Theses and Dissertations Collection

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    The implications of bushmeat hunting on the environment in the Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2010) Maunde, Regina Masatu
    A cross sectional study was done to examine the implications of bush meat hunting on the environment on the Uluguru Mountains. Questionnaires were administered to a total of 120 respondents in 8 villages around the Uluguru Mountains in the Morogoro Municipality. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were also used during the study. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Implications of the bushmeat hunting practices on the environment were examined. The types of animal species commonly hunted in the area, the methods/techniques used for hunting; and the type of environmental degradation brought about by bushmeat hunting were identified. It was found that bushmeat hunting in the villages around the Uluguru Mountains was purely a subsistence activity aimed at getting animal protein, income and medicine. Among the respondents, 83.3% acknowledged the presence of bushmeat hunting activity around the Uluguru Mountains. Among the wildlife species commonly hunted, grass cutter "nclezi" ranked number one followed by the Steenbok and wild pig. Respondents reported the most common techniques used for hunting were traps, spears, dogs and bush fires. 84.2% of respondents acknowledged the use of bushfires as a technique for bushmeat hunting. Apart from hunting, burning of bushes was either deliberately for farm clearing or accidental (cigarettes butts and cooking). Unsustainable agriculture, use of firewood and charcoal for energy as well as bushmeat hunting were the major causes of environmental degradation in the Uluguru Mountains.
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    Assessment of community participation in management of water resources in Moshi rural district, Kilimanjaro Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agricurture, 2022) Lyatuu, John M.
    Community’s participation in the water resources management is of paramount importance as it contributes to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of water projects and also improving the family’s economy since family members will focus on production more than wasting time on fetching water. However, there is lack of enough information on local community’s participation in management of water resources (MWR) in poor resource countries such as Tanzania. The study on which this dissertation is based assessed local community’s participation in management of domestic water in East Old Moshi and Kimochi Wards in Moshi Rural District in Tanzania. The wards were purposively selected due to a number of water sources from slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro, but still community members suffer from water shortage. Specifically, the study sought to: (i) determine the extent of participation of local communities in water resources management, (ii) assess water conservation measures applied by the local communities and (iii) assess institutional and socio-economic factors affecting community members’ choice of types of water conservation technologies. Structured interviews were applied as the main method of data collection whereby 150 respondents who were randomly selected from the two wards were interviewed. Collected data were analysed using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Chi-Square test was used to assess the association between respondents’ characteristics and participation in project activities (manual works and project meetings). In inferential analysis, Ordinal Logistic Regression and binary logistic regression was used to assess the factors associated with respondents’ participation in Water Resources Management (WRM) in general and factors influencing the households’ choice of Water Conservation Measures (WCMs) respectively. The ordinal logistic regression analysis results revealed a significant association between overall participation in WRM and respondents’ years of schooling and the days respondents had received water. Binary logistic regression revealed that choice of WCMs was significantly associated with the respondents’ age, marital status and distance to the household’s alternative sources of water. Based on the study findings, it is concluded that education is a major solution to many problems facing community members. Also WCMs applied in the study area depend on status of water availability of the particular place and season. From the findings and conclusions, the study recommends that, in order to improve application of WCMs to local communities, education should be provided especially to elders, people who reside in the upper parts of the community.
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    Impact of conditional cash transfer on poverty reduction in Sumbawanga municipality, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2022) Kisiwa, Mariam David
    Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) has been recognized to reduce poverty in Tanzania. However, there is scant information on the impact of conditional cash transfers on beneficiaries’ food security, health and education status within the household. This study aims to evaluate the impact of conditional cash transfers on beneficiaries' food security, health and educational status within the household in Sumbawanga Municipality. A cross- section research design was adopted. The sample size used was 450 households with 171 households as the treated group (beneficiaries) and 279 households as the control group (non-beneficiaries). Quantitative data were obtained from a household survey and analysed by using propensity score matching with the aid of STATA 14. The study findings show that on average conditional cash transfer programmes have significant effects on improving households’ food security by increasing food consumption by 47 percent, reducing adverse coping strategies by 59 percent, increasing access to health services by 70 percent and increasing school attendance by 32 days more than non-beneficiary children. The study recommends that the Ministry under the President’s office Public Services Management and Good Governance through the CCT programme increase beneficiaries and the amount of basic cash given to poor households with higher household sizes and the Government, Non- Government Organizations and other stakeholders should work together with the CCT programme to continue to improve food security, education and access to health services in the study area.
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    Land use and socio-economic implications of pastoralists in migration in Rufiji district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University Of Agriculture, 2016) Komba, Cyril Kalembana
    The study on which this thesis is based intended to fill the gap on inadequate research regarding the effects of pastoralists' in-migration on land use and socio-economic effects in Rufiji District by: (i) examining pastoralists' influences of land use changes, (ii) examining consequences of pastoralists in-migration on socio-economic activities among local people, (iii) scrutinizing land use conflict escalations, and (iv) examining effects on livelihoods. Data were collected through a survey covering a sample of 200 respondents, documentary review, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Statistical Package for Social Sciences and Microsoft Excel were used to analyse quantitative data. Qualitative data were transcribed into text and analysed basing on the content and meaning of the text. Binary logistic regression analysis was applied to: establish influence of various factors on land use changes and local people’s participation in new economic activities. Multiple linear regression analysis determined the pastoralists' effects on livelihood outcomes. The findings showed that significant factors for the land use change arc: number of livestock (p < 0.01), pastoralists’ years in the area (p < 0.05) and local people's engagement in livestock keeping (p < 0.05). Four factors influenced local peoples’ engagement in new economic activities significantly: age (p < 0.01), religion (p < 0.001), education (p < 0.05) and sex (p < 0.05). Land use conflicts had been escalating and the actors involved in conflicts had increased. The multiple linear regression analysis results showed that four factors were statistically significant in affecting the livelihood outcomes: new economic activities (p < 0.05), investors (p < 0.05), new agricultural systems (p < 0.001) and land use changes (p < 0.05). It was concluded that pastoralists are still in-migrating into Rufiji District, thus, land use change is inevitable. The in-migration has both negative and positive livelihood effects. It is recommended that, firstly, there is a need for inter-sectoral working teams. Secondly, strengthening the positive effects andiii addressing the negative ones should be done. Thirdly, the local government authorities should ensure that areas for agriculture and for pastoral activities are defined by developing sustainable village land use plans. Fourthly, observing Village Land Act during land allocation should always be done. Fifthly, developing appropriate pastoralists resettling mechanisms and strengthening participatory techniques for conflicts resolution should be done.
