Theses and Dissertations Collection

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    Assessment of land use conflicts and their management in mount Meru area, Arusha Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2004) Shio, Constantine John
    The study was conducted to assess land use conflicts and their management in Mount Meru area of Arumeru District, Arusha Tanzania. The main objective was to study the nature and types of land use conflicts in order to discern the underlying causes and come up with appropriate management approaches to mitigate these conflicts. Primary data were obtained through PRA, discussion with key informants, questionnaire survey and field observations. Secondary data were obtained from the available archive. Multiple linear regression model was used as a tool for analysis. About 91.9% and 92.7% of respondents indicated that land is not enough for crop production and livestock grazing respectively. Moreover, 32.0% of respondents indicated that conflicts emanate from grazing illegally in the forest. Among the factors involved in regression model, big number of livestock had positive influence on illegally grazed livestock (p = 0.01). About 18.0% of respondents indicated conflicts emanating from farm boundaries, and 16.0% indicated conflict resulting on encroachment into forest and wildlife reserves. 14.0% indicted conflicts emanating from illegal tree cutting from forest reserves for household use and selling, while 11.0% and 9.0% indicated other sources of conflicts e.g. Poaching and illegal fuel wood collection respectively. Finally the study recommended that big herds, which are fed under free-range could be sold and replaced with few stall-fed improved cattle breed. Further, optimization of home gardens productivity can be achieved by planting as many crops in limited space available and use of improved good quality seeds and fertilizers. It is also recommended that formal education and promotion of environmental education be used to create resource conservation awareness. Where appropriate government should redistribute abandoned big farms to landless people and finance part of the establishment costs for people migrating to spacious districts. Further, Management Plans should address the concept of Joint Resource Management
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    Economic valuation of recreation use value of Kilimanjaro National Park, Tanzania.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2014) Ngunyali, Robert H.
    Tanzanian authorities managing environmental resources and services have made efforts to set the fees to access their resources. However still there is scanty information on the pricing strategy that consider both the value of the resources and the consumer’s perception on quality of services. This study focused on using Travel Cost Method to value recreation in Kilimanjaro National Park. Data were collected using questionnaire survey, key informants interviews and secondary materials. The questionnaire used for survey was designed to capture socio - demographic variables of visitors, travel cost component variable and data on visitor’s perception on the quality of services provided during a visit to KINAPA. With the sample size of 384, the data generated from the survey was modeled with Poisson model. Based on this econometric results, consumer surplus per day of stay in the park was 925 182 TZS (USD 571.10), the mean visitor willingness to pay per day of a visit was 837 280.80 TZS (USD 516.84), the total recreation value of the park was estimated to be 314 165 955 200 TZS (USD 193 929 602) per one calendar year and the revenue maximizing entry fee for the park was estimated to be 90 396 TZS (USD 55.8). Moreover, the findings indicated that variables such as travel costs, available recreation income, age, employment status and the quality perception were significant and have an influence on the number of days a visitor stays in the park. More economic valuation research on recreation use value is recommended to other National Parks since clear understanding of the value of existing natural resource trigger the proper management and allocation of resources.
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    Cost-based economic valuation of Mindu dam water provision service and its dependency to Morogoro municipality, Tanzania
    (Sokoine university of agriculture, 2022) Raphael, Antidius
    Accessible domestic water is a recognized basic human right. Reduced supply of water causes high financial and social costs. This study used cost-based valuation approaches to estimate the economic value of Mindu Dam water provision to Morogoro Municipality. It focused on assessing water accessibility, estimating the degradation cost and the replacement cost of water provision. It involved both quantitative and qualitative data that were analysed by descriptive statistics and content analysis respectively. The study found that 80% of respondents depend on non-public water sources (boreholes, wells, rainwater and other sources), lacking metered connections to portable water as compared to 20% with access to metered connections. Due to pollution, the municipality loses about 1 168 756 011 TZS per year for water treatment while the public suffer from sanitation and hygienic problems as social costs due to inappropriate water supply. By using boreholes alternative, the replacement cost of Mindu Dam is 64 074 304 515.07 TZS in the investment year and 39 828 547 584 TZS per year thereafter. The water supply across the study area was insufficient and partly unaffordable with increasing costs of water treatment that are not accounted for decision-making. Finally, the study recommends to the government and relevant authorities to make use of the economic analyses and valuation data to refine decision making to manage sustainably natural ecosystems for water provision to avoid degradation and the due socio-economic costs and loses.
