Theses and Dissertations Collection

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    The effect of local cassava processing methods on nutritional and sensory attributes of cassava flour: a case study of Newala district
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2007) Majaliwa, Nuria
    A study was carried out in Newala District to investigate the effect of different local cassava processing methods on cyanogenic glucosides level, nutrient retention and colour of cassava flour. Specifically the study was aimed at identifying different local cassava processing methods, examining the effect of local processing methods on residual cyanogenic glucosides in the cassava flours, examining the effect of local processing methods on nutrient retention and color of cassava flour and study the cassava processing and production constraints in the study area. In each study site, information was obtained by focus group discussion, structured questionnaire from 40 households in each village. Samples were collected for laboratory analysis. Results showed high total residual cyanogen levels of about (790 ± 107 mg HCN equivalent/Kg dry weight) and (263 ± 71 mg HCN equivalent/Kg dry weight) in flour obtained from both small-size and large-size niakopa respectively. Cyanohydrin levels were higher (39 ± 5 mg HCN equivalent/Kg dry weight) in Chinyanya compared to levels of about (7 ± 2 mg HCN equivalent/Kg dry weight) in the flour from large size makopa. Chinyanya showed to contain (75 g/1OOg, starch, 1.3 g/1OOg protein, 32.8 g/1OOg vitamin C, 18.7 g/1OOg moisture and 13.22 pH, Makopa showed to contain 80.0 g/1OOg starch, 2.72 g/1OOg protein, 24.52 g/1OOg vitamin C, 12.5 g/1OOg moisture, at pH 10.28 where as fermented root showed to contain 65.2 g/1OOg starch, 0.75 g/1OOg protein, 15.4 g/1OOg vitamin C, 13.7 g/1OOg moisture, pH 5.25). These findings confirmed that direct sun-drying of cassava roots is an ineffective method for removal of cyanogenic glucosides as it yields products with relatively high residual levels of cyanogenic glucosides while fermentation of cassava root is an effective method in removal of total glucosides. Apart from colour preference, this study concluded that although wet fermentation showed high nutrient loss, from the health point of view it is an effective way of reducing cynogenic glucosides level from cassava root, which are dangerous for human health.
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    Processing of cassava, residual cyanogens and mycotoxin content in traditionally processed cassava products
    (The University of Reading, 1998-04) Muzanila, Yasinta C.
    Cassava samples from some villages in Tanzania processed by wet fermentation, solid state fermentation and sun drying were analysed for residual cyanogens and presence of mycotoxins. Cassava samples (bitter varieties) processed by wet and solid- concluded that wet fermentation is very effective in reducing cyanogens in cassava. No mycotoxins (aflatoxins ) were detected in cassava samples. The chemical composition of these cassava samples was also determined. Wet fermentation showed lower content of vitamin C, reducing sugars and protein compared to samples processed by solid state fermentation and sun drying. In another experiment, cassava flakes were produced on a drum drier using varying pre cooking temperatures and drum speeds. Pre-cooking conditions were: no pre-cooking, pre-cooking at 75°C for 35 minutes and 100°C for 5 minutes. The drum speeds used were 11.5 and 14.0 r.p.m. which correspond to 4.0 and 3.4 seconds drying time respectively. The flakes were analysed for vitamin C, moisture, free starch, reducing sugars and protein content. Pre-cooking conditions affected vitamin C, moisture and free starch content while Hmm speed affected only the moisture content of the flakes. Prolonged pre-cooking time caused losses in vitamin C while pre-cooking at the higher temperature increased free starch content of the flakes. The moisture content increased with increasing drum speed. The soluble amylose test showed that starch retrogradation occurs when cassava is cooled after the pre-cooking stage. The textural characteristics of reconstituted mash from the flakes was analysed using the Texture Analyser, after adding emulsifiers (stearate monoglyceride, sodium caseinate and skim milk powder). Results from Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) (adhesiveness), tests showed that stearate monoglyceride Back extrusion and sensory evaluation emulsifier reduces the stickiness of reconstituted cassava flakes mash. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) thermograms indicated the formation of an amylose monoglyceride complex. Cassava samples with stearate monoglyceride had low water absorption capacity and high bulk density. Also sample with stearate monoglyceride had low viscosity according to the results from the Brabender amylograph tests. Samples of cassava flakes and reconstituted mash with skim milk powder and sodium caseinate were darker in colour compared to those with stearate monoglyceride according to the results from both instrumental (Hunter Lab spectrophotometer) and sensory tests.
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    Soybean cultivars milk yield and relative acceptability of their flavoured soy-milk
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2008) Msasalaga, Lazaro Henry
    The objectives of this work were to study soybean cultivars milk yield and the acceptability of their flavoured soymilk. Whole soybeans varieties (TGX 1895-49F, TGX 1876-4E and TGX 1895-33F) were analysed for proximate composition, selected micronutrients and milk yield. The whole soybeans protein contents, with iron contents in brackets, for TGX 1895-33F, TGX 1876-4E and TGX 1895-49F were 43.998% (6.953 mg/100 g), 37.015% (19.670 mg/100 g) and 33.825% (10.580 mg/100 g) on dry matter basis respectively. Similarly the milk from the three varieties was analysed for proximate composition and selected micronutrients including P-carotene. The respective percentage milk yield for varieties TGX 1895-33F, TGX 1895-49F and TGX 1895-4E were 66.516, 66.063 and 56.122. These were found to be significantly different. The soymilk protein contents, with iron contents in brackets, for TGX 1895-33F, TGX 1876-4E and TGX 1895- 49F were 4.499%w/v (9.569±1.868 g/100 g), 3.516%w/v (4.755±0.147 mg/100 g) and 4.271%w/v (4.072±0.057 mg/100 g) respectively. These together with moisture, oil, fibre, carbohydrates, ash and P-carotene were found to be significantly different. It was observed that the variety that contained the highest amount of protein had the highest iron and P-carotene. There was no significant difference among samples in calcium, zinc and copper content. Energy content for each of the three varieties was calculated. The milk yield, proximate and micronutrient data were ranked using Excel software to identify two suitable cultivars for efficient production of soymilk. The primary, secondary and tertiary selection criteria were milk yield, protein content and iron content respectively. After ranking, the milk from the two varieties (TGX 1895-33F and TGX 1895-49F) was fortified with three flavouring agents (vanilla, banana and pineapple) each at three levels i.e. 0, 0.015% and 0.030% with the 0 level serving as a control. Fortified products were assessed for colour, taste, aroma, mouth feel and overall acceptability on a 5 point hedonic scale. Sensory evaluation results showed that of the three artificial flavours, pineapple flavour was the most effective compared with vanilla and banana flavour. The effectiveness was found significant (p<0.05) on the aroma and overall acceptability of soymilk with scores increasing with increasing level. Effectiveness was non significant (p>0.05) for colour, taste, and mouth feel. However, general comments were made by most panellists on the addition of sugar to improve taste. It was concluded in this study that TGX 1895-33F is the most effective cultivar for efficient production of soymilk and pineapple flavour being the most acceptable flavouring agent for soymilk.