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    Functionality of primary health facility governing committees in implementing direct health facility financing in Tanzanian local government authorities
    (Sokoine university of agriculture, 2022) Kesale, Anosisye Mwandulusya
    The Alma Ata Declaration of 1978 identified community participation in health service delivery as a cornerstone component for improving Primary Health Care (PHC). Therefore, it advocated for providing opportunities for health service users/communities to directly participate in the designing, implementation and monitoring of healthcare facility operations. To incorporate communities in the planning, implementation and evaluation of primary health care services, community governance structures known as Health Facility Governing Committees (HFGCs) were established in Lower and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). These HFGCs are composed of community members devolved with powers and functions of representing the community in the governance of health service delivery in primary health care facilities (PHCF). There have been continued efforts to strengthen community participation through having functional HFGCs to improve health service delivery in PHCF through decentralization. The fiscal decentralization is the reform currently adopted by many LIMCs countries to empower both community governance structures and service providers in improving health service delivery at the PHCF. Tanzania, like other LIMCs countries, is implementing fiscal decentralization through Direct Health Facility Financing (DHFF) to empower service providers and deepen the community’s participation in the planning, implementing and monitoring PHCF to improve health service delivery. However, the status of the HFGCs' functionality in accomplishing their assigned powers and responsibilities under DHFF is not known. This study was conducted to assess the functionality of HFGCs under the DHFF context in selected Tanzania Local Government Authorities. Specifically, the study assessed (i) the functionality level of HFGC in primary public health facilities under DHFF; (ii) the accountability of HFGCs in the public primary health facilities under DHFF and (iii) the perceived factors determining the functionality of HFGCs under DHFF. A cross-sectional research design was used in which both qualitative and quantitative data were collected simultaneously or at one data collection phase to assess the performance of HFGCs. The sampling of the regions, councils and health facilities is based on the President Office-Regional Administration and Local Government's Star Rating Assessment of the performance of all public primary healthcare facilities in Tanzania, which was accomplished at the beginning of 2018, that is, the same year DHFF started. The sample size for this investigation was determined using a four-stage multistage cluster sampling process. In the first stage, four regions were purposefully chosen based on their performance (two regions high and two low performance). From each region chosen in stage one, two councils were chosen in the second round. One of the two councils chosen had a low and another with high performance in the area based on the star rating assessment. Four health facilities were purposively selected from each council selected. Two health facilities were chosen because of their low and other two health facilities because of the high performance in the council. The location of the facility and council was also a criterion to accommodate the diversity of the council and health facilities. In stage four, respondents for the structured questionnaire were selected proportionally from each HFGC in which the response was 280 respondents. Respondents for interview and focus group discussion were purposively selected. The participants were chosen for interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) based on their ability to provide relevant information about the performance of HFGCs under DHFF. Therefore, for a respondent to be included in the interview and FGDs was supposed to be a member of HFGC implementing DHFF. The point of saturation determined the number of interviews and FGDs. The closed-ended structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from each selected member of the HFGCs. The Open Data Kit (ODK) software was used to develop the data gathering software (database). To collect data, a quantitative approach based on mobile data collecting (MDC) was used. Data were captured via mobile phones and then transferred to a central server. The response rate for HFGCs who filled out the questionnaire was 280 respondents. Qualitative data were collected through interviews and FGDs. In- depth interviews were conducted with HFGC chairpersons to examine the extent they have been accomplishing the HFGC mandates under DHFF settings. On the other hand, FGDs were conducted with other members of HFGCs excluding the HFGC chairpersons. Quantitative data were coded, processed and analysed by using IBM-SPSS v. 25. In assessing the functionality of HFGCs under DHFF context, Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse data. A binary logistic regression model was employed to determine factors associated with HFGC functionality. To assess the accountability of HFGCs under DHFF implementation, the descriptive statistic and binary logistic regression were employed based on the HFGCs accountability index or predictors of accountability. To assess the perceived factors determining the performance of HFGCs, Relative Importance Indices (RII) within Multiple regression were employed. The findings from this study HFGC functionality under DHFF was found to be good at 78.57 %. Specifically, 87.14 % of HFGCs were found to have good functionality in mobilizing communities to join Community Health Funds, 85 % were good at participating in the procurement process, 81.43 % were good at discussing community health challenges and 80% were good at planning and budgeting. However, there was a difference in functionality among HFGCs, with HFGCs from primary health facilities that indicated a high-performance during star rating assessment in 2018 having relatively good functionality, scoring 79.45 %, as opposed to HFGCs from primary health facilities that had a low performance, scoring 73.88 %. Regarding accountability, the HFGCs indicated good performance scoring 78 %. HFGCs were found to have a high level of accountability in terms of encouraging the community to join community health funds (91.71%), participating in receiving medicines and medical commodities (88.57%), and timely provision of health services (84.29%). The HFGC's responsibility was shown to be substantially associated with the health planning component (p=0.0048) and the financial management aspect (p=0.0045). Furthermore, the study found that the factors which are more important for the functionality of HFGCs are the availability of finance to the health facility with RII 0.8964 score which ranked the first important determinant of HFGC performance, followed by the clarity of powers and functions with RII 0.8928 score, as second important determinant, and communication between the HFGCs and community with RII 0.8792 score, as a third important determinant. The reality from the findings of this study on fiscal decentralization through DHFF in selected HFGCs supports the idea that decentralization empowers subnational health actors since the performance of HFGCs in health facilities implementing DHFF was found to be good. This study implies that the setting and how fiscal decentralization is implemented are critical for determining whether or not it empowers actors. Therefore, for HFGCs to be empowered and be able to better perform their duties and responsibilities, the context and the characteristic of HFGC member are key determinants. It is therefore recommended that, the government review educational level for the members of HFGCs, timely transfer funds to the health facilities, conduct comprehensive training to the members of the HFGCs on how to carry out their functions and increase the number of prime vendors.