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    Nature-based income generating activities as livelihood coping and biodiversity conservation strategies in the Uluguru mountains in Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Kadigi, Willickister Reuben
    A study was conducted in Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania to investigate to what extent Nature-based Income Generating Activities (NIGAs) have served as effective livelihood and biodiversity conservation strategies in the study area. The specific objectives were to: a) assess the perceptions of local communities regarding the role of different NIGAs as livelihood coping and biodiversity conservation strategies, b) evaluate the economic viability of two highly ranked NIGAs, and c) evaluate factors influencing the adoption of NIGAs in the study area. The Kendall‘s Coefficient of Concordance (W) - Kendall‘s tau, the Spearman correlation - Spearman‘s rho, and Likert scale methods were used as metrics of perception. Viability of NIGAs was evaluated using the Costs and Benefits Analysis (CBA) approach with NPVs, BCRs, and IRR applied as decision criteria. The factors influencing NIGA adoption were evaluated using the Generalized Linear Binary Probit (GLBP) model - Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA). The Kendall‘s, W statistic suggested that to some extent, the respondents agreed with each other about the rankings of NIGAs though not at a super high extent. The null hypothesis that the respondents did not agree among themselves about the NIGAs that are potential as livelihood and biodiversity conservation strategies was therefore rejected. Based on the Spearman‘s rho and Kendall‘s tau statistics, the study failed to reject the null hypothesis that the NIGAs adopted by smallholder farmers in the study area were interrelated. The results of both Likert-type and Likert scale data analyses yielded similar results suggesting that the communities in the study area moderately reduced their reliance on timber products from the UFR. The hypothesis of improved biodiversity conservation was therefore accepted. The viability analysis yielded positive NPVs for both agroforestry and beekeeping projects at discount rates not higher that 8.2% and 8.5% respectively. In terms of IRR however, beekeeping was slightly more efficient than agroforestry. Overall, agroforestry was more profitable than beekeeping in terms of NPV and BCR criteria. The results of GLBP model, MANOVA, and DFA revealed that farmland location (whether close or far from homestead), major source of capital (whether sale of farm products and assets or other sources), and type of household based on the sex of household head (whether female or male –headed household) exerted the most influence over smallholder farmers’ decision to adopt NIGAs. Based on the study findings, the following recommendations are drawn: a) policy makers and development partners should understand the real needs and priorities of target communities prior to the implementation of NIGA projects to enhance livelihoods and biodiversity conservation; b) smallholder farmers need support from the government and other development partners through training and they need to be inspired to shift from orthodox farming to sustainable NIGAs, such as, agroforestry and beekeeping; and c) policy directions to benefit smallholder farmers in mountain areas should establish a strong linkage between gender equality and pro-nature agendas. Future research is recommended on: a) viability of NIGAs using a combination of empirical models and judgment to predict future discount rates and evaluate correlation of results; and b) using time series data to investigate the determinants of NIGA adoption as this facilitates the capacity to model and predict related processes. This study used cross-sectional data.
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    Recession farming practices and their linkages to hydro-climatic risks in the Kilombero valley
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2022) Fwaya, Neshafati
    The Kilombero valley has national, regional and international importance due to its proximity to water supplies, fertile soils and flat landscape. About 80% of its population engages in agricultural production to fight poverty and food insecurity. Besides population expansion, Kilombero Valley is vulnerable to drought and flood risks due to climate variability and change. The current study assessed recession farming practices in relation to hydro-climatic risks reduction. Specifically the study focused on characteristics of recession farming practices, its contribution to mean annual household income, variation of water in the valley and farmers’ perception on climatic risks associated with water. Primary data were collected through interview and Focus Group Discussion. Hydrological data were obtained from RBWB. The quantitative data were analysed by using descriptive analysis, independent t-test and trend analysis while content analysis was used to deduce theme from data obtained by Focus Group Discussion. The study revealed that recession farming has crucial role in hydro-climatic risk reduction especially in the dry season. It ensures the availability of 1322.02 Kg/ha of maize and rice when food from rain-fed agriculture becomes limited. Recession farming ranked as the second contributor of mean annual household income (556 316.66 TZS) after rain-fed agriculture (686 366.67 TZS). The valley experiences downward trend of water flow with spatial-temporal variation. Farmers are aware on hydro-climatic risks and be able to develop copping strategies. The study recommends the government to monitor the implementation of Agricultural Sector Development Strategy – II that aims to facilitate the accessibility of agricultural inputs and market infrastructure by smallholders.