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    The role of social capital in coping with household food insecurity in urban areas of Tanzania: the case of Dar es Salaam and Morogoro municipality
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2003) Sango, Danford
    This study was conducted to investigate the role played by social capital in coping with household food insecurity in urban areas of Tanzania. The study entailed surveys conducted in Dar es salaam city and Morogoro municipality. Specifically the study had four objectives namely (a) to identify the various coping options related to social capital that are commonly adopted by households in the study area to contend with food insecurity (b) to determine the characteristics of social capital arrangements which are relevant to household food security (c) to determine the extent to which social capital reduces household food insecurity vulnerability and (d) to determine the effects of household stock of social capital on household income. The study is based on a survey of 180 households. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used to select respondents across all income levels in the study area. The data were coded and analysed with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer programme. Data analysis entailed a number of descriptive statistics including frequencies, cross tabulations and chi-square tests. However, regression analysis was the major parametric test employed. The regression analysis made use of, first, a multiple linear regression model aimed at testing the effect of social capital on household income and, second, a logistic regression model which tested the effect of social capital on household food vulnerability. Results revealed that the major food insecurity coping strategies based on social capital commonly adopted by urban households were food purchase on credit, borrowing of money, food offers, reliance on informal credit, money offers, labour sales and exchange of assets for food. The study has also revealed that social capital significantly increases household income in the study area (p<0.05) but did not significantly reduce household food insecurity vulnerability (p>0.05). In addition, some characteristics of the identified social capital based coping strategies were uncovered. Whereas food purchase on credit was a characteristic of the poor and food vulnerable households, borrowing of money was practised by both low and medium income households. On the other hand, lack of social capital was not a major factor restricting low income households from accessing food on credit or getting money offers. Borrowing of money was common among close friends and neighbours while, food and money offers mainly took place between non-blood and blood relatives, respectively. In view of the findings from this study, a number of policy implications are recommended. Development policies ought to advance and nurture social capital strategies commonly used by society in coping with food insecurity. It is also clearly apparent that there is a need for prioritising and clearly targeting beneficiaries of food assistance aimed at reducing food insecurity vulnerability in urban areas. Overall the study strongly alerts on the fact that incomes of urban households are significantly low rendering food items unaffordable.
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    Nutritional status and socio-economic problems of adolescent pregnant girls: A case study of Morogoro, Coast and Dar es salaam regions
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2002) Shirima, Candida Philip
    Adolescence is a distinct and dynamic phase of development and considered to be the period between 10 and 19 years of age. It marks the onset of puberty. In some communities, it means the girl child is ready to engage in marital affairs and bear children. This dissertation presents the results of a study conducted in Temeke, Kibaha and Morogoro districts to examine the socio-economic factors and nutritional problems of adolescent pregnant girls. Specifically, the study examined prevalence of adolescent pregnancies, factors contributing to early pregnancies, problems faced by pregnant adolescent girls, pre-pregnancy nutritional status, nutritional status during pregnancy and pregnancy outcome. Primary data were collected from 180 pregnant adolescent girls and 600 non-pregnant adolescent girls. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric and biochemical methods. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was employed to analyse the data. Prevalence of adolescent pregnancy was found to be 21.5% for Temeke district, 19.5% in Kibaha district and 17.7% in Morogoro district. Factors identified to contribute to early pregnancy are: traditions and culture of initiation rites, lack of knowledge on family planning, fear of side effects associated with family planning methods and economic hardship among adolescent girls. It was further observed that adolescent girls encounter many problems such as unplanned pregnancies and marriages, dropout from school, late detection of pregnancy, late antenatal visit to detect any abnormalities, rejection by their partners after conception, and economic dependence.
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    Nutrient content of the popular dishes consumed by children below five years of age in banana growing communities: a case study of Bukoba Rural District, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2014) Godson, Namsifu
    The study was carried out to identify popular dishes that arc given to children below five years of age in Bukoba Rural District. Cooking methods, ingredients used and percentage contribution of RDA to vitamin A and iron from the three popular dishes were assessed. The results showed that katogo (banana, beans and sardines), (stiff porridge, beans, and stewed sardines) and cassava with beans and sometimes sardines were the three popular dishes that were given to children below five years of age. The common cooking method used was boiling; others which were used rarely were steaming and frying the sardines with very little oil. The dishes were prepared as observed in the households during the survey. The nutrient content from the popular dishes were analysed and calculated using the HPLC and Microsoft Excel (2007) respectively. The proportion of the RDA for vitamin A and iron was calculated based on the RDA for vitamin A and iron which was 400 RAE and 10 mg respectively. The result on the proportion to the RDA showed that, for vitamin A, katogo dish with the average consumption size of 837.5 g had (43.68 RAE) and (77.81%) RDA of vitamin A, was the one with highest amounts (p<0.05) than the others. The component that had high and significant amount (p<0.05) of vitamin A was plain boiled banana (nshakala) with 78.57 RAE and 139.94% RDA of vitamin A with the average consumption size of 712.5 g. For iron the mixture of stiff porridge, beans and stewed sardines dish had 22.89 mg/100 g and 114.2% RDA. Katogo had 106.11% RDA of iron and showed no statistical significant difference (p<0.05) with that of a mixture of stiff porridge, beans and sardines. Steamed sardines with 28.31 mg/100 g and 53.08% of RDA of iron was the component with highest amount followed by stewed sardines with (25.38 mg/100 g) and (47.59%) contribution to the RDA.