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    Capabilities of business development service providers’ in service delivery to small and medium enterprises in Arusha city and Moshi municipality
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2022) Kweka, Anande Erasto
    Despite the various interventions aimed at supporting Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in Tanzania, the challenges facing their development have persisted. Business Development Services (BDS) providers have an instrumental role in MSMEs development. However, the question of capability of BDS providers and hence their effectiveness in delivering BDS to MSMEs is yet to be adequately addressed. The main objective of this study was to assess BDS providers’ capabilities in service delivery to MSMEs in Arusha City Council and Moshi Municipality. Specifically, the study analyzed BDSPs internal resources endowment, service delivery pathways and MSMEs absorptive capacity. Business Development Service Providers are recognized as public and private firms which provide a range of non-financial services to MSMEs. The study employed the cross-sectional design and mixed approaches namely qualitative and quantitative. A sample size of 254 MSMEs respondents was chosen using a simple random sampling technique and a sample size of 65 BDS providers were chosen using a purposive sampling technique. Primary data were collected using Key Informants Interviews (KII), a questionnaire survey, documentary review and focus group discussions (FGDs) methods. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis and quantitative data were analysed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) software, for descriptive statistics including frequencies and percentages. The study results revealed that, most of the BDS providers had inadequate human resources to match the appropriate service delivery. However, MSMEs were highly satisfied with the personnel expertise and accessibility to services but they were dissatisfied with the costs of the service and increased operating expenses. Increased business operating expenses were caused by uncontrolled rent on business premises fluctuating transportations costs, raw material costs, and price fluctuations of raw materials. However, despite the inadequate resources of BDS providers, the impact of their services was significant in various MSMEs. The reported impacts derived from BDS provided to MSMEs were, increased ability to access inputs and loan, increased ability to run businesses and use of technology, increased yield and business diversification. The majority of BDS providers were private entities and mainly provided market access, provision of input supply, and alternative financing to MSMEs. This implies that most of the service providers in the study area w ere market oriented. However, there was a significant difference with regard to public BDS providers doing better in provision of infrastructure development and policy/advocacy because they are long lived and capital intensive. However, the most preferred service delivery pathways by BDS providers were training, seminars and workshop, technical demonstration centers and trade exhibitions, these were easier to organize and involved a large number of their clients. The findings also revealed the difficulty in determining the most appropriate pathway to follow in delivering BDS to MSMEs. The reasons being that in some cases, BDS providers used more than one delivery pathway. However, the study revealed a lack of generic service delivery pathway since each BDS provider has its own focus and work independently while MSMEs differed from one enterprise to another. Similarly, the study findings indicated that, the majority of MSMEs owners had secondary education and an experience of one to three years business management. Also, the majority of enterprises were micro with capital of more than or equal to Shs. <5million and more than or equal to < 5 employees. This indicates that, the majority of MSMEs had the capacity to identify appropriate BDS to meet their needs although an experience of 1-3 years in business management could impair their capacity to adopt to new knowledge timely. The findings also show that, the majority of enterprises were micro enterprises. This depicts low capital and therefore low ability to access and apply BDS for innovation, although they can access BDS through sponsored trainings, incubators and networking that allow sharing of resources and information. Similarly, it was observed that, despite the government's efforts to promote public BDS providers by providing incentives, access to BDS from these firms remained low, with only (39.8%) of MSMEs using their services. It is worth noting that, insufficient support and less accessibility of public BDS may impair development of MSMEs because of their low ability to purchase services from private service providers. In conclusion, capability of BDS providers is not only explained by capability of resources endowed because, in the study area the level of resources endowment differs from one BDSPs to another and the same applies to service delivery pathways. It was evident that effective BDS delivery depends on absorptive capacity of MSMEs to access and use delivered services. This implies that capability of BDS resources alone is not sufficient to enable successful service delivery, unless MSMEs are willing to access and utilize delivered services. Therefore, consideration of MSMEs absorptive capacity has to be taken seriously before development and delivery of BDS. This study advocates for policy makers to consider establishing guidelines which will be used to guide delivery of BDS. The government should also provide subsidies for private service providers who can invest and bring in appropriate technology to MSMEs. Subsidies should be attractive enough to compensate for the costs that may be incurred. In addition, policies such as minimum local content policies should be applied to motivate BDS providers to provide services to MSMEs particularly micro and small enterprises. This study has provided some empirical insights on the areas of focus and or future improvement to the MSMES policy of 2012 particularly on the business development service delivery standards and guidelines for service provision; such aspects are currently inadequately addressed.
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    Religiosity and moral behaviour as a basis for good Governance: a case of district councils in Mwanza region, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2018) Munyu, L. M.
    Many efforts to enhance good governance for sustainable development have been undertaken by the government since independence, but the level of development has not been as it was expected. The overall objective of this study was to examine the influence of religiosity and moral behaviour on good governance in Tanzania, using district councils in Mwanza Region as a case study. Specifically, it sought to identify the status of religiosity and moral behaviour of key actors in district councils; examine the status of good governance in district councils; examine socio-economic factors influencing good governance in district councils and finally examine the perceptions of respondents on the influence of religiosity and moral behaviour on good governance. Primary data were collected through questionnaires and checklists whereby quantitative and qualitative data were collected. Secondary information was collected from literature reviews and the internet. Quantitative data were subjected to descriptive and inferential analyses, while qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. The results indicated that the actors had low levels of religiosity and moral behaviour. According to the results, the district councils under study exhibited poor governance situations. It was also found that the influence of religiosity (standardized beta = 0.210) and moral behavior (standardized beta = 0.424) on good governance was statistically significant at 0.05% level; contributing 0.634 (63.4%) of the standardized beta value to the variation of the dependent variable i.e. good governance. The results indicated also that sex (standardized beta = -0.295) and gender balance awareness (standardized beta = -0.132) were statistically significant. It was revealed that religiosity and moral behaviour had the highest positive influence on good governance. It was concluded that religiosity and good moral behaviour should be considered when recruiting key actors. Finally, it was strongly recommended that in order to attain good governance, morally upright and highly religious key actors should be employed in the district councils as well as in other sectors of the economy.