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    Assessment of edible wild mushrooms value chain and its contribution to livelihoods improvement in Mbinga and Songea districts, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Mavindi, Dorice Clement
    Tanzania is one of the countries endowed with high forest diversity in the world. Miombo woodland which influence availability of wild mushroom makes up 90% of all forested land in Tanzania. Despite advantages of edible wild mushroom in contribution to individual livelihoods there is insufficient information on actors and their linkages in edible wild mushroom value chain, and contribution of edible wild mushroom to livelihood improvement. This study assessed edible wild mushrooms value chain and its contribution to livelihoods improvement in Songea and Mbinga disricts, Tanzania. The study identifies species of wild mushroom available in study area, mapped actors along edible wild mushroom value chain, roles of actors in value addition and assessed contribution of edible wild mushroom to livelihood improvement in the study area. Six sampled plots were used for inventory. 30 collectors as sample were randomly selected for the study. Data were collected through questionnaire survey, focus group discussions, mushrooms’ inventory, and direct observation. Data were analyzed by descriptive and content analysis. In study total of 42 wild mushroom species were recorded and edible wild mushroom weighted. On average about 4.13 kg of mushroom were collected per plot in 1 hector which means individuals are able to generate income of 4130 up to 10 352 TZS per plot. The prices per kg ranged from 1000 to 2500 for fresh mushroom while for dried mushroom 10 000 up to 12 000 TZS. The value chain of edible wild mushroom in study areas consists collectors and consumers as key actors. Generally, value chain is dominated by women (73.3%) while men comprise of only 26.7%. Collectors collects mainly Amanita, Russula, Cantharellus and Lactarius species. Collection of edible wild mushrooms is done one day up to seven days per week, selection of species to be collected depending on availability, preferences, and storage possibility. The mushrooms that were sold are fresh and dried, 60.0% of respondents sold fresh mushrooms, 33.3% both dried and fresh and 6.7% dried. Edible wild mushroom contributes to livelihood for those engaged in collections and trade as it provides alternative income for accessing social services but also can boost others productive activities. Edibility of the mushroom was identified mainly using local indicators. Training on domestication and preservation was identified as key for increasing commercialization of the product.
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    Assessment of woody resource and management potentials for improved livelihood in Kitumbi village lands forest resource, Tanga, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Mwilenga, Anthony Bonifasi
    This study aimed at assessing the contribution of woody resource and its management in improving the livelihood of community surrounding Kitumbi VLFR in Tanga, Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed at assessing the woody resources available in Kitumbi VLFR; the effectiveness of the governance structure in managing Kitumbi VLFR and contribution of wood lands in improving livelihood of the surrounding communities of Kitumbi VLFR. Forest inventory was done to collect data on forest stock while data related to socio-economics and forest governance were obtained through household survey and key informant interviews. The results showed the stand parameters in terms of the number of stems per ha (N), basal area per ha (G) and tree volume per ha (V) of woody resource available in Kitumbi VLFR were 395±88, 5.11 ± 0.65 m 2 /ha and 45.14 ± 7.04 m 3 /ha respectively of 54 tree species belonging to 20 plant families. The forest was typical miombo but unhealthy. In 10 years, Kitumbi VLFR has contributed revenue estimated to amount to TZS 5 782 407 from 1140 pcs equivalent to 55.03 m 3 of timber of various species. The study established further that there are large woodland areas within the village, which are used as agricultural expansion areas, these woodlands within agricultural land contributed 27 percent to the total household income in the study area. Also, the result revealed the existence of ineffective forest governance with governance.
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    The socio–economic impacts of land-use and land-cover changes in lake Rukwa valley, Rukwa Region, Tanzania.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Nicholaus, Mchome
    Lake Rukwa valley is endowed with various natural resource such as wetland, Lake Rukwa, Ilemba and, Mbizi forest reserve, Rukwa and Uwanda game reserve with abundant helium gas which has been recently discovered. Presence of these natural resource leads to a number of challenging factors which underpin sustainable management and utilization of natural resources. The objective of this study was to identify land-use cover practice and socio-economic activities, to analyse the land-cover changes (LCC) and to determine the influence of LULCC on the socio-economic activities in Lake Rukwa Valley. Random sampling was employed in this study by interviewing 30 households in each village of the four chosen villages of Ilanga, Mtowisa B, Kisa and Ilemba B. Sampling frame were drawn from village book registry, key informant, focus group discussion and interviews with governments official and village leaders. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire with an open-ended question while land-use and land-cover changes were determined using satellite imagery for the two epoch of 1995 to 2020 years. The imagery downloaded were analyzed using computer Arc View program with a combination of GIS programs while socio-economic data associated with LULCC were analyzed using descriptive statistics was applied to obtain frequencies and percentages, then cross-tabulation was performed, chi-square test was used to determine the significance level between the data obtained and the trend of land use and land cover changes in Lake Rukwa Valley. The results revealed that there is significant changes in land-use classes at a study area as p <0.05, therefore study concluded that there is a long term association between land-use and land-cover changes in Lake Rukwa Valley. Thus the study recommended that, there is a need of policy makers, district land planner’s to take measure in maintaining sustainable resource utilization to minimize and maintain land cover changes in Lake Rukwa Valley.