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    Comparative study of nutritional status of communities engaged in different livelihood systems in Bagamoyo district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2010) Musongwe, Toligwe Kaisi
    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bagamoyo district to compare the nutritional status of communities engaged in three livelihood systems namely fishing, pastoralism and farming found in three villages of Mlingotini, Chamakweza and Kiwangwa. Anthropometric and haemoglobin level assessments were conducted on 794 individuals from 133 households. The findings show that malnutrition (wasting, stunting and underweight) in underfive children were not significantly different in the three livelihood systems. The prevalence of low BMI-for-age in school-age children was higher in the pastoralist livelihood (31.2%) and lower in farming livelihood (15.6%). Further analysis showed significant difference in BMI-for-age whereby the pastoralist boys and girls had higher rate of low BMI-for-age and lower mean scores. Malnutrition rate in adults was highest in fishing livelihood (37.9%) and was lowest in pastoralist livelihood (27.1.7%). The total overnutrition (overweight and obesity) was higher among adult females in farming and undernutrition was higher among pastoralist females. Prevalence of anaemia was significantly higher among underfives and children of 5-11 years old in pastoralists and lower among farming children. The study recommends for intervention programmes that will focus on eliminating the factors that impact on people’s nutrition outcome such as structural or underlying factors of the people livelihood systems and vulnerability to those particular factors (shocks).
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    Nutritional quality of low-cost supplementary foods for supporting growth and rehabilitation of undernourished populations in Tanzania
    (Michigan State University, 2004) Mosha, Theobald Conrard Edward
    Severe undemutrition during childhood remains a common health problem in many parts of the world and contributes immensely to childhood morbidity and mortality. According to WHO/UNICEF, producing low-cost, ready-to-feed, nutritious foods from locally produced ingredients by using low-to-medium level technologies in local settings can considerably help mitigate child undemutriton through increased access to food. The aim of this study was to formulate, process, and evaluate the quality of processed, ready-to- feed bean-based composite supplementary foods for pre-school age children in low- income populations in Tanzania. Supplementary foods based on cereal-bean-sardine mixtures were formulated from ingredients produced locally in Tanzania. The products were formulated to maximize the amino acid score as recommended by the FAO/WHO/UNU for pre-school age children and to provide the desired amount of energy and fat as stated by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius guidelines (CAC/GL 08-1991) for supplementary foods for older infants and young children. Red beans {Phaseolus vulgaris), com/maize {Zea mays), rice {Oryza sativa), sardines {Sardinops melanosticta) and red palm oil {Elaeis guineensis) were formulated into single/multi-mix diets and processed into ready-to-feed powders by extrusion, drum-processing and conventional cooking. The processed products were evaluated for true protein digestibility, net protein retention ratio, protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), amino acid profile, residual phytohemagglutinins, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and a-amylase inhibitors. Foods were also evaluated for potential to support normal growth and for rehabilitation of undernourished children using a weanling rat model. Furthermore, the products were evaluated for storage stability at 38°C. The studies showed that com-bean-sardine, sorghum-bean-sardine and rice-bean sardine products had superior nutritional value compared to individual cereals or cereal + bean blends. The composite products had high true protein digestibility, ranging from 82 - 93%, high ratio of net protein retention ranging from 0.86 - 0.92 and PDCAAS ranging from 77 - 89%. The composite products also showed a good potential to support growth and rehabilitation of undernourished animals. Extrusion and drum-processing thoroughly cooked the foods as characterized by high gelatinization rate (95 - 100%) and low residual urease activity levels (< 0.05 units per 100 g food). They were also effective in inactivating the phytohemagglutinins (91 - 97%) and the anti-nutritional factors - trypsin, chymotrypsin and a-amylase inhibitors. Extrusion and drum-processing also resulted in products that had high protein digestibility and PDCAAS. During storage at 38°C, the food pH and total acids did not change significantly (p > 0.05). The products were shelf­ stable for at least 16 weeks.
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    Nutritional evaluation of sorghum as affected by germination with main reference to dietary bulk and protein quality
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 1984) Mosha, Alexander Clemence
    The nutritional value of sorghum as affected by germination and different dehulling techniques was studied with emphasis on protein quality, dietary bulk and food intake. Two low-tannin and two high-tannin varieties were investigated. Nutrient content was affected by germination: minor changes occurred in proximate composition, except for a significant decrease in oil in all varieties. Thiamine, riboflavin and niacin content increased. Lysine increased in all varieties and the other essential amino acids in­ creased marginally. Dietary fibre was unaffected. Tannin content decreased significantly. Traditional and abrasive dehulling decreased the amount of protein, oil, dietary fibre, minerals, tannins and phytic-phosphorous. protein digestibility was Nutrient availability measured in vitro: significantly higher in the low-tannin varieties. Germination and dehulling increased digestibility in all varieties. Cooking reduced protein digestibility in the high-tannin varieties and significantly more than in the low-tannin cultivars. Iron availability was low in all varieties and increased only in one high-tannin variety after germination. Nutrient availability measured in vivo by rat-bio-assay: protein digestibility was high in low-tannin cultivars but low in high-tannin varieties. Germination increased digestibility only in one high-tannin variety. Biological values were higher in the high-tannin varieties. BV and NPU were not affected by germination. In vivo iron availability was higher in the low-tannin varieties and was increased by germination in only one of the high-tannin varieties. Zinc availability was low and was unaffected by germination and tannin content. Dietary bulk and food intake: When preparing weaning gruels, three times as much germinated flour of the low-tannin varieties, as compared to ungerminated, could be mixed into the same volume, while maintaining the same consistency of the gruel. Germinated flour of high-tannin varieties did not have this effect. Addition of 5% germinated low-tannin sorghum flour (enzyme-rich) to thick ungerminated gruels reduced the viscosity to acceptable weaning food consistency. This method of reducing dietary bulk of weaning food was accepted and used by mothers at village level. Food intake by 12-48 months old preschool children was significantly higher for bulk-reduced low viscosity gruel with 20% solids, compared to untreated gruel. It was concluded that sorghum nutrient content is comparable to other cereals except for the high tannin content. Germination generally improves nutritional value through increased lysine, better protein digestibility and reduction of anti nutritional factors, mainly tannins. The use of bulk-reduced high nutrient density weaning foods could eventually improve the nutritional status of young children.
