Welcome to SUAIRE

Sokoine University of Agriculture  Institutional Repository (SUA IR). This repository was built and is maintained by the university library  (Sokoine National Agricultural Library-SNAL) , in order to collect, preserve and disseminate scholarly output generated by University research community (staff and students) members.

This repository hosts a variety of openly accessible materials including: scholarly articles and books, theses and dissertations, conference proceedings and technical reports. For assistance about depositing your research output in the repository click here. SUA IR Policy  click here or any queries contact us at snal@sua.ac.tz.

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Recent Submissions

Massification in universities: are assessment tools still reliable? a reflection from Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania
(Journal of Education and Practice, 2021-08-31) Mayeka, James George; Kira, Ernest Simon
A tremendous increase of the number of students in universities has been experienced by almost every country all over the world including Tanzania. The Increasing number of students has greatly affected the instructors’ workload and general practices of student’s assessment and evaluation. This study aimed at determining the reliability of the assessment tools at Sokoine University of Agriculture. Retrospective record review was done on education undergraduate students who sat for an EDP 100 in 2014/2015, 2015/2016 and 2017/2018 academic years where the course was selected through random procedures. A total of 214 scripts were systematically randomly sampled from each cohort. The results revealed a drop in internal consistency of the scores obtained from EDP 100 course across the three cohorts. Majority of the questions for the EDP 100 though were moderately difficulty, their discrimination powers were poor. However, the variation in difficulty and discrimination indices for the three cohorts was statistically not significant (p˃0.05 for MCQ and MIQ) except the discrimination index for MIQ which shows significant variations (p˂0.05). It is therefore recommended that similar studies should be done to determine both validity and reliability of the assessment tools for the other subjects at the University.
Imitation and innovation of practices in science and technology: lessons from Asia and Europe for Tanzania
(East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation, 2023-09-14) Nzunda, E.F.; Mayeka, J.G.
Imitation and innovation are often seen as opposing paths to advancement in science and technology. However, this paper argues that a balanced approach that combines both imitation and innovation could accelerate Tanzania's development in these areas. This study has four specific objectives, namely, to assess: (1) The role of imitation and innovation of practices in science and technology; (2) Challenges that Tanzania faces in imitation and innovation of practices in science and technology; (3) Lessons for Tanzania in imitation and innovation in science and technology from Asia and Europe; and, (4) Strategies that Tanzania may use to benefit from imitation and innovation in science and technology lessons from Asia and Europe. By reviewing the literature on the interplay between imitation and innovation in Asia and Europe, the paper demonstrates how these regions have used both strategies to achieve rapid development in their science and technology sectors. The study found that imitation and innovation are important drivers of economic development for countries. Asia and Europe adapted strategies such as copycat, frugality, social innovation, the role of knowledge and technology transfer, innovation ecosystems, strong institutions, adapted disruption, balancing exploration and exploitation, systems of innovation, and intellectual properties for steering their development. For Tanzania, the paper recommends learning from the success of Asian countries like Japan and South Korea in imitating and improving their technology, as well as European countries like Germany and Sweden in cultivating an education culture that values innovation while taking advantage of the latest technologies and best practices from other countries. However, shortage of funding in the education system, poor infrastructure, lack of skilled workforce, and limited research and development might hamper the imitation and innovation in science and technology in Tanzania. Current government efforts are geared towards removing these bottlenecks.
The impacts of anthropogenic activities on the physicochemical water quality of Pinyinyi River, Arusha-Tanzania
(JWEMPO, 2024-01-17) Omary Rajabu; Lalika Makarius C.S.; Nguvava Mariam; Mgimwa Emmanuel