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    Gender and forest products value chain development from village land forest reserves of Songea and Namtumbo Districts, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Nyangassa, Hussein Abubakary
    Gender differences influences people’s experience of and access to forest resources in Village Land Forest Reserves (VLFR). However, empirical evidences about gender and forest product value chain is limited to inform forest value chain development. The study analyzed gender roles and relations along value chain for forest products from Village Land Forest Reserves in Songea and Namtumbo districts. Specifically the study mapped the gender value chain for forest products from the Village Land Forest Reserve (VLFRs), examine the gender roles and relations of forest products from the VLFRs and assess the benefits by gender at each node of the forest products value chain from the VLFRs. Data were collected from 152 households using the questionnaire survey, key informants interviews, focus group discussions and direct observations. The collected data were analysed descriptively and the content analyses. The study revealed that forest products harvested were mushroom (27%), vegetables (11%) the honey (9%), firewood (38%) and the medicinal plants (15%). On the gender roles and relations along the forest products value chain, male dominated in all roles such as the protection of the VLFRs (85%), beehives management (100%), processing (100%), trading in urban markets (100%) and end use (60%). Also on the benefits men gains more benefits from the forest products from the VLFRs. Male had a mean revenue score of Tshs 1 830 000 medicinal plants, a mean revenue score of Tshs 2388 for mushroom and a mean revenue score of Tshs 89 000 for the honey forest product. The key challenges were distance to the forest sites, lack of support from the husbands, improper means of transport to the market, access to capital and low literacy level .This study concluded that the government as well as the non-governmental organizations such as FORVAC should address the issue of gender inequalities in addressing the gender biased issues in obtaining benefits from the VLFRs.
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    Market system analysis of furniture industries in Temeke, Dodoma and Handeni Districts, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Mfilinge, Alpha Euzebio
    Tanzania has diverse livelihoods activities, some of them are furniture manufacturing industries. Due to trade liberalization, furniture is also imported by various traders. However, the amount of furniture demanded is still higher compared to what is manufactured. The study aimed at analyzing the market system of the furniture industry in the Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, and Tanga regions. Specifically, the study examines the value chain development of the industry, analyses the supportive functions for the industry, and assesses the business environment for the industry . Data was collected using a questionnaire survey, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, direct observations and secondary materials. The information gathered was analyzed both content-wise and statistically. Generally, the field results revealed that an average of 64.7% of respondents in the study area invest up to 5 million, and 35.3% above 5 million up to 200 million. The most used tree species for furniture were Afzelia quanzensis, Pterocarpus angolensis, Eucalyptus spp. and Acacia nilotica (Mberiti), while Comoro Island and Mozambique were the top countries importing furniture from Tanzania. For supportive functions, 79% of respondents work under unfriendly infrastructure, only 11.1% of respondents received capacity-building training, and 58.4% of respondents reported accessing financial services. In the business environment, 85% of respondents were aware of the rules and regulations while 15% were not aware. For those who were aware, only 18% complied with the available rules and regulations that guide the industry. The study reveals that, the industry is dominated by micro and small industries, which still demand some improvements to become large and competent enterprises. The study recommends focusing on product quality (skills and capacity), financial support for businesses (finance), innovation, lower operational costs (taxes, levies), and export promotion.
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    Evaluation of the role of agroforestry systems and practices on the climate change adaptation and mitigation in the Kilombero cluster of sagcots, Kilombero Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture., 2021) Lazaro, Elibariki, Nnko.