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    Effect of moringa oleifera leaf meal inclusion in cassava chip based diets fed to poultry
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2009) Olugbemi, Taiye Sunday
    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) as a feed ingredient in cassava chip (CC) based diets fed to broilers and layers. The broiler experiments consisted of a feeding trial, digestibility trial, carcass analysis, haematological evaluation and sensory evaluation. Seven treatments (T) comprising of a control diet (Tl), T2. T3, T4 (20% C with 0%, 5%, 10% MOLM) and T5. T6. T7 (30% C with 0%. 5%. 10% MOLM) were fed to 378 broiler chicks. A reduction in performance was observed with increasing inclusion level of MOLM beyond 5%. Birds on T3 did not differ significantly (P>0.05) in terms of weight gain (46.20 - 49.56g/day), feed conversion ratio (2.57 - 2.84), final body weight (2365- 2569g), feed intake (127.9 - 130.4g) and feed cost per kilogram weight gain (501.4 - 555.0 TSH) from those on Tl, T2 and T5 diets. Digestibility results had to be discarded due to their unreliability. Dietary treatments significantly (P<0.05) affected live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and bone percentages though T3 did not differ (P>0.05) from Tl, T2 and T5. Lean, heart, liver and gizzard percentages differed insignificantly (P>0.05). Haematological parameters were generally not influenced (P>0.05) by treatment except for white blood cells. Addition of MOLM improved meat acceptability. The layer experiments consisted of 80 birds randomly assigned to four diets consisting of a control (TL1) diet containing neither CC nor MOLM and MOLM at 0%, 5% and 10% in combination with 20% C (TL2, TL3, TL4). Feed intake, feed conversion ratio, albumen and yolk percentage were not significantly (P>0.05) influenced by the inclusion of MOLM. The highest (P<0.05) egg weight and Roche colour score were obtained from non control groups with 63.31g from TL3 and 7.79 from TL4 respectively. Feed cost per kilogram (190.6-214.8TSH) and feed cost per kilogram egg (536.3-588.7TSH) significantly declined (P<0.05) with inclusion of MOLM. Addition of 10% MOLM in combination with 20% CC resulted in a 21.96% and 12.06% decline in scrum and yolk cholesterol levels respectively. General acceptability of the cooked eggs was highest from TL4 group. Results of these investigations indicate that broilers and layers can be safely fed MOLM up to levels of 5% and 10% respectively in cassava based diets without deleterious effects. provided CC docs not exceed 20%. Cassava in the form of chips is a good form of poultry feeding and the inclusion of MOLM enhances both meat and egg products by producing carcasses with reduced abdominal fat, improving meat acceptability and egg qualities due to its enhanced yolk colour, reduced cholesterol and cost of producing eggs.
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    Genetic interaction between phaseolus vulgaris and bean common mosaic virus with implications for strain identification and breeding for resistance
    (Wageningen, 1978) Drijfliout, E.
    DRIJFHOUT, 嚣 TEic Mus with implications for strain identi^-aHon^nd^breeding for resistance. RepJVerllJandbouwk. Onderz.) 872. ISBN 90 220 0671 9. (vii) + 98 p.. summaries. 仙*撷 , 2 加*4两加卅 、 Aho: Doctoral thesis, 'Vageningen^ } Various strains of bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) occur in susceptible cultivars of bean. To compare compare these strains, a standard procedure for identification ;ind a set of dif- bean. To ferentiM cultivars were established. The differentials are representatives of 11 resistance Roups'determined groups, < ---------- --- by testing - of about 450 lx?an cultivars with 8 to 10 strains. The virus strains and isolates were classified into 10 pathogenicity groups and subgroups, so that 10 strains were distinguished and the others considered as isolates of those strains. Twelve differentials were intercrossed and their F, and tested with most of the strains for genetical analysis of resistance in bean. Seven genes were distinguished: a necrosis gene /, already known from the literature. 5 strain-specific resistance guncs be』, be」,bc・2, bc-22 and bc・3, and a strain-unspccific gene be*, complementary to the strain-specific ones. Genes hc-1 and he-12 were allelic, as were bc・2 and bc・2:. The 5 loci segregated independently or nearly so. The 4 strain-specific genes bc・l to hc-22 had a gcnc-for-gcnc relationship with 4 pathogenicity genes, likely to be present in the virus strains. Gene bc-3 had not been overcome by a corresponding pathogenicity gene. Two bean genotypes were developed with resistance to all known strains. Some implica­ tions for resistance breeding arc discussed. Free descriptors: Phaseolus vulgaris, common bean, bean common mosaic virus. BCM V, breeding for resistance, genetics of resistance, iiost 一 virus relationship, pathogenic varimion, screening for resistance, strain identification. This thesis will also be published as Agricultural Research Reports 872. ® Sc 血 Agricultural Publishing and Documentation ,Wageningen, 1978. No Part of this book may be r:r._. rint, micro- reproduced and/or published in any form, by print, photop film or any other means without wri -• written permission from the publishers.
