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Sokoine University of Agriculture  Institutional Repository (SUA IR). This repository was built and is maintained by the university library  (Sokoine National Agricultural Library-SNAL) , in order to collect, preserve and disseminate scholarly output generated by University research community (staff and students) members.

This repository hosts a variety of openly accessible materials including: scholarly articles and books, theses and dissertations, conference proceedings and technical reports. For assistance about depositing your research output in the repository click here. SUA IR Policy  click here or any queries contact us at snal@sua.ac.tz.

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Recent Submissions

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Data management system for sustainable agriculture among smallholder farmers in Tanzania: research-in-progress
(Taylor & Francis, 2023-05-31) Mushi Gilbert Exaud; Di Marzo Giovanna Serugendo; Burgi Pierre-Yves
Smallholder farmers produce about 70% of the world’s food and employ more than one billion people. They therefore have an important role to play in eradicating food insecurity and poverty among the world’s growing population. Although there are different digital services for smallholder farmers, the existing services lack sustainability in the agriculture context and hardly meet their needs. Data management and sharing among different agriculture stakeholders has the potential to make agriculture sustainable, but there is a need to enable access to digital services in an entire farming cycle under one roof. This paper aims to propose the design of a comprehensive data management digital framework to solve common challenges of smallholder farmers in Tanzania and other countries’ agricultural systems. We follow the design science research (DSR) method to develop an artifact that interacts with the problem context. To illustrate the framework’s applicability, we use different case studies in Tanzania.
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Tobacco farming and its implications on poverty status: farmers’ perspectives in Urambo district Tanzania
(Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2011) Mkufya Peter Stewart
In its efforts to alleviate poverty among tobacco growers, the government of Tanzania adopted sub-sectoral reform aiming at improving tobacco gross margin. One of the basic strategies was the empowerment of co-operatives to source out finance through banks. It was in view of these initiatives that this study was undertaken in December 2009 and February 2010, to find out why poverty persists among tobacco growers despite the high income ensuing from tobacco production. The specific objectives of the study were to: estimate profitability of tobacco production; determine poverty status; determine expenditure of income from tobacco: assess perception of tobacco growers on tobacco farming and finally assess socio-economic factors affecting tobacco growers. The study findings show that, the respondents produce average of 1192 kg/ha which is below the potential production of 1900 kg/ha. The gross margin analysis reveals that, respondents’ gross margin is 70% of total revenue per ha. Considering government minimum salary scale of Tshs 104 000 per month as a benchmark, respondents earn twice of the same from tobacco production per month. Regression analysis indicates that yield per ha had beta wait of +0.743(p<000), contributing significantly on increased gross margin than other variables. Further, respondents spend over 50% of their income on food, which accounts for the prevailing reality of poverty. Tobacco low yield, large household size, insufficient food crops production, inefficiency performance of cooperatives, lack of entrepreneurial training and lack of other income generating activities, contribute in accounting for poverty persistence. The study recommends that the Government provides goods which promote utilization of income generated from tobacco such as building materials, schools, health and communication.