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    Effectiveness of small holder farmers adaption strategies in Improving well being in light of climate change in Iringa district Tanzania.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2016) Kihupi, Mary Lujabiko
    Climate change is happening and poses significant challenges to households, businesses carried against impact of climate change by smallholder farmers in semi-arid areas of Iringa District but little is known about their effectiveness in improving smallholders’ well-being. The overall objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of adaptation strategies in a changing climate and climate variability in semi-arid areas of Iringa District. Specifically, the study examined smallholder farmers’ perceptions towards climate change, identified smallholder farmers’ adaptation strategies against impacts of climate change, explored barriers to smallholder farmers’ adaptation strategies, and examined the effectiveness of adaptation strategies as is being reflected in smallholder farmers’ well-being. The research design was cross sectional. A multistage sampling procedure was applied to select divisions, wards, villages based on their climatic conditions. A total of 240 respondents were drawn randomly from eight villages. Data were collected through household survey, key informant interviews, observation and focus group discussions methods. Meteorological data were collected from Tanzania Meteorological Agency. Quantitative data were analyzed through SPSS and qualitative data through content analysis. Instant Statistical Packages for Agro climatological data was used in analyzing the 54 years meteorological data of Nduli meteorological station in Iringa District. The findings revealed that smallholder farmers perceived climate change in terms of change in temperature, changes in rainfall, increase in drought condition and increase in malaria and crop pests and diseases. Change in The findings also show that smallholder farmers were adapting to impact of climate rainfall pattern, temperature pattern atjd occurrence of pests and diseases had significant impact on smallholder farmers’ households whose livelihood depends on rain-fed farming. and governments. Different adaptation strategies are and households. Ismani and Pawaga Divisions of Iringa District were purposively selected iii change through irrigation, crop diversification, planting early maturing maize varieties, planting drought resistant crops, changing of planting dates, and agriculture diversification and non-farm activities. Barriers to smallholder farmers’ adaptation strategies identified were unreliability of information on weather forecast, lack of access to agricultural extension services, and limited access to water for irrigation. Other barriers were lack of capital, lack of access to affordable credit institutions, lack of farm assets (plough and tractors), and cost of agricultural inputs. In addition, the results revealed that there were relationships between age, income and barriers to adaptation strategies. Existences of those barriers hindered effective implementation of adaptation strategies in the study area. The findings revealed that some of the adaptation strategies to impact of climate change such as change in planting dates, planting early maturing maize varieties, irrigation, application of fertilizer, and involving in petty business had positive influence on smallholder farmers’ well-being (p<0.05). This means that those adaptation strategies which had positive influence on smallholder farmers' well-being were effective against impact of climate change. Government and other stakeholders should facilitate adaptation by enabling farmers to overcome barriers reported in this study. The government of Tanzania and other stakeholders should also help smallholder farmers by supporting them in those adaptation strategies which proved to be effective to impact of climate change.
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    Mole rats (tachyoryctes splendens) infestation and smallholder farmers well-being: the case of Rombo District, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Njau, Hilda J.
    Rodent outbreaks cause massive crop losses. In Tanzania mole rats are among the major rodents pests; they feed on underground plants parts mainly roots, rhizomes, tubers, stem bulbs and grasses. Mole rats attack a variety of crops causing extensive damage and losses; this threatens the sustainability of smallholder farmers’ livelihoods. Therefore, the study on which this dissertation is based aimed at assessing the effect of mole rats infestation on smallholder farmers’ well-being since mole rats destroy crops, causing extensive damage and losses affecting farmers' well- being. The specific objectives were to: establish the extent of crop damage by mole rats, estimate the economic impact of mole rats effects on the smallholder farmers wellbeing in terms of income, food security and assets possession and determine the effectiveness of mole rats control strategies adopted by smallholder farmers in the study area. A cross-sectional research design was adopted whereby quantitative and qualitative data were collected from four villages in Rombo District. Qualitative data were collected using key informant interviews and observations. Quantitative data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis, and quantitative data were analysed descriptively and inferentially using multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression analysis. Findings from the study showed that bananas were the most damaged crop in the highland areas (79% of the respondents said so). In the lowland areas, maize was the most damaged crop (70% of the respondents said so). The findings also showed that hours spent on controlling mole rats had a significant statistical influence on food security. Incidence of mole rats throughout the year had a significant statistical influence on asset value. Agriculture is the most important economic activity in Rombo District. The findings showed that trapping was the most adopted strategy to control mole rats infestation in farms (p<0.05), followed by excavation of burrows (p<0.05) and the use of fumigants in burrows. The findings further showed that trapping of root rats and excavation of burrows had a positive influence on banana production. It is concluded that proper management of mole rats in Rombo District can reduce the problems that farmers face in respect to agricultural yield loss and energy expenditure. Assessing the farmers' perception on pest status, existing control methods, costs and efficiency of controlling methods will facilitate decisions made on the application of successful pest management strategies. It is recommended that introducing and using integrated pest management strategies will reduce mole rats attack and ensure increased agricultural productivity. The study also recommends that extension agents should equip farmers with improved cultivation techniques to increase banana harvests while farmers should enhance trapping of mole rats and excavation of burrows as effective strategies to reduce crop damage and increase crop harvest. It is also recommended that farmers should consider planting of tephrosia vogelii which has been reported to reduce mole rats infestation in farms. Farmers should be encouraged to adopt communal cooperation during controlling mole rats to avoid crop losses in their farms.
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    Water resource management and water use conflicts in Ngerengere water catchment, Morogoro Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Mhina, Amina Saidi
    Water use conflicts are widely reported and are said to affect socio-economic development. This study examined the main types and factors of water use conflicts in the Ngerengere catchment in Morogoro Region. A cross-sectional research design was adopted and 136 respondents participated in the study. A combination of purposive and simple random sampling techniques was used to select wards and respondents. A structured questionnaire for the household survey and a checklist of questions for focus group discussions and key informants interviews were the main tools for data collection. Descriptive statistics complemented with qualitative data described the types of water use conflicts. Convention mapping was used to map the existing water resource management institutions while content analysis was used to establish the roles, functions, and relationship between these institutions. The binary logistic regression model estimated the factors associated with water use conflicts in the study area. Findings from this study shows that domestic users are the most affected group by water use conflicts particularly because conflicts between them were reported by almost upstream and downstream water users (27.2%) and domestic users and irrigators (22.8%). Education level, misallocations of water points and failure of water resource management institutions were significantly associated with water use conflicts P<0.05). The study also found that WRMIs are formal and informal in nature playing three major roles in the Ngerengere catchment area namely: water catchment management, water catchment protection and water uses planning. The study concluded that, water catchment management institutions are not adequately accountable for water service delivery in the Ngerengere catchment area thus leading to frequent water use conflicts and other challenges associated with these conflicts. Therefore, the study recommends that water catchment management institutions should be accountable for water service delivery in the Ngerengere catchment area to avoid water use conflicts and overcome factors associated with these conflicts.