    Agroforestry systems and practices comprise of a long list of land management practices. Well-managed agroforestry can play a crucial role in improving resilience to climate change. Climate change adaptation involves actions to reduce or eliminate the negative effects of climate change or taking actions for the positive effects. Mitigation involves any activities related to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the ecosystem. Agroforestry has been practiced for a long time in Kilombero and various government and non-governmental organizations have been facilitating their implementation to overcome the impact of climate change and enhance resilience. This seems an important aspect in implementing the Kilombero SACGOT cluster framework as it’s likely to contribute to multiple value chains being addressed by the cluster. Despite agroforestry being considered as the best option for climate change adaptation and mitigation in Kilombero, there is a little information on the agroforestry systems and agroforestry practices that are more potential for climate change adaptation and mitigation since they are difference in practical. Therefore, a study was conducted in the Kilombero cluster of Sagcot in Kilombero District aiming to evaluate the role of agroforestry systems and practices in climate change adaptation and mitigation. The specific objectives of the study were to identify the agroforestry systems and practices, to determine the role of agroforestry systems and practices in climate change adaptation, to determine the socio- economic factors influencing the adoption of agroforestry systems and practices, and to quantify the role of systems and practices in carbon capture and emission mitigation. Household surveys were conducted in a community with agroforestry farmland. Key informant interviews were carried out with government officials, and focus group discussions involved people who had stayed in the study area for a long time and who had the best history of climate change trends. A biophysical survey was conducted on theiii farmland where the diameter and height of trees were measured. The collected data were analyzed through descriptive analysis, one-way ANOVA and multinomial logistic regression. Data from biophysical survey were subjected to allometric model for biomass and then carbon stock computation. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to identify different agroforestry systems and practices in Kilombero, one-way ANOVA to show the influence of different agroforestry systems and practices on increasing the adaptive capacity through contribution of household income, multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the determinants factor influencing the adoption of agroforestry, and quantitative data from biophysical survey were subjected to an allometric model for carbon stock computation. The results revealed that the major agroforestry systems in Kilombero District are agrosilvopasture, agrosilviculture and silvopasture, while the agroforestry practices are home garden, boundary planting, mixed intercropping and parkland. The diversification of the systems and practices through agroforestry ensures multiple and diverse products from the land such as fruits, timber, fodder, and wood fuel. These were significant in sustaining production all the seasons thus enhancing resilience to climate change variability. Agroforestry practices had no statistically significant differences in increasing adaptive capacity through contribution of household’s income. On the other hand, agroforestry systems showed to be statistically significant differences in increasing the adaptive capacity through their contribution to household income, P<0.05. The most significance systems in income generation were agrosilvopasture and agrosilviculture. The results on determinant factors influencing the adoption of agroforestry, using Multinomial logistic regression showed that time for staying in the village, residence type, extension services, and sex had statistically significant differences in determining the adoption of agroforestry practices while sex and residence status had statisticallyiv significant differences in determining the adoption of agroforestry systems (P<0.05).According to the findings of an ecological survey, Mangifera indica sequestered higher carbon 70.57 Mg C ha -1 than other species encountered in the agroforestry systems and practices. Home gardens, mixed intercropping, parkland, and boundaries planting sequestered 185.79 MgCha -1 , 17.79 MgCha -1 , 26.75 MgCha -1 , and 23.22 MgCha -1 , respectively. With respect to agroforestry systems agrosilvopasture sequestered the highest amount of carbon (115.3MgCha -1 ) followed by silvopasture (81.5 MgCha -1 ). and agrosilviculture (55.7 Mg C ha -1 ). The study concluded that agroforestry contributes significantly in increasing the resilience to climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration as well as climate change adaptation through the use of different agroforestry products. Therefore, agroforestry should be taken into consideration in the agriculture value chain of Kilombero cluster.