Rivers are important for aquatic biodiversity. Anthropogenic activities de- grade rivers and decrease their capacity to offer ecosystem services. This study used macroinvertebrates to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities on the Pinyinyi River during dry and wet season. Abundance of macroinverte- brates, average score per taxon and Shannon Weiner Species Diversity Index were used to state the ecological status of Pinyinyi River. Because the abun- dance of macroinvertebrates can be affected by change in water quality, some of the physicochemical parameters were also measured. A macroinvertebrates hand net is used to collect the macroinvertebrates per sampling point. DO, temperature, pH, turbidity and TDS were measured in-situ using HI-9829 Multiparameter and BOD was measured in the laboratory using Oxydirect le- vibond method. A total of 164 macroinvertebrates were collected and identi- fied from Pinyinyi River during dry and wet season. They belong to 13 fami- lies. The most abundant taxa were mosquito larva, Diptera (41.07%) and aq- uatic caterpillar, Lepidoptera (23.21%) during dry season representing about 64.28% of the total macroinvertebrates whereas the least abundant taxa were pouch snail (16.07%) and dragonflies, Odonata (19.64%) during dry season representing about 35.72% of the total macroinvertebrates. The most abun- dant taxa collected during wet season were aquatic earthworm, haplotaxida (19.44%), midges, Diptera (17.59%), black flies, Diptera (15.74%) and creep- ing water bugs, hemiptera (12.96%) whereas the least abundant were pigmy back swimmers, hemiptera (2.78%), snail (3.7%), predacious dividing beetle (4.63%) and coleopteran (4.63%). Average Score per taxon of Pinyinyi River during dry season was 5.25 and 3.6 during wet season. The Shannon Weiner Species Diversity Index was 1.318 during dry season and 2.138 during wet season. Based on the score, Pinyinyi River is moderately polluted during dry season and seriously polluted during wet season. Based on index, Pinyinyi River has low diversity of macroinvertebrates during dry season and highly in diversity of macroinvertebrates during wet season. Moreover, it was found that, agricultural activities, livestock keeping, bathing and washing alter phy- sicochemical parameters of Pinyinyi River and hence change the abundance of macroinvertebrates as well as the quality of water. The study, therefore, recommends that the source of pollutants should be controlled and the river regularly monitored by the relevant authorities.
Hydrological response to land use and land cover change on the slopes of Kilimanjaro and Meru Mountains
(Elsevier B.V., 2022) Mangi Halima O.; Onywere Simon M; Kitur Ester C.; Lalika Makarius C. S.; Chilagane Nyemo A.
Land use and cover change are closely linked to catchment hydrology characteristics. Land uses and cover determine the ability of the catchment to collect, store, and release water. The catchment water storage and flow ability affect the quantity and timing of runoff, soil erosion, and sediment transport downstream. Agriculture on of the major drivers for the changes in water flow pathways, which also causes a catastrophic shift of aquatic ecosys- tems. We assessed the impact of land-use changes on the water flow characteristics in the Upper Pangani Sub catchment using the hydrologic model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Land use and cover changes within the Upper Pangani Sub catchment were ana- lyzed between 1987 and 2017 using QGIS. The result shows that agriculture has expanded from 96,737 ha to 314,871 ha between 1987 and 2017. Bare land and built-up land have gained 14690 ha and 7083 ha respectively during this period. Land-use changes have af- fected the basin’s land cover. Forest has decreased from 196558 ha to 106839 ha between 1987 and 2017. Bush land cover has lost 83445 ha during this period. Bushland cover fall victim to agricultural activities, whereas forest is cleared for logging and fire incidences. Consequently, surface runoff has increased from 60.84 to 73.02 (20.6% increase) between 1987 and 2017. Sediment yield has increase from 6.9 to 12.74 ton/ha (46% increase), and groundwater recharge has decreased from 106.53 to 99.56 (6.5% decrease). It concluded that land cover transformation alters hydrology characteristics of the catchment, resulting to fast surface flow, high rate of soil erosion and low infiltration rate. It is recommended that agro-forestry should be emphasized in the catchment.
Vegetation cover changes due to artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Bukombe Mbogwe Forest Reserve in Geita Region, Tanzania
(ResearchGate, 2022) Pancrace P.; Salanga R. J.; Lalika M.C.S.
Bukombe-Mbogwe Forest Reserve (BMFR) has substantially lost its vegetation cover following Artisanal and Small-scale Gold Mining (ASGM). The study aimed at examining vegetation cover changes in BMFR and surrounding villages due to ASGM in Mbogwe District. Purposive and random sampling were employed obtaining 138 respondents. Data was collected through remote sensing, participant observation, questionnaire survey, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Landsat images of three window periods (1984, 2002 and 2020) were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and supervised classification of Maximum Likelihood (ML) algorithm techniques respectively. Descriptive and content analysis were conducted for quantitative and qualitative socio-economic data respectively. By using NDVI technique, median values decreased in BMFR from 0.57 (dense vegetation) to 0.34 (shrubs and grasslands). Land use/cover changes (LULCC) for 1984 to 2020 proved that there was decrease in dense vegetation from 46.4% to 25.62%, bare-land from 43.23% to 20.06% and increase in sparse vegetation from 9.4% to 46.86% and built-up land from 0.97% to 7.46%. Logs for pit construction were extracted from BMFR by 67.5%. Therefore; ASGM has negatively changed vegetation cover in BMFR and surrounding villages. The paper recommends increasing protection in BMFR by employing Joint Forest Management (JFM).