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    Assessment of processing methods, sensory attributes, nutritional quality and safety of cassava leaves product (Isombe) in Rwanda
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2014) Umuhozariho, Marie Goretti
    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Cranz) leaves are cherished as a vegetable in Africa, but contain a toxic compound, cyanide. Studies were conducted to assess utilization, cyanide and nutritional value of cassava leaves after different preparation procedures in Rwanda. After a survey, leaves from bitter, sweet and wild cassava were: (1) pounded and cooked, (2) dried, pounded and cooked, and (3) pounded, dried and cooked. Drying was done to brittleness in a solar dryer after leaves were blanched. Sensory evaluation was done using a five point hedonic scale, where 5= like very much, 4= like moderately, 3= neither like nor dislike, 2= dislike moderately and 1= dislike very much. Cyanogens, vitamin C, P- carotene, crude protein, iron, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc and moisture content (dry weight basis) were determined in: (i) un-dried, (ii) dried, (iii) un-dried and cooked, and (iv) dried and cooked. Tire chemicals of dry stored samples were also monitored after three, six, nine and twelve months. Results showed that cassava leaves from the three species were consumed as food and sun-drying was a single method used by fanners to extend the storage life. Colour, taste, aroma, texture and overall acceptability were principally affected by processing procedures. Fresh and dry leaves were preferred as vegetable except when they were pounded after drying. After boiling for 30 minutes. cyanide level (40 mg HCN/kg) was above FAO/WHO recommendation (10 mg HCN equivalent/kg) in the relish, but was judged as safe for the fact that it is served in small quantities as side food, reducing the HCN by serving to minor levels in comparison to documented acute oral lethal dose of HCN for an adult (30-210 HCN/60 kg bodyweight). Except vitamin C, amounts of P-carotene, iron, calcium, phosphorus, potassium and zinc were considerable, averaging 340, 153,4264, 3531, 8426 and 54 mg/kg, respectively, and protein (34%) was high and valuable for cyanide human body detoxification. Stored, moisture increased significantly by 6.8% and shelf life was estimated at six months in water, air and light proof material. Further studies in Rwanda on cassava cyanide disorders and approximate safe quantities of cassava leaves relish are recommended.
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    Maternal nutritional knowledge, child feeding practices, and nutrition status in Njombe and Geita Tanzania - ethnicity perspective
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2022) Berenge, Hassan Tearish
    Stunting is still one of the major public health issues affecting developing countries, including Tanzania. Despite the effort to achieve child health, more than half of children aged less than five years were stunted. Njombe and Geita are among the regions with a higher prevalence of child stunting in Tanzania. Stunting arises as a result of the cumulative effects of suboptimal Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices (IYCF) practices; poor maternal nutrition knowledge; and poor maternal and child health conditions. There is little information on whether perception of ethnicity had an effect on executing IYCF and maternal knowledge purposely to improve child nutrition status. This study assessed maternal nutritional knowledge, IYCF feeding practices, child nutrition status, and the respective roles of nutrition interventions in regions with high rates of stunting and different ethnicities (Geita and Njombe), Tanzania. A cross-section study was conducted on a sample of 150 mother-child pairs that were randomly selected within regions of high stunting rates (Njombe and Geita) in Tanzania. This study was piloted in the first quarter of 2020. A structured questionnaire was used for collecting socio-demographic, feeding practices, and anthropometric data. Individual dietary diversity scores were from 24-hourse recall; birth date was calculated from the child's growth card; and standard anthropometric procedures were used to obtain child height and weight. Major ethnic groups from each district were merged to satisfy the statistical power. The ENA for SMART software was used for HAZ, WAZ, and WHZ, and then entered into IBM SPPS Statistics 21 for further analysis. Descriptive and logistic regression models were used to summarize data and explore causes and factors (socio-demographic features and IYCF practice indicators) of child stunting. In the Njombe and Bukombe districts, both had optimal IYCF practicesiii whereby 46.9% of infants-initiated breast milk within 1 hour after birth; minimum dietary diversity was 11.6%; and only 9.1% of children in Geita had a minimum acceptable diet. Also, the availability of nutrition interventions and their readiness to improve services had a statistically significant effect on optimal IYCF practices and child nutrition status (p = 0.014 and 0.048) respectively. About 90.5% of adolescent mothers (15–20 years) had poor nutrition knowledge (p = 0.005). In general, major ethnic groups in the Njombe district had the highest rate of increased stunting compared to major ethnic groups in Bukombe district (53.8% vs. 37.6%; p = 0.5). Infants aged 0–11.9 months were more stunted than other age groups. The stunting rate of male infants in Njombe district was relatively higher (68%) than female infants (45%). The major ethnic group in Njombe had a mean HAZ of (-1.85) while (-0.91) in the major ethnic group in the Bukombe district. Since the findings showed there was suboptimal IYCF practice and poor maternal nutritional knowledge as determinant factors for child stunting, this highlights the need for initiating and enlarging multicomponent nutrition interventions with vital components for improving nutrition status based on ethnicity perspective. Keywords: Malnutrition, Stunting, Maternal nutrition knowledge, Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices, and Nutrition intervention.
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    Factors influencing micronutrient status in school children and role of indigenous vegetables for improving micronutrient intake in rural Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2022) Gowele, V. F.