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    Land uses and livelihood options for shorobe and Sankuyo communities, Botswana
    (2012) Nyamoga, Greyson Zabron
    Sustainable utilization of natural resources in particular wildlife and forestry is a challenge not only for Botswana but for many other developing and developed countries. The formulation and implementation of policies that encourage sustainable utilization of these resources is also not easy especially when it has to deliver both developments to people as well as conservation objectives. Community Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) approach were established to involve local communities in managing and monitoring natural resources to ensure sustainability of the resources being monitored. This study aimed at comparing the livelihood options for Sankuyo and Shorobe communities, the former being a tourism/wildlife under CBNRM approach community while the later is an agricultural based community. Data were using questionnaires, focus group discussions, field visits and observations, key informants and stakeholders/situation analysis. Data were analyzed using excel program and results were summarized in table, figures and charts. Results show that, although these two communities are homogeneous in terms of ethnic group’s composition but they have different livelihood options and strategies. Sankuyo community relies heavily on tourism activities and most of the household members are employed in tourism related activities. Shorobe on the other hand derive their income from cattle and farming. Many of the interviewed household (66%) in Sankuyo are headed by female while in Shorobe (58%) are headed by males. These female headed households live with their grandchildren while their daughters and sons are working elsewhere. Sankuyo community seems to be more educated than Shorobe. In Shorobe 63% of the respondents reported to have no formal education while in Sankuyo no one reported to have no education. While in Sankuyo 28% had secondary education only 10% had secondary education in Shorobe. Results also show that hunting and other tourism activities in Sankuyo contributes about 67% of the total income in the community while other activities contribute only 33% while in Shorobe many household are accrued by selling cattle and some other crops. Other economic activities that contribute to the household income for Shorobe were selling local beer (Mochewa), fishing and petty businesses. It is concluded that the changes in policies for wildlife management have a great impact to the livelihood of people. It is therefore recommended that local communities should be involved in the decision making process to avoid the negative impacts that may be associated with the policy changes. Involving the local community will not only increase the sense of ownership but also build capacity to the members of these communities.
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    Implications of forest taxation and fees in the development Of smallholder forest plantations in Tanzania: a case of Mufindi district
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2022) Sadiki, Sadiki Hamza
    The booming of forestry sector in the country in recent years has seen resources depleting at an increasing rate over time due to the supply gap of about 42.8 million m 3 of wood. Initiatives including fiscal measures such as forestry taxation and fee imposition are employed to ensure their regulation. Forest taxes and fees have impacts in the forestry sector development; However, no actual study was conducted on their actual implications. This study analyses the implications of forest taxes and fees at both micro and macro level of the forestry sector. For micro level, the study focused on the smallholder forestry farmers sawn timber value chain (SFFSTVC) in Mufindi district, whereby forms of and influence of forest taxes and fees on the incentive of the actors to continue with forestry businesses were analysed, their implication on the income of the actors in the value chain was identified, and for macro level, the long-run relationship of forest taxes and GDP was analysed. Proportionate stratified sampling method identified a sample of 267 respondents for the micro level of the study. Questionnaires, key informant interviews, FGD and observation were used in data collection; macro-economic data was obtained from relevant institutions. Quantitative data was analysed with aid of SPSS, MS Excel and R softwares. Results show that the actors in the SFFSTVC are liable to few taxes and fees and their compliance is low due to poor enforcement of the agencies, also 64% of all respondents are willing to continue with business despite the taxes and fees, and that the taxes and fees on the value chain to be on average of 15% of their total revenue. In macro level, forest taxes were found to have a bi-directional granger causality and long run equilibrium. Finally, forest taxes and fees have an observable implication, the study recommends that nation’s forestry taxation policies to be improved by the MoFP to stimulate investment in the forestry sector so as to ensure sustainable supply of the forestry resources.
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    Honey value chain development in Ruvuma region, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Msolla, Patricia A
    Despite having a few number of studies conducted in Ruvuma on beekeeping, in-depth assessment of entire honey value chain is lacking. This study assessed honey value chain development in Ruvuma region, using Songea and Nyasa districts as study areas. The study mapped actors along the value chain, determined nodes’ profitability, assessed the business environment of the value chain and honey production trend in the study area. A sample of 16 groups of producers, 22 individual producers, 24 traders and 3 industries were selected randomly for this study. Questionnaires, checklists and interviews were the main primary data collection methods. Data was analyzed using descriptive analysis, Value Chain Analysis (VCA) and Gross Margin Analysis. In this study three actors were determined; producers, traders and consumers. The results showed two distribution channels; 92% sold their honey to local customers in the village and 16% sold their honey to traders. Honey was mainly consumed locally, this was due to lack of market information to the actors. Several business environment components such as rules and regulations, custom and norms, transportation and supporting functions were assessed. Three governmental and one non-governmental supporting functions were identified in the study area namely; Tanzania Forest Services Agency (TFS), Small Industry Development Organization (SIDO), Tanzania Forest Fund (TAFF) and Caritas. The Gross Market Margin of individual producers was 11% and group producers was -22% which was lower compared to that of traders 43%. This implies that producers had higher costs of production compared to the traders. In order for producers to maximize their profits, there should be an improvement in quantity and quality of honey produced as well as the expansion of markets.
