Articles, Conference and Workshop Papers Collection

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    Assessing speakers' tolerance for swahili-translated, university-related neologisms in Tanzania
    (Taylor & Francis Group, 2024-07-31) Nichodumus Robinson
    In this chapter, the author assesses speakers’ tolerance for Swahili-translated university-related neologisms from English in Tanzania. Swahili has recently gained prominence in Tanzanian universities, becoming the language of research. Also, the names of various academic units and programmes are named in Swahili as well. However, what requires further assessment is how much speakers prefer to descriptively use Swahili-translated words. The study is guided by Optimality Theory (OT) and is supplemented by Keller’s (1994) concept of hypermaxim, suggesting that speakers generally opt for simple forms so that they do not expend superfluous energy. In this regard, the simpler the translated word is, the more tolerance it yields. Data were collected through observation, documentary review, interviews and questionnaires. The findings reveal that the university speech community under investigation displays a notably low tolerance against Swahili-translated neologisms. This is evident in speakers’ preference for English neologisms and their outright resistance and/or dissatisfaction against Swahili-translated neologisms. Speakers’ low tolerance for Swahili-translated neologisms is influenced by factors such as the historical dominance of English and the techniques used in translation. Given that this study has highlighted the impact of translation techniques on speakers’ tolerance, it recommends further investigation into the realm of translation professionalism.
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    The compromised tense-aspect distinction in bantu languages: the case of Nyakyusa
    (International Journal of Current Research in the Humanities (IJCRH), 2023) Robinson, Nichodamus
    This article examined the compromised tense-aspect distinction in Bantu languages, using Nyakyusa as a case study. The review of scholarly works indicates that, in Bantu languages, the changing nature of tense-aspect systems remains to be the source of the problem for tense-aspect distinction. The paper investigates the source of the problem and a way in which Nyakyusa can describe tense-aspect distinction. The study was conducted in Kyela District in Mbeya Region where many native speakers live. Data were collected through narrative stories, interviews and written texts. The findings reveal that although the -ile suffix is the source of the compromised tense-aspect distinction as it assumes different roles; it remains a good candidate for testing tense-aspect distinction. When the - ile suffix co-occurs with the pre-root formative, -a- it marks the past tense whereas the suffix -ile occurring alone marks aspect categories. Also, when the negative marker -ka- is introduced the -ile suffix disappears for aspect and remains for tense.
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    Morpho-syntactic analysis of sex-related euphemisms and the stretch of dysphemism in Swahili
    (JULACE: Journal of the University of Namibia Language Centre, 2024-03-26) Robinson, Nichodamus
    This paper analysed the morpho-syntax of sex-related euphemisms and their role in stretching dysphemism in Swahili. Euphemism formation mechanisms are reliant upon societal cultural values, which are not universal. Data were collected in Morogoro through observations, interviews, and Informal Focus Group Discussions (IFGDs). Findings indicate that the morpho-syntax of the noun and verb determines the formation of sex-related euphemisms and the extent of dysphemism. In terms of noun morphosyntax, sex-related euphemisms do not belong to the same class as taboos, amounting to 14 for male and 12 for female sexual body parts. Additionally, the class 9 agreement property -i is intentionally used to form sex-related euphemisms, which can create humour but also stretch dysphemism when uttered unintentionally. Regarding the morphosyntax of verbs, 40.9% of those tested signify sex-related euphemisms in Swahili, depending on speakers' morpho- syntactic manipulations. In conclusion, ignorance of Swahili morpho-syntactic structures may contribute significantly to sex-related dysphemism. Therefore, this paper recommends further study into how Swahili learners' morpho-syntactic structures may lead to sex-related dysphemism
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    English language teaching methods and their influence on pupils’ academic performance of the subject:
    (Journal of Education and Development (JED)., 2023) Robinson, Nichodamus; Mpalanzi, Jacob Stephan
    This article underscores the English language Teaching methods and their influence on the academic performance of the subject among public primary school pupils in Kilolo District in Tanzania. Using the descriptive research design, the study was conducted at Ukumbi Primary School, Kilolo, Iringa region to standards four and seven. The secondary data were collected using the documentary reviews from the Standard Four and Standard Seven national examinations results of English language subjects requested from the head teacher, whereas the primary data were collected using questionnaires, interviews, and introspection techniques which were purposefully administered to the Standard Four and Standard Seven classes to check onto the methods of teaching English language to public primary schools and their influences on the pupils’ subject academic performance which seems to promote or deteriorate the learners’ interests in English as the medium of instruction. The target sample sizes in Standard Four and Standard Seven were randomly selected for an unbiased information search. The data collected were summarized, organized, recorded- and presented using a variety of tools such as tables, charts, distribution and graphs with the help of Excel and MS Word features which helped the interpretation of the findings to get the relevant information of this article. The findings show that most of the pupils have problems with oral communication, and pronunciation including sound, stress, and intonation as the English Language teaching methods used hardly care about their learning. The article recommends that primary school teachers should be given special training on the English language teaching methods that favour the development of communicative abilities in primary school pupils.