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    Socio - enviromental implications of small and medium sunflower oil processing enterprises in Singida municipality, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Mshana, Joseph William
    This study was conducted in Singida Municipality to explore socio-environmental implications of sunflower Small and Medium oil processing Enterprises. A mixed methods approach was used to collect data; the methods were interview, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. SPSS was used to analyze the quantitative data whereas content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. The results showed that socio-environmental implications were two-sided, meaning that there were both positive implications like job creation, innovation and infrastructure improvement, and negative implications like water pollution, conflicts, corruption and air pollution. Furthermore, the results indicated that sunflowers SMEs in Singida Municipality have challenges including small capital, poor infrastructure, poor technology, lack of training and development and high electricity charges and solutions for addressing those challenges were also mentioned. This study recommended the enhancement of positive implications and that development stakeholders should devise strategies to provide solution to negative implications and there is a need of promoting Public Private Partnership (PPP), so that the challenges encountered are addressed and the possible solutions are optimized.
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    Challenges and motivational factors of reviving coffee cultivation among smallholder farmers: a case of Hai district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) M, Mathias Erick
    This research investigated the status of coffee cultivation, motivational factors for reviving coffee cultivation and challenges which face smallholder coffee farmers in Hai district, Tanzania. A Cross-sectional research design was employed with a mixed method (quantitative and qualitative). Data was collected from 120 smallholder coffee farmers and 15 key informants from four villages. Household surveys and interviews were used for data collection. Analysis of quantitative data was done descriptively in which frequencies and percentages were measured. Inferential analysis, particularly the binary logistic regression model, was employed to determine the association between the dependent and independent variables. Qualitative data analysis involves a content analysis. The findings depict the state of coffee cultivation based on the following factors: starting year of cultivation, year of reviving, revived acreage, number of seedlings planted, and production in kilograms. The findings also show several motivational factors; availability of hybrid seeds, availability of free land provided by AMCOS, possibility of gap filling, assistance from organizations such as TaCRI and availability of extension services. Furthermore, the results show challenges in reviving coffee cultivation, such as high agricultural input costs, price fluctuations, a lack of manpower, a limited amount of land, and challenges associated with changing weather conditions. The study concludes that other respondents failed to revive coffee cultivation due to the mentioned challenges. Therefore, it is recommended that the government with cooperation with NGOs, TaCRI, and AMCOS should assist smallholder farmers to minimize or completely avoid the existing challenge.
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    Drivers and socio-economic determinants of smallholder farmers’ Sisal productivity: a case of Korogwe District, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Beleko, Azizi H
    The importance of sisal to the communities, nation and globe at large has stimulated the government to introduce various efforts so as to increase both participation by smallholder farmers and their productivity. Such efforts include the government entering into partnerships with various companies to establish a sisal nucleus settlement scheme responsible for developing business plans to set up marketing and processing arrangements for sisal grown by smallholder farmers. However, it is yet to be clearly determined as to which factors determine smallholder farmers’ participation in sisal production as well as socio-economic determinants of smallholder farmers for sisal productivity. The current study aimed at determining the drivers for smallholder farmers’ participation in sisal production as well as socio-economic determinants of smallholder farmers’ sisal productivity in Korogwe District specifically Ngombezi and Mwelya Wards. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design whereby data were collected once from Ngombezi and Mwelya Wards, Korogwe District, Tanzania. The wards (Ngombezi and Mwelya) were purposively selected due to availability of many smallholder sisal producing households. A total of 150 randomly selected households based on registers availed by estate managers in Ngombezi and Mwelya Wards participated in this study. Primary data were collected through questionnaire, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics whereby descriptive and inferential statistics were determined. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic content analysis whereby collected information were summarized based on themes and objectives of the study. Results show that the average farm size allocated to sisal within the district was 8.6 ha while the average households’ sisal yields was 0.62 tons/ha. In addition, Mwelya Ward had higher average households’ sisal yield (0.64 tons/ha) compared to Ngombezi Ward (0.61 tons/ha). Results further show that drivers significantly associated with household’s choice to produce sisal as a first crop were transport mode (P≤0.1), labour amount (P≤0.05) and lastly, financial support (P≤0.1). In addition, the smallholder sisal farmers were faced by some challenges mainly infrastructural challenges (13%), financial constraints (11.3%) and poor farm inputs availability (9.8%). Results further show that factors significantly associated with sisal productivity were size of land allocated to sisal (P≤0.001), crops produced as first choice (P≤0.1) and finally, a household’s main source of income (P≤0.05). In addition, factors determining smallholder farmers’ sisal profitability were sex of the household head (P≤0.1), size of land (P≤0.05) and amount of sisal harvested (P≤0.001). Therefore, the study recommends that smallholder sisal farmers should adopt improved farming techniques and practices that will enable them to improve their productivity. In addition, agricultural and investment banks should consider financing smallholder sisal farmers so as to enable them increase their productivity and this will in turn stimulate an increase in number of smallholder farmers in sisal production.
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    Power relation dynamics among actors in the groundnuts seed value chain: a case of kongwa and kiteto districts, Tanzania
    (SUA, 2021) Gibson, Mulokozi G.