    Introduction: Deficiencies of iron, zinc and vitamin A in the body continue to affect the health and wellbeing of women and children in Tanzania; consequently, leading to retarded growth during childhood and poor cognitive development, hence, reduced learning capacity and poor school attendance. Moreover, micronutrient deficiencies lower immunity; therefore, reduce ability of the body to fight infections, making children highly susceptible to infections. Factors that contribute to micronutrient deficiencies include inadequate consumption of diverse foods, high prevalence of infectious diseases and inefficient utilization of micronutrients in the body due to persistent inflammations and heavy parasitic infestations. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency and associated factors among school children living in rural households of Kilosa and Chamwino districts in Tanzania. The study determined the concentration of haemoglobin in the blood and status of micronutrients iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin E and carotenoids in the serum. The anthropometric measurements of the school children were also assessed to establish their nutritional status. Furthermore, the nutrient intake of school children and the micronutrient composition of selected indigenous leafy vegetables (ILVs) commonly consumed in study areas were also determined to provide data to guide their consumption. Methods: This study used a follow-up design in which two sequential cross sectional surveys were conducted. The baseline survey was conducted in July-August 2016 to assess the nutritional and micronutrient status of the school children prior to the implementation of an integrated home gardening intervention which started in July 2017- May 2018. The second or endline survey was conducted in July-August 2018 one year after the implementation of an integrated home gardening intervention. The study population included school children of age between five and ten years, who were enrolled to the study together with their mothers or caregivers. The sample size at baseline was 666 child mother or caregiver pairs obtained through a simple random sampling technique. The study areas were purposively selected based on the Scale-N project criteria; this included Dodoma region, where Chamwino district was selected and was represented by Mzula and Chinoje villages; for Morogoro region, Kilosa district was selected and was represented by Tindiga and Mhenda-Kitunduweta villages. Data on socio-demographic variables such as age, gender and morbidity were collected using a pretested questionnaire whereas for dietary intake a 24-hour recall method was used. Anthropometric status was assessed using measurements of weight, height and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC). Serum concentration of retinol (vitamin A), carotenoids and tocopherols (vitamin E) were determined using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) while iron status markers (ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor), infection or inflammation markers (C-reactive protein, α-1 glycoprotein) by a sandwich enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) technique and serum zinc by a spectrophotometric method. School children-mothers or caregivers pairs were followed for two years to assess anthropometric, dietary and biochemical parameters (serum micronutrients and infection markers). In the selected ILVs the concentration of provitamin A carotenoids, tocopherols, and ascorbic acid (AA) were determined using HPLC; the minerals iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and phosphorus were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrophotometry (ICP-OES), while phytic acid content was determined using a photometric method. Results: At baseline the overall prevalence of stunting was 28.1%, underweight 14.4%, and overweight was 5%. Micronutrient deficiencies showed varied prevalence; whereby 43% of the children had anaemia, 29.3% showed deficiency of iron (ID), 24.9 % were vitamin A deficient (VAD), and 26.4% had zinc deficiency (ZnD). The overall prevalence of reported malaria and diarrhoea was 30.7% and 20.7% respectively. Dietary intake data indicated that, only small proportions of children reached the recommended daily micronutrient intakes for zinc (4%), vitamin A (19%) and B vitamins (14–46%), except for iron (74%). Stunting was highly associated (p <0.001) with underweight in both districts and with VAD in Chamwino (p <0.05). Anaemia was mainly predicted by ID, VAD, and ZnD in Chamwino while in Kilosa it was predicted by elevated infection markers, C - reactive protein (CRP) and α-1 glycoprotein (AGP). Higher serum carotenoids indicative of a diet high in fruits and vegetables was associated with the lower risk of VAD whereas elevated CRP and/or AGP increased the risk of VAD. The micronutrient content (provitamin A carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid and minerals which are iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc) of the selected ILVs commonly consumed in the study areas was high. Beta-carotene concentration was high ranging between 2.91 and 4.84 mg/100 g (fresh weight) in ILVs including Amaranthus spp, Sesamum angustifolium and Corchorus trilocularis. This amount could provide more than 50% of the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for vitamin A. The level of iron was high (34.5–60.4 mg/100 g) in ILVs including Cleome hirta and Sonchus luxurians and capable of providing more than 50% of RNI for iron. Amaranthus ssp. had high levels of calcium, magnesium and zinc and these amounts could provide 85%, 207% and 21% of RNI per 100 g, respectively. Cleome hirta and Cleome gynandra had high ascorbic acid content more than 15 mg/100 g, and could provide 34 –35% of RNI for ascorbic acid. Sesamum angustifolium was the only ILV with high tocopherol content (7.34 mg α-TE/100 g). The highest phytate concentration was found in Amaranthus ssp., which could negatively affect its role as a very good source of minerals. After the implementation of an integrated home gardening intervention, the prevalence of anaemia decreased from 42.7’% to 30.6%, and vitamin A deficiency from 24.5% to 0.4% (p<0.001). Consumption of vegetables, fruits and legumes significantly increased from baseline to the end-line survey (87% vs 98%, 63% vs 69% and 76% vs 87%), p<0.001, respectively. Moreover, households that reported to grow vegetables increased from 76.6% to 82.1%, (p<0.05); awareness on pocket gardening increased from 21.6% to 92.9%, (p< 0.001) and proportion of households practicing pocket gardening increased from 3% to 76.4% (p < 0.001) from baseline to the end-line survey. Conclusions: School children in the districts of Chamwino and Kilosa, Tanzania, are simultaneously affected by low energy intake, anaemia, infections such as malaria, micronutrient deficiencies, and inadequate diets. Moreover, significant variations in micronutrient status and dietary habits between districts were observed. Long-term nutritional deficits as reflected by high prevalence of stunting and current micronutrient status, especially vitamin A, iron and zinc, underlines the importance of targeting school children in national nutrition and health surveys for nutrition assessment and surveillance. The analysed indigenous leafy vegetables can potentially make a considerable contribution towards the requirements for nutrients, particularly vitamin A and iron, which are micronutrients of public health significance among school children in the study areas. The significant decrease in the prevalence of anaemia and vitamin A deficiency among the school children during post intervention phase, suggests the potential of integrating nutrition sensitive interventions such as home gardening and nutrition education for better nutritional outcomes. Moreover, programs that reduce infectious diseases and improve hygiene are essential to ensure quality utilization of nutrients in the body.
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    Assessing and controlling bio-deterioration of maize in Tanzania.
    (Iowa State University, 2016) Suleiman, Rashid A.