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    A grammatical description of Nyakyusa phonology
    (Journal of Linguistics and Language in Education, 2023) Robinson, Nichodamus
    This paper offers a grammatical description of the phonology of Nyakyusa (M31), as an integral part of grammar. The literature review suggests that, in many Bantu languages, phonological description has received little attention since many scholarly works in Bantu linguistics primarily focus on morphology. Data for this study were collected in Kyela District, where many native speakers of Nyakyusa reside. Data collection techniques included reviewing available written texts, recording narrative stories, observing speakers’ conversations, and interviewing native speakers to assess the acceptability of certain constructions. The findings reveal that Nyakyusa has 14 pure consonants, 4 pre-nasalized stops, and seven vowels. Additionally, the study indicates that the contact between consonants and vowels gives rise to various phonological processes aimed at speech simplification. Such phonological processes are gliding, deletion, homorganic nasal assimilation, continuant stopping, consonant alternation, consonant mutation, voicing, vowel coalescence, and vowel harmony. In conclusion, the paper asserts that, despite some phonological aspects being common in Bantu languages according to the literature, the environments enabling them to occur to a large extent remain language-specific for Nyakyusa. Consequently, the paper recommends a systematic comparative phonological description across Bantu languages.
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    A systematic description of imbrication in Nyakyusa
    (Journal of the Institute of Kiswahili Studies University of Dar es Salaam, 2023) Robinson, Nichodamus
    This paper offers a systematic description of imbrication in Nyakyusa (M31). The review of the literature indicates that, in Nyakyusa, imbrication, a phonological change involving the opaque difference between the input and output forms in the -ile suffix, has not been systematically described. Hence, the paper offers this description by identifying triggering conditions and reconstructing the phonological processes shaping imbrication. Data for this paper were collected in Kyela district through a review of written texts, narrative stories, observation and interviews. The findings indicate that the syllable structure of the verb is the main determinant of imbrication in Nyakyusa. Quite obviously, the process of imbrication involves the deletion of the consonant in the -ile, followed by metathesis whereby the last consonant of the stem fills the empty slot caused by the deletion of [l]. Then, various adjustments that follow, i.e., vowel coalescence, vowel deletion, vowel rising, leftward spread of vowel, and vowel lengthening, are meant to resolve hiatus. The paper concludes that, based on the review of literature, although imbrication is common in some Bantu languages, we noted some conditions and phonological processes shaping imbrication to be language specific. In this view, this paper recommends a systematic comparative description of imbrication in other Bantu languages
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    Historical evolution of the -ile suffix and language genetic relationship in the Nyasa-Tanganyika Corridor
    (Routledge Taylor & francis Group), 2023-12-22) Robinson Nichodamus
    This article examines the extent to which the changing morphological and phonological properties of the -ile suffix illuminates change in the genetic language relationships among four languages in the Nyasa-Tanganyika corridor. Scholarly works indicate that based on lexical similarity, Nyiha, Malila, Nyakyusa and Ndali are so closely related genetically that one may regard these pairs of languages as dialects and not distinct languages. Beyond lexical similarity, this article contributes to the existing knowledge on genetic classification by comparing changes in the -ile suffix in Nyiha, Malila, Nyakyusa and Ndali. Data collection techniques involved a review of written texts, narrative stories and interviews. The analysis in this article considered two major aspects, namely the Nyiha-Malila and Nyakyusa-Ndali genetic relationships. The findings indicate that although Nyiha and Malila demonstrate striking lexical similarity, we have noted significant differences between the two languages on the change involving the -ile suffix. Also, Nyakyusa and Ndali demonstrate differences caused by the change involving the -ile suffix. Therefore, this article concludes that the morphological and phonological evolution of the -ile suffix illuminates change in the genetic relationship of Nyakyusa, Ndali, Nyiha and Malila. The languages develop distinctive features which made them depart from their Proto-Bantu, and among themselves.