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Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle in Tanzania
(Sokoine University of Agriculture, 1993) Maeda Godfrey Elikalia
A review on the epidemiology and diagnosis of human taeniasis and bovine cysticercosis with special reference to East Africa is given. All humans are susceptible to the adult tapeworm, T. saginata. Cattle, is the predominant intermediate host, young animals being more susceptible than older ones. Susceptibility of a few wild ruminants makes them potential reservoirs of infection. Characteristics of T. saginata, including a long life span, a high reproductive potential, spontaneous shedding of proglottids from human carriers, occult nature of the cysticerci in cattle, etc, contribute to maintenance of infections. Dispersion and survival of T. saginata eggs are determined by sanitation, personal hygiene, coprophagous animals and weather conditions. Prevalence rates of cysticercosis in cattle reported from various countries depend on local meat hygiene legislations, efficiency of meat inspection, and record keeping in the abattoirs. In this thesis, factors promoting the spread of T. saginata infections in Tanzania were investigated, by interview information from 105 cattle owners, belonging to Masai, Arusha, Iraqw, Gogo and Rangi ethnic groups, from 52 villages in Tanzania. Taeniasis and cysticercosis were reported as common problems among members of the ethnic groups interviewed. Lack of awareness of the source of human tapeworms, scarcity of medicines against taeniasis, habits of consuming raw beef, consumption of uninspected meat, defaecation in the bush, were some of the outstanding factors elucidated. The details of this investigation are discussed and it is concluded that some of the observations need confirmation through further studies in the villages of the ethnic groups concerned. Prevalence rates of taeniasis recorded at Mbulu Hospital were 10% in 1990 and 21% in 1991. In a separate investigation, cysticercosis was detected in 52 (10.5%) out of 496 cattle xi slaughtered in municipal abattoirs of Arusha, Dodoma, Iringa, Morogoro and Mpwapwa districts in Tanzania during the period between June 1991 and November 1991. The prevalence rates in the individual abattoirs were 16.7% (Arusha), 8% (Dodoma), 9.6% (Iringa), 6.5% (Morogoro) and 7.6% (Mpwapwa). The overall annual prevalence rates of cysticercosis in the Dodoma and Iringa regions were lower than the rates officially recorded in these abattoirs. The results are discussed in relation to sources of infection, endemicity of cysticercosis, efficiency of meat inspection, and records keeping in the abattoirs in the country. In a detailed examination, anatomical distribution of cysticerci of T. saginata (864) was analyzed in zebu cattle at Morogoro abattoir in Tanzania. The cysticerci were found located in the examined tissues preferentially in the following order: heart, M. triceps brachii, tongue, M. psoas and masseter muscles. The liver had relatively high numbers of cysts and is thus considered an important predilection site. Examination of the predilection sites for detecting carcasses positively infected with cysticerci of T. saginata revealed the following efficiency: 80% (heart), 80% (M. triceps brachii), 60% (masseter muscles), 60% (tongue) and 53% (liver). However examination of the heart, M. triceps brachii and the liver together detected all infected carcasses. Most (60%) of the infected carcasses had viable cysticerci. In conclusion, T. saginata taeniasis and cysticercosis are major, but underestimated problems in Tanzania. The diagnostic methods of cysticercosis in cattle and taeniasis in humans all have inherent limitations. But nevertheless, their sensitivity may be significantly be improved and the usual control may be more efficient. The various chapters of the thesis include discussions on ways to improve public control measures and educate consumers and herdsmen. SAMMENDRAG (Summary in Danish) Taenia saginata cysticercose hos kvaeg i Tanzania Afhandlingen indledes med en litteraturoversigt over epidemiologi og diagnostik af human taeniiasis og bovin cysticercose med saerlig omtale af forholdene i 0stafrika. Alle mennesker er modtagelige for infektion med baendelormen T. saginata. Kvaeget er den almindeligste mellemvaert, og yngre dyr er mere modtagelige end aeldre. Nogle f
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Street children problems in Tanzania a case study of Moshi Municipality Kilimanjaro region
(Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2002) Mbatian Ntahilaja Ester
This study aimed at finding strategies for alleviating the street children (SC) problem in Tanzania. The study was carried out in Moshi Municipality, Kilimanjaro Region. This study has been prompted by the fact that there has been persistent problem of children running from their households and living in urban streets. This will have a negative impact on economic development if not taken care of. If this problem is not taken care of, in few years coming; there will be unmanageable number of street children in this country. It should also be noted that children are the future owner of this country. Ignoring this problem would mean impoverishing this country instead of developing it, since human labour is one of the most decisive element of any kind of development. The general objective of this study was to identify the social, cultural and economic factors influencing the increase of street children problem and specifically to: (i) Investigate the role of gender relations in households to street children problem, (ii) Investigate strategics used in alleviating street children problem in Tanzania with particular reference to Moshi Municipality (iii) Examine how street children centres function, (iv) Investigate the reasons why children are more willing to live in streets rather than in street children centres/The result shows that various factors have contributed to the problem of street children which include poverty; inefficiency of street children centres (SCC) established to combat this problem, ineffective National policies; too much dependence on foreign donor support to alleviate this problem etc. Basing on the study results some recommendations/ suggestion shows that the success in eradication of SC problem requires committed community and individuals the elements which are presently lacking. Second the Government should have clear, specific policy on eradication of street children iii problem. And there should be specific uniform policy guiding establishment and operation of centres for street children. This would be possible only alter clearly defining as ‘who is a child’. Parents and the whole community should also be involved in child development. Thus get knowledge on why children arc running from their households and on the danger of letting children in streets.