    Agriculture is the backbone of the Tanzanian economy. It accounts for about one-third of the gross domestic product (GDP), provides 85 percent of all exports and serves as a livelihood lo over 80 percent of the total population. Maize or corn (Zea mays L.) is the primary staple crop; it’s grown in nearly all agro-ecological zones in the country. Tanzania is a major maize producer in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the last four decades, Tanzania has ranked among the top 25 maize producing countries in the world. Despite the steady production of maize over the past three decades, post-harvest losses of maize remained significantly high, especially for small-holder farmers. Post-harvest handling, poor infrastructure, and weather variability, bio-deterioration brought about by pest organisms such as insects, molds, and fungi, rodent, bacteria, pathogens, and viruses often aggravate such losses. In tropical countries, a large proportion of the maize is harvested and stored under humid and warm climatic conditions, which subsequently results in rapid deterioration of the grains, mainly because of growth of molds and pests. Deterioration of maize is mainly affected by moisture content, temperature (grain and air), relative humidity, storage conditions, fungal growth, and insect pests. Fungal growth, especially Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium sp in maize, facilitated by hot and humid conditions, poses a major health risk through production of mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungi that frequently contaminate the maize in the field and/or during storage. The most important mycotoxins in maize are the aflatoxins, Fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and ochratoxin. In order to maintain high quality maize for both short- and long-term storage, maize must be protected from weather, the growth of microorganisms, and insect pests. Stored product pests such as Siiophilus zeamais (Motschulsky), the maize weevil, are serious pests of economic importance in stored products in tropical and subtropical countries. Infestation often starts in the field, but serious damage is done during maize storage. This study determined the resistance of flint corn and dent corn to infestation by S. zeamais. Improved King Philip hybrid flint com and Fontanelle 6T-510 hybrid dent corn were used. Two temperature conditions (10 and 27°C) and two storage times (15 and 30 days) were used. Results showed flint corn was more resistant to insect damage than dent corn at 27°C significantly higher in flint corn (R2= 0.945) compared to dent com (R2 = 0.634). Likewise. the damaged seed was 10% higher in dent corn than in flint corn at 27°C and 30 days. However, no significant difference was observed for seed weight loss between flint corn and dent com at the same storage conditions. Further, the study evaluated S. zeamais infestation on seven varieties of maize. Seven commercial maize varieties (white dent, yellow dent, orange flint, Indian flint, white and yellow popcorn, and sweet com), two temperature conditions (10 and 27 °C) and three storage times (30. 60, and 90 days) were used. The moisture contents of all maize samples weevils, seed damage, weight loss, and weight of powder produced were assessed at the end of each storage time. As expected, severe damage was observed at 27°C and 90 d for all maize varieties. Exponential growth rates of S. zeamais were observed in almost all maize varieties. Among seven varieties evaluated, orange flint corn, yellow, and white popcorn show resistance to 5. zeamais. Sweet and dent corn were most susceptible to maize weevil infestation. Higher numbers of live S zeamais were observed on Indian flint corn and sweet were adjusted to 15.5 } 0.5% (wet basis) prior to initiating storage trials. Numbers of live and 30 days storage time. After 30 d storage time and 27°C, death rate of the weevls was corn. Consequently, there was a higher seed weight damage and weight loss. In addition, seed damaged, percentage seed weight loss and weight of powder produced was significantly and positively correlated with a number of live S. zeamais (r = 0.91, P<0.05), (r = 0.88, /’<0.05). and (r = 0.89, P<0.05) respectively. Thus, some varieties of flint corn and popcorn can be considered as potential maize varieties to be used to reduce postharvest loss of maize in tropical countries due to their natural resistance to S. zeamais infestation. Moreover, the study also determined the techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life cycle analysis (LCA) of maize storage for middle class farmers in developing countries. Maize is the most widely cultivated cereal crop worldwide. It is produced on a seasonal basis, usually harvested once per year. To maintain a constant supply throughout the year, maize should be properly stored. But this entails high cost and high-energy consumption, which can contribute significant amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. Three storage capacities (25,000 bu. 250.000 bu and 2,500,000 bu) per year were evaluated for economic analysis and environmental impact. The result shows the total storage cost per kilogram decreased as storage capacity increased (3.69$/bu, 1.89$/bu, and 0.42$/bu). Likewise, energy consumption (electricity, diesel and liquid propane) increased as storage capacity increased. Consequently, more greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CFI4, and NOx) were emitted to the environment. Thus, to obtain an optimal balance between economics and the environment, it is important for the farmers to understand the concepts of techno-economic analysis and life cycle assessment. Furthermore, the study also determined the measured and predicted temperature of maize under hermetic conditions. Three different storage conditions (room at 25°C, cooling at 4°C, and freezing at -20°C) were investigated. Yellow dent corn variety Blue River 571136 from Iowa, harvested in 2011 was used. Maize was stored in two hermetically sealed bins (50-cm diameter x 76-cm height). Five logger sensors were installed inside the bin to measure temperature and relative humidity of the air and maize grain. The sensors were located at the top, center, bottom, left and right at about 12 centimeter apart. Afterplacing each barrel into storage, temperature and relative humidity values were measured ever}’ minute for 9 days throughout the duration of the experiment. Model validation was carried out by comparing predicted with measured maize grain temperature data in the radial and vertical directions. The temperature in the hermetically sealed cylindrical bins varied, mostly in the radial direction and very little in the axial vertical directions. No noticeable change in temperature was observed in the room condition. Moreover, the temperature in the grain changed more rapidly in the freezing conditions than in the room temperature and cooling conditions. Furthermore, the lag time between the center temperature and the side (right, left, top, and bottom) was greater in the radial direction compared to in the vertical 1.5°C. The predicted and measured values of maize grain temperature at radial and vertical directions were found to be in good agreement. The model shows a good potential conditions under hermetic storage. In addition, the study determined the impact of moisture content and S. zeamais on maize quality during hermetic and non-hermetic storage conditions. Commercially commingled maize kernels were conditioned to target moistures 14, 16, 18, and 20% moisture content (wet basis), and then three replications of 300 grams of maize grain were stored in glass jars or triple ZiplocR slider 66 pm (2.6-mil) polyethylene bags at four conditions: hermetic with weevils, hermetic no-weevils, non-hermetic with weevils, non-hermetic no-weevils. All jars direction. The maximum difference between predicted and measured temperature was application to predict the temperature of maize grain stored at room, cooling and freezing and bags were stored in an environmental chamber at 27°C and 70% relative humidity for cither 30 or 60 