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    Emotional and relationship dynamics between HIV serodiscordance and concordance couples: a narrative literature review and theoretical framework
    (ARC, 2017-05-25) Mwakalapuka, Amani; Mwampagatwa, Ipyana; Bali, Theodora; Kibusi, Stephen; Mwashambwa, Masumbuko
    Tanzania is among the countries with high prevalence of HIV prevalence in the World. Despite the fact that the epidemic has been, and still is a threat to persons of all ages, recent studies have suggested that most new infections occur among couples in stable relationships. Infected couples are categorised into two: the positive concordant, where both the partners are HIV positive; and sero-discordant couples, where one partner is HIV positive while the other is negative. Recently, researchers and many other stake-holders working on the HIV/AIDS epidemic have given a remarkable attention to this astonishing reality. For instance one study in East and Southern Africa indicates that there are great variations of discordancy varying from 36% to 85%, with an overall rate of 49%. HIV couple sero-discordancy is responsible for varied levels of psychological distress including heightened levels of anxiety, poor emotional adaptation and increased or excessive substance use, most often coupled with exclusion and social isolation within family and in the neighbourhood. However, to date the influence of sero-discordancy on family and couple relationship functioning and how it differs from that among concordant couples remains elusive. Discordancy have been associated with more difficulties as compared to the seroconverted couples, these include relationship and emotional disturbances, sexual contact distancing, marital separation and disruptions. The Lazarus and Folkman’s (1984)'s Transactional Model can be helpful in understanding individuals with HIV discordancy on their emotional response, coping strategies and the ultimate decisions towards their marital relationships fate.
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    The influence of language of instruction on students’ academic outcomes: the experience of secondary schools in Morogoro, Tanzania
    (SUA, 2014) Mwakapina, Job Wilson; Mhandeni, Abdulkarim Shaban
    Many have ascribed the poor performance that secondary school students in Tanzania have suffered in various school subjects in the national examinations to the students’ weakness in English, the Language of Instruction (LoI). This brief paper seeks to determine the influence of LoI on students’ academic success in secondary schools. An English Language Proficiency Test (ELPT) and students’ academic archival reports provided the data and a Statistical Package for Software System (SPSS) facilitated data analysis. Analysis brought to light the finding that proficiency in LoI affects performance only to a slight extent. Non-ELP factors exert a stronger influence on performance in subjects other than English while – not surprisingly – English proficiency does indeed exercise much influence on English achievement. The study concludes that academic performance is a function of several variables and that ELP plays a role in performance but not the major role. The study recommends that the government (1) emphasize the improvement of ELP, since the greater the improvement, the more a positive influence may be anticipated; and (2) consider using ELP as an additional eligibility criterion for admission into higher education.