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    Costs and their financial implication for smallholder tree growers in Mufindi district Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Mwakasungula, Kikolo R
    This study sought to bridge the gap in knowledge by determining costs and their financial implication for smallholder tree growers in Mufindi District, Tanzania. The specific objectives of the study were to determine cost centers for establishment and management, to compare these costs of establishment and management for tree growers and lastly to determine the financial viability of the tree growing systems in the district. Data were collected by using a questionnaire with independent tree growers as respondents, checklists for TGA members as well as service providers and outgrowers. The study used homogenous purposive sampling to identify smallholder tree growers that where located within Mufindi District with woodlot size between 0.4 hectares to 4 hectares. The data were analyzed using the SPSS program version 12.11 and the EXCEL program. The comparison on the cost of establishment and management for the different tree growing systems in the district was made using ONE WAY ANOVA and Fischer’s LSD. The discounted cash flow analysis with economic criterion NPV, and IRR were employed for economically evaluating the forestry projects. The study found that independent smallholder tree growers had the lowest costs of establishment and management at 2 679 012.35 TZS per Ha compared to TGAs TZS 2 281 440.00 per Ha, service providers TZS 3 374 554.51 per Ha and outgrowers 4 104 299.52 per Ha. The study concluded that though costs are crucial, the ability to find a suitable market beforehand affects the overall viability for investing into smallholder tree growing in Mufindi district. The study recommends that governance such as FBD, be tasked with addressing these transaction costs and aligning contracting relationships between smallholder tree growers and their commercial partners. Furthermore, to increase the bargaining power of smallholder tree growers, encouragement for independent tree growers to join these tree grower associations must continue.
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    Production efficiency of small-scale tree growers in Mufindi District, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2019) Mathayo, Neema Joseph
    The demand for wood product is expected to double between 2013 and 2035 due to increasing demand driven largely by construction, furniture, population growth and paper sectors. Therefore there is a need for private sectors including small-scale farmers to counter balance the supply. However, the efficiency of small-scale farmers in production of trees is still unknown. Therefore this study investigated technical efficiency of small- scale tree growers and factors influencing production efficiency of small-scale farmers in Mufindi district. Structured questionnaire was administered to 244 respondents from randomly selected households. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics data envelopment analysis and Tobit Model. Results indicate that small-scale tree growers were not fully technically efficient as the mean efficiency was 84.5% under Variable Return to Scale and 80% under Constant Return to Scale assumptions. Quality of seeds, farm size, extension services and marital status were major factors significantly influencing technical efficiency of the small-scale tree growers. The policy implication of the study is that technical efficiency of small-scale tree growers could be increased by 15.5% under variable return to scale and 20% under constant return to scale by improving the use of available resources also to encourage farmers to join farmer based organizations, better management of woodlots and Availability of quality seeds/seedling are options that would improve the efficiency of the small-scale tree growers
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    Market System Analysis of Bamboo Products in Ruvuma Region, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2020) Magafu, L.
    The aim of this study was to conduct market system analysis of bamboo products in Ruvuma region in Tanzania. Seventy producers, two processors and twenty five traders were interviewed in Mbinga and Songea districts. Questionnaire survey, key informant interview and direct observation were the key methods for qualitative and quantitative data collection. Descriptive analysis was performed for quantitative data while content analysis was conducted for qualitative data analysis. Results showed that key actors were producers, processors, traders and input suppliers. Main products manufactured were winnowing trays with an average price of TZS 3400, baskets with an average price of TZS 3900, jamanda with an average price of TZS 6000 and barbeque sticks with an average wholesale price of TZS 550 per packet. Markets for these products were; within the village and Songea, Mbinga and Nyasa towns. Only barbeque sticks accessed markets in Dar es Salaam. Producers who work individually had the following gross margins; baskets 22%, winnowers 44%, tenga 47% and jamanda 32%. Those working in informal groups had a gross margin of 78% implying that working in groups reduced costs and increased efficiency and productivity. Processors and traders had a gross margin ratio of 53% and 40% respectively. Inadequate policy and strategy attention to bamboo limited value chain development. INBAR, SUA and TFS roles were observed in improving bamboo management through supplying support services. However, there were little efforts on skills improvement and value addition. The study suggests that producers should organise themselves in groups to increase access to market information and support for profit maximization.