    Groundnut crop production being highly practised in semi-arid areas of Shinyanga, Tabora, Dodoma and Mtwara Regions of Tanzania, has been gradually falling. The trends show that the groundnuts production has fallen from 1.13 million tons in 2015 to less than 1 million tons in 2017. The production of groundnuts like any other crops depends on seed availability while constraints associated with seed availability have altered the overall groundnut crop and its seed value chain performances. The constraints associated with the groundnut seed value chain that contribute to the poor performance of the groundnuts crop are linked with the levels of influence and importance of actors in the groundnut seed value chainhave. As a result of these levels, there are power relational dynamics that the chain actors exert on one another. The study aimed to identify actors in the groundnuts seed value chain, their roles, linkages and relational power dynamics in the chain as a result of the linkages they have. This study was descriptive and adopted a cross-sectional research design as it employed qualitative research methods that included semi-structured interviews with key informants. Focus group discussions were conducted to acquire in- depth information on relations and ties amongst actors that would explain the power actors possess. Data analysis involved identifying the extent of linkages in terms of importance and influence by analyzing the actor to actor two-dimensional linkage matrixes using the UCINET statistical software package integrated with the NETDRAW program. The identification of actors and their roles in the groundnuts seed value chain was done through content analysis while linkage and relational centrality measures were used to explain power relational changes in the chain set-up. All these aimed at determining the strength of relationships and interactions between actors hence explain the power that actors have in the value chain. Qualitative data obtained from semi-structured interviews were subjected to content analysis. The analysis involved breaking, comparing and categorising to identify levels, number of ties, linkages and extent of power in term of influence and importance the identified actors have. Findings show that, there are different actors in the groundnuts seed value chain that are differentiated by jurisdictional levels (i.e. the village and district levels). The prominent actors included Researchers, Traders, Climate Department Officials, Central Government, Agro- dealer, Agro-processors and Consumers. These were found to occupy both village and district levels. On the other hand, Farmers, Extension Officers, NGOs and CBOs, Village leaders and Middlemen were only identified at the village level. Each of these actors had different roles from which they are interconnected to form a network of linkage in two aspects, namely knowledge and income that dictate the extent of linkage among actors in-term of influence and importance. This determined the power they possess through these linkages based on the number of linkages identified among identified actors. In the knowledge aspect, NGOs, CBOs, Local Government, Researchers and Traders were found to have a higher level of influence and importance in both at the district ( Kongwa and Kiteto) and village (Mlali and Moleti) levels while farmers and extension officers were more influential at the village level only. The same actors showed to have a higher level of betweenness with values 100 and 88.89 respectively, compared to other actors. On the income aspect, Organisations (NGOs and CBOs), farmers and the climate department had a relatively higher power in terms of influence at the village level (Moleti and Mlali).The same was depicted by the Local Government and Agro-traders at the district levels (Kongwa and Kiteto). Results showed middlemen and farmers had a higher betweenness value, 9.524 and14.856 respectively compared to other actors. This explained the power to connect other actors in terms of influence and importance in the chain set up. The study concluded that, the existence of power relational changes affects linkages among actors, the performance of the groundnuts seed value chain and it plays a key function in the overall performance of the groundnuts crop. It is therefore recommended that a more emphasis on actors’ inclusion is improved through actors involvement in the chain set up in the innovation platforms. This can go hand in hand with the government boosting linkages through the improvement of strategies and policies.
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    Teachers’ conceptions of competence based curriculum and its implementation challenges in selected secondary schools in Ilala municipality, Dar es - Salaam - Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Saware, Grace M.
    The study aimed at exploring teacher's conceptions of competence-based curriculum (CBC) and the factors influencing its implementation in public secondary schools in Ilala Municipality Dar es Salaam. Specifically study explored teacher's conceptions of competence-based curriculum, assessed teachers' practices, examined teachers’ challenges and identified strategies used by teachers to address the challenges encountered in the implementation of competence-based curriculum. Case study design was employed, where five public secondary schools, namely Msimbazi, Benjamin Mkapa, Zawadi, Magoza, and Kimanga Secondary School were randomly sampled, and 50 teachers were purposively selected and participated in the face-to-face interviews, observations as well as focus group discussion. The collected data were subjected to thematic analysis, which involved transcription, coding, and constant comparison of emerged themes and subthemes. The findings showed that teachers were aware of the competence-based curriculum but had limited understanding of it, and the teachers’ classroom practices involved a mixture of competence and knowledge-based curricula. Furthermore, large and overcrowded classes, language barrier, insufficient number of science teachers and teaching/learning materials, lack of motivation, in-service training, study tour, and adequate physical facilities were major factors limiting implementation of CBC. The strategies to overcome the challenges included skipping some activities not possible in large and overcrowded classes, providing notes to students, opting to teachers centered approach instead, improvising teaching and learning materials and code-switching English and Kiswahili as language of instruction. The study concludes that teachers have limited conception on CBC, and inadequately implement the CBC in secondary schools. The study recommends that improvement of in services teachers training on CBC and provision of required resources for its proper implementation in secondary schools.
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    Timber farming: domestic investors of Tree planting, land transactions and implications on gender relations in southern highlands, Tanzania
    (sokoine university of agriculture, 2021) Lusasi, Justin Edward
    In Africa, land has been more of a liability than an asset. Land use has been an ultimate cause of unrest through borders and boundaries conflicts between nations and communities, a reason for lamentations and grievances of family members within households. The contemporary rush for African land has witnessed both national and wealthy international investors acquiring all types of lands: unused, used, underutilized, occupied, fertile, barren, and irrigable and claimed whichever land, which was deemed fit for investment. Similarly, timber farming in the Southern highlands of Tanzania has attracted attention of both industrial foreign investors and domestic non-industrial investors. Although access to land by the former is controlled by existing laws, transactions of village land by the later are more complex than what the literature on land- grabbing shows. This study focuses on tree planting investments as emerged post global environmental crisis of 2007-2008, especially the involvement of domestic investors in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Following the urbanization growth, the regional demand for construction materials i.e. poles and timbers from Eucalyptus and Pines tree species piled up, exceeding the capacity of supply from Sao Hill plantations, by then the only largest supplier. To cover the deficit, the construction industry resorted to few existing private woodlots. These sold their trees at high prices, which connoted tree planting as a lucrative business. This in turn attracted different people, companies and institutions to purchase land for tree planting. Land is a finite resource. The operating system of land transactions has demarcated a significant change in land holdings among rural communities, with much land going to the hands of few domestic investors leaving smallholders land scarce. Since land has been turned to a commodity with uncontrolled transactions and that domestic investors are unregistered hence unknown and that the implications of rampant transactions of family lands are unknown, the study aimed at characterizing domestic investors of tree planting and their mechanisms of accessing village lands. The study went further analyzing motives for land selling and processes of land transactions between smallholders and domestic investors. Most of the Southern Highlands societies practice the patriarchal system of human relations where women voices and agency are muted. Since land has become a commodity in the family, the study investigated the social relations between parents in families involved in land sales, hence assessed the impacts of land transactions for tree planting on land accessibility by women in selected villages. The study was conducted in selected villages of Kilolo, Mufindi, Njombe, Makete, Songea and Wanging’ombe Districts. In total, fourteen villages namely Isaula, Usokami, Kibengu, Mapanda (Mufindi), Ndengisivili (Kilolo), Lupembe, Itunduma, Kifanya, Iyoka, Ngala (Njombe), Mhaji (Wanging’ombe), Ifinga (Madaba) and Ludihani and Maliwa (Makete) were involved in research work. The selection of villages was purposive with the main criteria being tree planting surge hence transaction of village land between