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    Upgrading Students communication competence:Refrections from Universities in Tanzania
    (SUA, 2022) Mwakapina, Job W
    In many countries, including Tanzania, Communication Skills (CSs) courses have been taught for many years to help students improve their ability to communicate in English while doing academic activities at college/university. However, in such countries, there are complaints that the courses do not bear the expected results because many students still manifest deficiencies in communication even after having undergone the training. Based on this, this chapter assesses the contribution of a CSs course in upgrading tertiary students’ communicative competence by reflecting on universities in Tanzania. The chapter in the discussion of the contribution adopts Daniel Stufflebeam’s Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP) evaluation model. The chapter indicates that the CSs course taught in the selected universities is effective, but not very effective because of negative factors, which prevail during the conduct of the course. These negative factors are such as large-class size, instructors’ heavy teaching load, low students’ autonomous learning, low motivation, students’ failure to transfer the skills, lack of enough practices, learning English in the Kiswahili context, low English Language Proficiency (ELP), and minimal use of English language in the university business or environment, to mention a few. The chapter concludes that the course is not very effective in producing desired results in upgrading students’ CSs mainly because of the negative factors. Therefore, addressing these negative factors will make the course accentuate more positive results in enhancing or upgrading students’ communicative competence.
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    The language of the public spaces in Tanzanian universities during the covid-19 Pandemic
    (Sciendo, 2021) Lusekelo, Amani; Alphonce, Chrispina; Nyinondi, Onesmo Simon
    The state of bilingualism in the education system in Tanzania is reported to involve the utility of Kiswahili even in environments in which English is expected (Puja 2003; Lema 2021). The presence of English is narrowed down to involve formal settings, mainly classroom teaching (Lema 2021). But even during classroom teaching, code- switching is the norm of the day (Shartiely 2016). To understand the way information is communicated to the public by the universities' administrations, we investigate the language used in the signposts and notice boards placed for public consumption during the outbreak of COVID-19 in the country. The linguistic landscape of the education institutions in Tanzania represents a bilingual situation. The primary usage of Kiswahili in regular conversations outnumbers the use of English, even though English is the medium of instruction (Legére, Rosendal 2019; Lusekelo, Mdukula 2021; Mdukula 2018). This is a common phenomenon reported in the studies of linguistic landscape in urban centres in the country (Lusekelo, Alphonce 2018; Peterson 2014). However, the prevalence of COVID-19 altered the socialisation in universities worldwide, and consequently, the communication structure changed (Basch et al. 2021; Mohlman, Basch 2021; Uwiyezimana 2021). Therefore, the current investigation assumes that the language of public space in universities in Tanzania, which was reported in Mdukula (2018) and Legére, Rosendal (2019), has changed due to COVID-19 protocols. This article makes a representation of the linguistic landscape in universities during the COVID-19 crisis in the country. his investigation focused on four public universities located in three places in the country, namely, the University of Dar es Salaam and the Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences in the ancient commercial city of the country 1 , the University of Dodoma in the centre of the country, and the Sokoine University of Agriculture in Morogoro region. Images about COVID-19, which are shared by the university authorities with the public, had been photographed by the authors. Based on the analytical procedures in linguistic landscape (Backhaus 2007; Huebner 2006), we focused on three aspects, namely, (i) the language choice in the COVID-19 banners, signposts, and public notices; (ii) the lining and font choices for the deliverance of the intended messages, and (iii) extra-linguistic information embedded in the signposts of COVID-19.
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    Efficacy of communication skills teaching methods and learning strategies: enhancing tertiary students’ communicative competence in Tanzania
    (Journal of Linguistics and language in Education, 2020) Mwakapina, Job W
    This study evaluates the efficacy of the methods and strategies used in Communication Skills (CS) course teaching and learning in Tanzania. Specifically, it identifies the methods and strategies used, and examines the appropriateness of the same in upgrading students’ CS. The study involved 596 respondents, and data were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and group discussions. It is indicated that instructors use varied methods, but questions and answers, web browsing, and library research are perceived the most appropriate. Besides, students also use multiple strategies but group discussions, web browsing, and listening to English conversations are considered the most appropriate. Therefore, instructors are urged to spend some time during students’ entry to university to study the incoming students, particularly on how they learn / behave during the learning process, to accommodate the students’ learning differences, difficulties, and preferences when selecting teaching methods. Also, establishing a strict filtering mechanism as an option to improve students’ CS, proposed by Rugemalira (2017), is a good proposal. However, currently, it can result in filtering all applicants because many have low language proficiency. Instead, what we need to do meanwhile, is stressing on formalising the use of modern mobile technologies in teaching since have been revealed to be appropriate.