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Seroprevalence of leptospira among rodents and shrews in public markets and hospitalized febrile patients in Unguja Island
(Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2023-05) Ally Abdullah Ally
Leptospirosis is a neglected infectious zoonotic disease of public health significance caused by spirochete pathogenic bacteria of the genus Leptospira. This disease occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical countries and affects animals and humans, of which rodents and shrews are considered significant reservoirs of infection. Human might be infected by Leptospira pathogen through a contact mode of transmission, either direct or indirect, with the urine of infected animal’s host or a urine-polluted environment such as water or soil. However, infected humans develop a range of symptoms undifferentiated from other tropical diseases, such as malaria, particularly in regions with high malaria prevalence. A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and April 2022 in Unguja Island (i) to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira infection among rodents and shrews in public markets and (ii) to determine the seroprevalence of leptospirosis among hospitalized febrile patients. Blood samples were collected from 210 live captured rodents and shrews in the five purposively selected markets including Darajani, Mombasa, Jumbi, Kwerekwe C and Mkokotoni. Likewise, 402 human blood samples were collected from febrile patients who were attended to the selected hospitals namely Mnazi Mmoja referral hospital, Kivunge district hospital and Makunduchi district hospital. The Leptospira antibodies of rodents, shrews and humans were tested against five serovars namely Sokoine, Lora, Pomona, Grippotyphosa and Hebdomadis using the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The results indicated that out of 210 rodents and shrews captured in public markets, 16 were seropositive for Leptospira serovars. Thus, the overall seroprevalence of Leptospira infection was 7.6% (95% CI =4.4−12.1), with a prevalence of 6.6% (14/210) in rodents and 1.0% (2/210) in shrews. The Leptospira serovars circulating among rodents and shrews antibodies were Sokoine 11 (5.2%), Lora 4 (1.9%), Pomona 2 (1.0%), and Grippotyphosa 1 (0.5%). Rattus rattus were shown to have high seroprevalence of Leptospira infection (4.2%), followed by Rattus norvegicus (1.4%), Mus spp (1.0%) and Crocidura spp (1.0%). Furthermore, out of 402 human sera collected from three hospitals, 31 human samples were seropositive for Leptospira serovars, and thus, the overall seroprevalence of human leptospirosis was 7.7% (95% CI = 5.3−10.8). Females 20 (5.0%) were shown to have high seroprevalence of disease compared to males 11 (2.7%). The major Leptospira serovars circulating in humans were Sokoine 44 (10.9%), Lora 25 (6.2%), Grippotyphosa 20 (5.0%), Pomona 10 (2.5%), and Hebdomadis 9 (2.2%). The findings of this study have indicated that several Leptospira serovars are common to rodents, shrews and humans. Likewise, market features and practices, including a poor drainage system, the presence of stagnant water, unhygienic conditions, and wet soil, favor rodent population and pose a risk of environmental contamination and perpetuation rodent-environment-human infection cycle. This report call for consideration and inclusion of this disease in the differential diagnosis of acute febrile syndromes in humans.