smallholders and domestic investors. The research work is qualitative that aimed at in-depth understanding of the timber rush processes in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Further, the study aimed at exploring perceptions of different groups of people in the study communities on such a tree-planting surge. The study employed a qualitative case study design. Data were collected from 85 respondents. These included in-depth interviews with 11 key informants i.e. 6 Chairpersons of Village Councils and 5 District Forest Officers, semi structured interview with 34 domestic investors, 26 land sellers, 4 middlemen and 10 women. In addition, 4 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with women were conducted. The study identified five major types of domestic investors: urban-based investors without local ties, urban-based investors originating in the area in which the investments are taking place, resident villagers, local leaders and government and religious institutions. Each category uses one of three different access mechanisms, namely capital, social identity, and authority. Apart from capital as their main mechanisms, urban-based investors use middlemen as a mechanism of access. Middlemen bridge the gap of information on villages where land is plenty and specific sellers on one hand, linking them with investors on the other. In general, access to land for domestic investors in Tanzania’s Southern Highlands is facilitated by the state to a lesser extent and with limited use of force. Further, the vast lands in villages, the Mahame lands, are ill defined in statutory land laws. This incapacitates the village land administrator’s control over Mahame, making their management complicated. Land transactions are motivated by several pull and push factors including the growing local capitalism, income poverty, and commodification of lands when smallholders succumb the monetary baits from local elites and other domestic investors. Since they are labour intensive, tree planting activities have generated multiple employment opportunities to locals albeit low paid daily jobs. Tree planting surge has led to crumbling of family lands with appropriation of women’s land ownership and control. Land transactions have perpetuated gender inequality within families, marital stress and symbolic violence, with women being subjugate to men’s whims. The misogynistic practices have downgraded women hence they cannot own land or co-own with their husbands or receive a share of money from land sales in their families. The involved families are rendered landless with dwindling crop production, a dawning indicator of food insecurity and sustained rural poverty. Generally, rampant land transactions are unjustifiable and the current transactions of village lands need to be either controlled or stopped altogether to avoid impending destitute conditions.
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    Climate smart Agricultural practises and Food security: A case of Mbeya and Songwe regions in Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Bongole, Abiud J
    Although Climate Smart Agriculture Practises (CSA-practises) have been promoted and implemented in the Tanzania, but usage of CSA-practises is still low while their impact on food security is not well documented, especially when used in combinations. This study examined the usage of different CSA-practises and their impact on food security among farming households in Mbeya and Songwe Regions in Tanzania with specific objectives to; a) assess the usage and intensity of using multiple CSA-Practises by farming households b) assess the determinants of using combinations of CSA-Practises by farming households c) evaluate the impact of using combination of crop rotation, residue retention and intercropping on food security d) evaluate the impact of using combination of organic manure, irrigation and drought tolerant maize seeds on food security and e) evaluate the impact of climate-smart irrigation practise on food security. Multistage sampling technique was employed in sampling 1443 farming households. A household survey was conducted whereby the primary data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The Household Dietary Diversity Score per Adult Equivalent Unit (HDDS/AEU) and Food Variety Score per Adult Equivalent Unit (FVS/AEU) were used as indicators to measure household food security. To assess the usage of the multiple CSA-practises a multivariate probit model was used while the ordered probit model was used to examine the intensity of using CSA-practises. A multinomial probit model was employed to estimate the factors influencing the use of combinations of CSA-practises (i.e. crop-rotation, crop residue retention and intercropping). To examine the impact of using a combination of CSA-practises (crop rotation, residue retention and intercropping), a multinomial endogenous switching regression model was employed. Furthermore, the study employed a multinomial endogenous treatment effect regression model to evaluated the impact of using organic manure, drought-tolerant maize seeds. and irrigation on food security. Furthermore, endogenous switching regression model was employed to evaluate the impact of using climate smart irrigation on food security. The evaluation methods used in this study are appropriate in the analysis of the control for both observed and unobserved heterogeneity. Other evaluation approaches such as propensity score matching and inversely probability-weighted regression (IPWR) can only control observed heterogeneity which leads to unbiased estimates. The results from multivariate probit (objective one) showed that the use of CSA-practises was positively influenced by gender of the head of the household, farm size, education of the head of household, location, size of the household, occupation, and farmer organizations membership. Moreover, it was found that the use of drought-tolerant maize seeds and crop rotation was positively associated while the use of a residue-retention and crop-rotation in combination, the use of organic manure and crop-rotation, combination of intercropping and residue-retention and the use of intercropping and organic manure were significantly and positively associated at significant level 1 %. This implies that farming households consider these combinations as complements. The study examined the determinants of farm households’ decision to use combinations CSA- practises (objective two) and found that production diversification, gender and livestock ownership were positively and significantly influence the usage of combinations of residue- retention and intercropping. In addition, education level and gender of the head of the household were positively and significantly affect in the usage of combination of crop rotation, crop residue and intercropping This comprehensive study is significant for finer understanding of the synergistic effect of interrelated CSA-practises. The result for objective three found that usage of CSA-practises depends on either it is used in isolation or in combinations, and the usage of these CSA-practises significantly increase food variety score per adult equivalent unit when used either singly or jointly. Furthermore, the use of intercropping in isolation show the highest food variety scores per adult equivalent unit among all the possible combinations of CSA-practises. Moreover, the use of crop rotation in isolation also showed a high pay off after intercropping followed by a joint combination of crop rotation and residue retention. Thus, the usage of a combination of crop rotation, intercropping and crop residue retention was found to be the best food security portfolio. Results from objective four found that the characteristics of the household, plot characteristics and institutional characteristics (e.g access to extension services) influences the usage of a different combination of CSA-practises. The study also found that the highest payoff of food security could be achieved when CSA-practises are used in combination than in isolation. The combination of drought-tolerant maize seeds and irrigation gave higher payoff than the combination of all three CSA-practises. Finally, the findings from objective five showed that radio ownership, education of the household head, farm experience, production diversity and livestock ownership were the determinants of using irrigation in the study area. The average treatment effect of the treated (ATT) and the average treatment effect of untreated (ATU) were positive and highly significant for irrigators and non-irrigators. That is, the use of irrigation as a CSA-practise has improved food security of the farming households. It is recommended that, inorder in order to enhance the usage of CSA-practise, policy makers and local government authorities should target equipping extension workers and other agricultural practitionners with adequate items of infrastructure that enable their easy movement to the farmers. In addition, more more extension agents should be trained and deployed in the country to reduce the workload of the limited number of extension officers available inoder to improve agricultural productivity and food security The study calls for policy makers on policies and plans that promote CSA-practises as a combination, including other interrelated practises which upscaling CSA-practises usage. Furthermore, there is a need to promote the usage of CSA-practise in isolation or in combination. In addition, the study suggests that based on the practises considered in this study, usage of a combination of various practises results in better food security compared to the usage of these practises individually. This suggests that agricultural practitioners should promote combinations of CSA-practises to improve food security in the farming households. It is recommended that policymakers should consider rehabilitating the existing irrigation schemes while constructing new irrigation schemes to widen the impacts of irrigation to household food security. However, despite the positive impact of irrigation, it is recommended that other irrigation practises such as drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation should be used in the areas where construction of small-scale irrigation is not possible.