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    Whatsapp platform a remedy for covid-19 classroom learning restrictions: Students’, teachers’, and parents’ perspectives in Tanzania
    (G-Card, 2023) Nyinondi, Onesmo S; Mwakapina, Job W
    This paper investigates the use of WhatsApp as an alternative platform for classroom learning during the Covid-19 pandemic in Tanzania. In particular, it examines the effectiveness of using WhatsApp as a platform for classroom learning and surveys parents’, students’, and teachers’ perceptions of its use. The paper is based on a survey of 125 volunteered parents, students, and teachers from four schools in Tanzania. Data were collected through telephone interviews, online group discussions, and an online questionnaire. The results revealed that most participants found WhatsApp an effective platform for classroom learning. However, there were some concerns about the security of the platform and potential distractions for students. Also, the majority of participants felt that the use of WhatsApp enabled them to stay connected to their school community during the pandemic, although there were some concerns about privacy and data-sharing. Generally, the study found that the Covid- 19-adopted remedy was effective in several ways, including increasing parents’ participation in students’ learning, improving students’ inquiry and searching skills, and mastering the subject matter. The study concludes that WhatsApp effectively creates a collaborative community learning environment as an alternative platform. Thus, WhatsApp is recommended first to be mainstreamed through the curriculum as an online mobile learning tool and, second, to be combined with other digital platforms during teaching and learning to ensure a comprehensive learning experience as a way to student-directed learning in schools.
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    Legitimization discourse to COVID-19 vaccination in Tanzania: a discursive analysis of public speech and comments on social media
    (Journal of University of Namibia Language Centre, 2021) Robinson, Nichodamus; Masatu, Julius Malima
    The year 2019 Tanzania experienced the eruption of COVID-19 pandemic disease from which different health measures were needed against the pandemic. However, Tanzania had a divided ideological positioning regarding the legitimization of COVID-19 vaccination. This is because the 5th phase government regime did not favour the legitimization of COVID-19 vaccination contrary to the next 6th government regime. This divided ideology has brought dividing tensions among the public leading to different public reactions to the legitimization processes of COVID-19 vaccination in 2021. Therefore, the study aimed at assessing the legitimization discourse of COVID-19 vaccination in Tanzania and different reactions from YouTube online users upon its legitimization. The transcribed data were collected using a documentary review. The units of analysis were the current head of the state and YouTube online followers. Purposive sampling was used to select the head of the state’s COVID-19 vaccination speech. Systematic sampling was used to select 160 YouTube online followers. Descriptive and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) was used to guide the analysis and discussions of the findings. The findings showed that the head of the state has used a range of legitimization processes relating to positive self-presentations to win the public a positive face. They include linguistic strategies like emotion, the voice of expertise, rationality, hypothetical features and altruism. YouTube online followers had found to use exclusive linguistic strategies linked to negative self-presentations for de-legitimization purposes. They include nominations, predictions and rationality. It was recommended that legitimization discourse be characterized by using inclusive linguistic strategies that employ positive emotional, hypothetical features, rationality, the voice of expertise and altruism linguistic strategies to win the public a positive face
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    Tako or takwa la Katiba? A description of verb-to-noun derivation in Bantu languages: the case of Kiswahili
    (Journal of Linguistics and Language in Education, 2022) Robinson, Nichodamus; Mwaipape, Joshua Andilile
    This paper describes verb-to-noun derivation in Kiswahili, a process in which nouns are formed from verbs. It places the derivational process squarely on the question of whether it is ‘tako’ or ‘takwa’, with their plural forms ‘matako’ or ‘matakwa’. The guiding question for this description is “how come the verb ‘taka’ changes to ‘takwa’ as opposed to ‘tako’ while similar verbs change to nouns by -o suffixation?” Data were collected through observation, document review, and interviews. The findings justify the theoretical statement that derivation is less productive. Hence, applying a particular rule too broadly to other entities is relatively hard. In this view, derivation by -o suffixation, as well as by other processes, is limited to some verbs. Since derivation is less productive, Kiswahili has many verb-to-noun derivational processes as presented in this paper under four categories, namely verb-to-noun derivation Type 1 (suffixation of vowels -i, -o, -u, and -e), Type 2 (noun class prefixes), Type 3 (infinitive ku-) and Type 4 (miscellaneous nouns). Hence, the paper concludes that ‘tako la katiba’ with its plural ‘matako ya katiba’ is inappropriate, whereas ‘takwa la katiba’ with its plural ‘matakwa ya katiba’ is appropriate in Kiswahili.
