callulina shengena: An endemic frog species in the Eastern arc mountains
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2020) Tesha, Flora Lawrence
    Population density and habitat associations are fundamental aspects for conservation and management of wildlife species such as Callulina shengena. Being a Critically Endangered warty frog in the Eastern Arc Mountains, such vital information was missing and therefore demonstrated substandard conservation measures. Documented here are the information on population density, distribution, habitat traits, associations and threats with the aim of enhancing proper management of the C. shengena. Active searching was done in Chome Nature Forest Reserve in 12 plots during wet and dry seasons. Plots were searched thoroughly and when the species was encountered, the information about that site were recorded which included GPS location, altitude, percentage canopy cover, distance from water source, disturbance level, temperature and the amount rainfall. There was significant difference in population density of C. shengena between wet and dry seasons. Places that exhibited higher density of C. shengena had largely shady areas close to slowly moving fresh waters. Also the population density was higher in wet season suggesting that rainfall and temperature had influence on C. shengena distribution. It was found that C. shengena was highly distributed in the mid altitudes (1951 - 2050 m.a.s.l), of the western part of the forest where there was slow moving waters nearby. About 55% of C. shengena population was close to the forest boundary and this exposes C. shengena to higher chances of depopulation due to increased human activities in the forest, either legally or illegally. The Chome Nature Forest Reserve was observed to experience threats mainly from illegal logging, gold mining and human trails and the development of tourism activities. The government should put more emphasis on the societal knowledge about the resources and wildlife found in the reserve to maximize the conservation efforts to the protected areas.
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    Assessment of bmus awareness on sardine processing and marketing in lake Victoria, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2018) Moshiro, E.
    This study was implemented to generate information on assessing BMUs awareness on sardine processing and marketing on Lake Victoria Tanzania. Specifically, the study intended to; identify the roles BMUs are currently performing in line with sardine processing practices with the proposed BMUs guidelines and generating information to carry out the training need assessment for the studied BMUs. The study was conducted in Tanzania part of the lake. A total of 11 BMUs participated, drawn from three districts of Mwanza city. Data was collected using three main methods; A questionnaire-based survey involving a total of 155 respondents, Key informant interviews (n = 3) was done to to cover the information from the Focus Group Discussions, and also FGD (n = 77) with different groups at each site. After fieldwork data was entered in spreadsheets (Excel and SPSS) and analyzed. Multiple response analysis was used to determine the relationship between sardine handling, processing and training need within BMUs. BMUs are aware of various interventions done for sustainable fishery resource utilization. Though efforts to improve the value of sardines have been shown but BMUs were observed with challenges such as, lack of government and financial support, conflict of interest, poor record keeping, lack of regular trainings and proper market. In those circumstances BMUs are not sustainable, although they are feasible institutions. There is a need to build capacity through provision of equipments, access to financial resources, incentives to BMUs leaders, relevant training skills and awareness creation for BMUs to be feasible and sustainable.
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    Attitude and perception of tourists towards wildlife-based tourism in Tanzania: a case study of the northern tourist circuit
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2018) Kahangwa, P. N.
    The tourism industry has become a fast growing economic sector in Tanzania with high foreign earnings. This is a result of the vast natural resources that Tanzania is endowed with. The tourists arriving in Tanzania have different attitudes and perceptions of the destination. Understanding these attitudes and perceptions is essential to the development of the tourism industry. This study therefore, research on the attitude and perception of tourists on wildlife tourism as well as their preference on wildlife attractions. Survey questionnaires were used to collect data from 300 tourists visiting Lake Manyara National Park and Ngorongoro Conservation Area. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20. Results show that overall; tourists have a positive attitude and perception towards wildlife tourism in Tanzania. However, there are some few factors which the tourists had a negative attitude and perception with, such as overcrowding, littering, feeding of wild animals, going off-road, inadequate tourists’ facilities and infrastructures. These factors must be addressed so as to promote the vast growth of the tourism industry which has a significant contribution to the economic development of the country.