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    Contribution of non-governmental organizations in promoting girls’ education in secondary schools in Morogoro District council, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2019) Chengula, M. S.
    The gap between girls and boys in education still exists in Tanzania despite the sustained efforts made by the Government and NGOs. Due to this, several studies on NGOs and girls education were conducted and revealed different supports and activities done by NGOs to solve the problem. But the question on how the NGOs’ support and activities have contributed to girls’ education is not yet answered. Therefore, a cross sectional study was conducted to assess the contribution of NGOs a case of CAMFED in promoting girls’ education in secondary schools. Specifically, the study aimed to examine the support provided by CAMFED in promoting girls’ education among secondary school students, to determine the contribution of CAMFED support to girls’ access to education and to examine challenges encountered by CAMFED in promoting girls’ education in the study area. A total of 108 respondents were involved in the study. Data were collected through questionnaires, in depth interviews, observation and documentary review. The findings indicate that CAMFED offered learning materials, hostel fees, sanitary protection, uniforms, school contributions, school fees, bicycles, solar lamp and pocket money in supporting girl students. The support contributed to the increased number of the girls who were enrolled in secondary schools and in lowering their dropout rates. Despite the positive contribution in enrollment and dropout the study shows a non-positive change in academic performance of girls in the surveyed schools. However, it was noted during the study that CAMFED face nepotism challenges, misuse of funds, lack of cooperation from parents, inadequate financial resources to attend all students in need and lack of commitment among the beneficiaries of the programme. The study suggests to the Government, NGOs, TASAF, institutions and other stakeholders to complement CAMFED’s efforts by bringing in other services such as building hostels, motivational and counseling seminars to students and improving teaching environment in schools.
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    Contribution of free primary education to rural livelihood in Mvomero District, Morogoro
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2019) Habibu, Jumanne Ally
    After the implementation of free education policy in Tanzania studies to examine its impact were conducted. From these studies, however, have scarcely looked into the contribution of free primary education to rural livelihood in Mvomero District. This study sought to assess the contribution of free primary education to rural livelihood in Mvomero District. The study was guided by three objectives which were to examine the extent to which free primary education is free, to assess rural parent`s perceptions of relief from financial burden following the abolition of fee and other mandatory contributions and to determine contribution of the free primary education to rural livelihood in Mvomero District. The study used a sample of 100 respondents. Interviews, Focus-group Discussions and document review were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics and paired samples t-test were used during data analysis. Key findings showed that 80% of the parents claimed that primary education is free education as tuition fee and mandatory contributions have been removed. Furthermore, the findings show that 88% of the parents felt relieved from financial burden associated with tuition fee, extra studies, building contribution, electricity, registration and watchman. Unfortunately the findings did not indicate that parents had relief of burden on the cost of food and water. Likewise the findings revealed that livelihood of parents were improved in reducing conflicts among parents (Mother and Father), good relationship between teachers and parents. Based on these results, it is concluded that, free primary education has remarkable contribution to rural livelihood in Tanzania. The study however recommends that free primary educations should be promoted, restructured and improved to fulfill society livelihood.
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    Factors influencing community participation in donor funded projects: experiences from padep community projects in Morogoro District, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2019) Samata, M. M.
    Community participation in implementation and development projects has become a topical agenda. Morogoro District is one among the districts in Tanzania where Participatory Agricultural Development and Empowerment Projects implemented. The main objective of the study was to assess the factors influencing community participation in PADEP community projects. Specifically, the study sought to: determine the level of the community’s participation in PADEP community projects, examine the community’s attitude towards PADEP community projects and determine the overall impacts of PADEP community projects to the community. Across-sectional research design adopted for undertaking the study. A multi-stage sampling was employed whereas purposeful sampling technique used to select four villages i.e. Kiziwa, Mtombozi, Tulo and Kongwa, followed by proportional sampling to get households from each village, and random sampling method to obtain a sample size of 138 households. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect primary data by administering questionnaires, undertaking focus group discussions and key informants’ interview. Quantitative data were analyzed by the statistical package for social sciences, and qualitative data were analyzed by using content analysis. The study findings revealed that the level of participation in PADEP community projects was relatively low especially in project identification and designing stages. Nevertheless, about 93.5% of respondents had positive attitudes towards PADEP projects because of associated benefits, including rise of household income. Study results, also indicated that implemented PADEP community projects made some impacts to households’ livelihood, include assets ownership, income as well as food security improvement. Furthermore, some independent variables had statistical significant influence on community participation, including respondent’s previous experience in projects participation (p≤0.05), household size, household income per year before the project (p≤0.1), level of satisfaction (p≤0.01), awareness / information (p≤0.1) and existence of village rules and regulation on participation (p≤0.05). In conclusion, there is positive and strong relationship between previous experience and community participation; household income and community participation; awareness and community participation. Considering the importance of community participation, study suggests that all obstacles including project’s experience, awareness and household income which hinder community participation should be well addressed by the project implementers for the success and sustainability of the projects.