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    The morphological evolution of the -ile suffix across Bantu languages in the Nyasa-Tanganyika corridor
    (Journal of University of Namibia Language Centre, 2021) Mallya, Aurelia; Robinson, Nichodamus
    This paper describes the morphological evolution of -ile suffix across four Bantu languages selected from the Nyasa-Tanganyika corridor. The suffix -ile which is traditionally an aspect (perfective) marker is changing and becoming amenable to different roles across Bantu languages. This poses a challenge in specifying its roles as a tense and/or an aspect marker unless attention is paid to an individual language. The findings presented in this paper indicate that in the languages under study, the suffix -ile functions as both a tense and an aspect marker. It co-occurs with pre-root formatives to mark different past tenses. In Nyakyusa, in particular, the suffix marks different categories of aspect, namely anterior, non-progressive and indefinite conditional aspect. However, in Ndali, Malila and Nyiha, the suffix -ile marks only the non-progressive aspect. In this view, this paper concludes that the -ile suffix is gradually vanishing in the forms for aspect meanwhile it extends its roles into marking different tense categories.
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    Paradigm shift in teaching communication skills course in a Tanzanian university: an assessment and lessons for other universities
    (Science Publishing Group, 2018) Mohammed, Hashim Issa; Mohammed, Hashim Issa
    Communication Skills Courses (henceforth CSCs) are offered in many universities and other higher learning institutions in Tanzania. The CSCs were designed to enable students cope with their university studies. Besides CSCs, remedial English courses became an additional component because the language proficiency of undergraduate students was often found to be too low at the time of joining the university In the University under study, English remedial courses started to be offered in tandem with CSCs to all first year undergraduate students. However, over the years, since the introduction of the course, examiners have been concerned that the two tier CSCs arrangement has had little impact in improving English language proficiency and academic literacy among students. Accordingly, the Language Department at the University under reference took many measures redress the situation. These efforts amounted to a paradigm shift in the teaching of CSCs at the University. It is over two full academic years since the adoption of the new approach. The current study therefore aimed at assessing the implementation of the new approach. Specifically, the study wanted to find out how successfully the new approach has been in meeting the objectives of the changing trends in the teaching of English towards more communicative approaches in what is referred to here as paradigm shift. The data for this study were collected at one of the universities in Tanzania in the 2016/2017 academic year following a qualitative evaluation of the participants’ perceptions, involvement, achievement, classroom observation, and documentary review. The study followed a communicative framework by Jacobs and Farrell, to assess the implementation of these elements in the new approach. The findings indicated few successes of the new approach especially in the area of curriculum integration where the concept of spiral and non-linear arrangement of topics proved effective in students learning. However, there were many challenges in the implementation of the new approach in the context of University under study and Tanzania generally, and revolved around large sizes, learner cantered, reading habits and critical thinking skills. The paper recommends that universities should invest in self-learning resource centres as additional avenues for learning outside classroom, encourage reading culture, and build capacity in handling large classes. Others include collaborating with pre- university institutions especially secondary schools in working out common mechanism of addressing the problem through exchange of experience and best practices.
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    Grammar for successful written discourse: are the esl/efl students in Tanzania universities truly learning?