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    Contribution of SUA training forest to the socio-economic development of adjacent local communities and forest product customers at Olmotonyi, Arusha
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2020) Zakayo, E. G
    The overall objective of the study was to assess the contribution of SUA Training Forest to adjacent local communities and forest product customers in Olmotonyi, Arusha. Purposive sampling was used to select two villages (Timbolo and Shiboro) with the longest boundary to the forest among the four villages. A cross-sectional survey design was employed where a total number of 90 respondents were randomly selected and interviewed using household questionnaire. Key informant’s information was collected and two focus group discussions comprising of 16 discussants in both groups with Farmers and Livestock keepers from Shiboro Village. Data was analyzed by Gross Margin Analysis, Net Revenues and Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression model using the Statistical Package for Social Science 24.0 (SPSS) Software and Microsoft Excel. The findings revealed that, the farmers gained 4% of the overall profit of Forest interactions, the livestock keepers gained 55% and the traders had a gain of 41% of the overall gross profit from the socio-economic activities. Pesticides, Household size, Pasture loads collected, Access to markets and Fertilizer application were found to be significant factors influencing local communities depending on the Forest resource at a 5% probability level (p<0.05). The Social Cost to the households and forest product customers accounted for the conservation actions to the resource which was TZS 5 693 600/= per year. Moreover, 38% of the forest product customers preferred the Pinus patula species and 55% purchased timber from the SUA Training Forest for construction purposes. The SUA Training Forest Overall Net profit was TZS 540 501 089.90/= from the sales of the Forest products to the customers. Generally, the SUA Training Forest resources are of high benefit to both adjacent local communities and beyond. It is recommended that modalities should be sought to capacitate sustainable utilization of the scarce and valuable resource.
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    Willingness to pay and accept compesation for conservation of the Usangu plain in Mbarali district Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2020) Munisi, D. I
    Payments for ecosystem services (PES) compensate individuals or communities for undertaking actions that increase the provision of ecosystem services such as water flows. These payments rely on incentives to encourage behavioral change and can consequently be considered part of the broader class to stimulate market-based mechanisms for environmental policy. This study was carried out to estimate willingness of both downstream and upstream user of Usangu plain to Pay and accept compensation for conservation to aid flow of water downstream throughout the year. The specific objectives were to estimate downstream willingness to pay (WTP), upstream willingness to accept (WTA) compensation for conservation and adoption of environmentally friendly practices and to determine factors influencing WTA compensation for conservation. Primary data were collected through questionnaire which was administered to a random sample of 200 respondent’s upstream Usangu plain in four villages, while data for WTP were gathered through checklists. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics whereas data from choice experiment was analyzed by Conditional Logistic Model (CL) to elicit WTA compensation for conservation, Multinomial logistic model (MNL) was used to assess the factors influencing WTA compensation. Results show that downstream users were not willing to add any addition payment apart from what they pay as water user fees. Further results from CL show that upstream users are willing to accept several proposed conservations and environmentally friendly practices if they are compensated based on the performed practice and this is highly influenced by socio economic factors including age, education level and marital status. It is concluded from this study that both users of the plain are aware of the degradation status of the plain and their willingness to participate in conservation varies. The study therefore recommends involvement of all stakeholders in the development of conservation goals.
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    Economic contribution of village community banks in conserving forest resources: a case of Kazimzumbwi and Pugu forest reserves
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2019) Rwekaza, G. D.
    Village Community Banks aimed to reduce extreme poverty among community group members and enable members share knowledge on how to generate income which could be alternative sources of income rather than depending on illegal exploitation of forest resources for the economic purpose. This study aimed at assessing economic contribution of VICOBA in conserving forest resources. Multistage sampling technique was used to obtain 5 villages adjacent to both Kazimzumbwi and Pugu Forest Reserves. In the selected villages 23 VICOBA was selected by using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS), 230 respondents form selected VICOBA was sampled and 15 key informants were purposively selected. Primary data was collected using questionnaires and key informants interviews. Quantitative data were processed and analyzed using SPSS and Microsoft excel, in addition a binary logistic regression analysis was done to determine factors influencing VICOBA member decisions in exploit forest products. Results show that, VICOBA programme enable its members to engage in small business activities as alternative sources of income at 55% which reduce illegal exploitation of forest resources, also binary logistic model results reveal significant factors that were negatively influence VICOBA members decision in forest products consumption at P < 0.05 are alternative sources of income, national conservation laws, access to credit, educational level and cultural believes, 44% of VICOBA members were aware in forest conservation through conservation education provided and engaged in conservation through reporting illegal activities and participating in environmental clubs. Finally, this study recommends promotion of community microfinance groups in societies which could be source of alternative income generating activities to reduce overdependence and overconsumption of forest resources.