    (2016) Mwakapina, Job Wilson
    Grammar of a language is one of the key factors to successful writing at college or workplace. This study thought to investigate whether English grammar taught to undergraduate students in Tanzania helps them write well. 120 students were drone from one university and subjected to a writing test before and after grammar training. Thereafter, their texts were evaluated using rubrics, and scores analysed using Paired T-Test. The overall analysis reflected that there is a significant difference (t (119) = - 4.398, p<0.05). However, this does not mean each grammatical item is statistically significant. A slight / no difference was realised on some grammatical items. The study recommends instructors to put much effort on all the grammatical components, but with a special focus on sentences construction and punctuation skills, tenses, linking signals and paragraph crafting, since these are the areas which the study showed that students have serious weaknesses.
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    Communication skills course in bridging the gap of weak Students’ communicative competence and accentuating Performance: a case of Sokoine University of Agriculture
    (SciencePG, 2020-01-06) Mwakapina, Job Wilson
    This paper reports the findings on the effectiveness of Communication Skills (CS) course in boosting students’ communication competence at Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA). In particular, the study determined whether there is a relationship between the ability in the CS and performance in other courses offered at the university. It also assessed the impact of the course on the students’ performance in other courses of their specialty after the training of the course, and lastly, it gauged the extent of effectiveness of the course. The study involved instructors and students and were obtained through random and purposive sampling procedures. Data for the study were collected using questionnaires, interviews and documentary reviews, and were treated qualitatively and quantitatively. The findings show that the course is not much effective at boosting students’ communication competence. Furthermore, it is revealed that there is no relationship between the CS course and other courses. This is perhaps the least anticipated result of all because one of the key objectives for teaching CS course is for it to help students to perform better in other courses of their specialization. Instead of simply concluding that CS and other courses are not connected or there is no impact of CS on other courses, there is a need of considering exceptional factors which have led to the situation. Of course, improved performance because of CS is expected, but based on these findings, there is no clear effect, partly would be because most of the non-CS instructors are being concerned much with the material content of their courses, rather than the grammatical/CS parts when evaluating students’ works. This makes CS components not reflected in the students’ performance of most of the courses. The study urges the government to improve and expand infrastructures to match with enrollment. Again, it needs to hire more academic staff and retain them through improving their salaries, incentives and payments of their demands to remedy the problem of high teacher-students ratio which is currently alarming.
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    Lexical verbs expressing modality in bantu languages: the Case of Runyambo and Luguru
    (2020) Nyinondi, Onesmo Simon; Lusekelo, Amani
    This paper provides novel documentation and description of the verbal modal system in Great Lakes Bantu languages. Runyambo (E21/JE21) is compared with Luguru (G35). The paper builds on Bostoen et al. (2012) and Kawalya et al. (2014, 2018) to revisit Runyambo data and add data from Luguru to reexamine findings in the Great Lakes Bantu Languages. This study is the first to discuss necessity modality in Rutara languages and the very first description of modality in Luguru. The study was conducted in Karagwe and Kyerwa Districts of Kagera Region and Morogoro Rural and Mvomero Districts in Morogoro Region. The field work that involved 10 informants included collection of written texts and in-depth dialogues and interviews for collecting oral texts. The study presents the modal baas- ‘be able’ as the only modal verb for expressing possibility in Runyambo language. Moreover, the modal baas- in Runyambo as opposed to dah- ‘be able/capable/permitted’ in Luguru, has both modal and lexical functions. We demonstrate further that the modal verb teekw- ‘must/ought to’ is used to express both weak and strong necessity in Runyambo. The modal teekw- modifies all verb types and it requires the auxiliary verb to either refer to the past or future. The modal verbs dah- ‘be able/capable/permitted’ and bamigw- ‘must/ought to’ in Luguru express possibility and necessity respectively. It is fascinating to identify that in both languages the modal verb for necessity requires both progressive formative and subjunctive form of the immediate verb. Lastly, we demonstrate that in the two languages the modal verbs interact with different tense and aspect formatives.