days. At the end of each storage period, jars and bags were assessed for visual mold growth, mycotoxin levels, CO2 and O2 concentrations, pH level, the numbers of live and dead 5. zeamais, and maize moisture content. The maize stored in non-hermetic conditions with weevils at 18 and 20% exhibited high levels of mold growth and aflatoxin contamination (>150 ppb). Although mold growth was observed, there were no aflatoxins detected in maize stored in hermetic conditions. The CO2 and O2 concentrations were directly related to the maize moisture contents and storage times. In general, CO2 increased and O2 gradually decreased as storage lime increased. No significant difference in pH was observed in any storage conditions (/’<0.05). Total mortality (100%) of S. zeamais was observed in all hermetically stored samples at the end of 60 days storage. The number of S. zeamais linearly increased with storage time for maize stored in non-hermetic conditions. Moisture content for hermetically stored maize was relatively constant. Moreover, a positive correlation between moisture content and storage time was observed for maize stored in non-hermetic conditions with weevils (r = 0.96, 7><0.05). The results indicate that moisture content and the number of S. zeamais play a significant role in maize storage, both under hermetic and non-hermetic conditions. The study also determined whether there is a synergistic interaction between P. iruncatus and S. zeamais during storage. The interaction between the two insects was evaluated in terms of the numbers of the live population, percent damaged grain, the weight of powder (flour) produced, and percentage seed weight loss. Higher damage was observed in nonhermetic storage with P. Iruncalus and in mixed treatments (P. Iruncalus and S. zeamais). A significant difference <0.05) and positive correlation were observed between the number of live population, percentage grain damage, the weight of powder produced, and percentage seed weight loss on infestation by P. truncates, S. zeamais, and mixed treatments. S. zeamais dominate populations in the early stage, but were outnumbered by P. truncalus after 60 d oi storage in the individual species as well as in mixed treatments. The high percentage grain damage was observed in non-hermetic storage after 60 days in P. truncalus (58%) and mixed treatments (54%). The weight of powder produced ranged from 0-30 grams per 250 grams of maize. Percentage seed weight loss decreased after 60 days for P. truncalus and mixed treatments, but increased onward for S. zeamais, a low synergistic interaction between P. truncalus and S. zeamais was observed. However, P. truncalus plays a significant role when two insects coexist and cause more severe damage than S. zeamais in maize under nonhermetic storage conditions. Furthermore, the study detennined the practicability of periodic physical disturbance on S. zeamais mortality and adaptation by smallholder fanners in developing countries. S. zeamais is the most widely occurring and important cosmopolitan postharvest insect pest of stored maize in tropic and sub-tropical regions. Preventing infestation of this pest without using chemicals remains a huge challenge for smallholder farmers in the developing countries. Physical control methods are effective and attractive alternative methods to prevent, and control stored product pests in grain handling and storage facilities. Physical techniques are based on the application of some kind of force to manipulate the storage environments. They can provide unfavorable conditions for insect pests to multipliply or arranged in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications and threestorage times (30, 60, and 90 days) in three regions of Tanzania. A total of 108 clean 20L damage to the grain. In this experiment, disturbed and stationary/control treatments were (L284 x W234 x H391) milimeter plastic containers were each loaded with 10 kilograms of fresh white dent corn and 0.50 kilograms of maize infested with S. zeamais. The initial numbers ofS. zeamais were determined. For the turned treatment, containers were disturbed or turned twice a day, whereas for the controls, the containers were not disturbed until the end of storage. The overall percent mortality after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage were 88. 96, and 98% respectively. A statistically significant difference (7J<0.05) was observed for the number of live S’, zeamais in the control treatments. While the number of live S', zeamais in the turned treatment significantly decreased as storage time increased. The study shows the potential of a feasible, simple, affordable, safe and effective method of protecting maize grain for small-holder farmers in developing countries without using chemicals. Lastly, the study assessed the postharvest practices and awareness of mycotoxins contamination in maize grain. Maize is a major cereal crop in Tanzania and it is grown in diverse agro-ecological zones. Like other sub-Saharan countries, postharvest losses of maize during storage in Tanzania remain significantly high, especially for smallholder farmers. Unpredictable weather and poor postharvest practice contribute significant to rapid deterioration of grain and mold contamination, and subsequent production of mycotoxins. The purpose of this study was to assess the postharvest practices and awareness and knowledge of mycotoxin contamination in maize grain in three agro-ecological zones (Eastern, Central, and Northern) of Tanzania between November 2015 and February 2016. A survey using semi-structured questionnaires was administered to farmers, traders, and consumers of maize. A total of 90 people (30 from each zone) were surveyed with a response rate of was 96% (87). In addition, several samples of maize were collected and analyzed for aflatoxin, fumonisin, and Zearalenone contamination to validate the awareness and knowledge of mycotoxin contamination of maize. The result shows a high level of postharvest losses of maize mainly through insect infestation. Moreover, over 80% of the farmers, traders, and consumers of maize were unaware of mycotoxins contamination. All maize samples collected contained detected levels of mycotoxins. The maximum concentration of aflatoxins, fumonisin, and Zearalenone in maize samples was 19.20 ppb. 7.60 ppm, and 189.90 ppb respectively. Education intervention is necessary to decrease the disconnect observed between actual mycotoxin contamination and the awareness and knowledge of farmers, traders, and consumers of maize in Tanzania. Enhancing awareness and knowledge provide the opportunity to educate on post-harvest practices that reduce postharvest losses of maize in Tanzania.
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    Influence of agricultural diversification on dietary diversity, nutrition and health of children (6-23 months old) and their mothers in Kagera Region
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Kimwendo, Mariam Omari
    Agricultural diversification is among tools used for improvement of economy food security and nutritional status at household level. However, there have been few studies on the contribution of agricultural diversification on diets and nutrition of children and women in rural Tanzania. Therefore this study was carried to examine the influence of agricultural diversification on dietary diversity and nutrition of children aged six to 23 months and their mothers in four agro-ecological zones in Kagera region. The specific objectives included: to (i) assess extent and practices in agricultural diversification in four agro-ecological zones (ii) assess gender dimensions in labour for agricultural production diversity and its implication on women’s time and workload (iii) assess household food security, dietary diversity and food consumption pattern of women and their children (iv) evaluate nutritional and health status of children and their mothers (v) examine factors influencing child and mother dietary diversity and nutritional status. A cross-sectional study design was used to collect data from 398 households which were child-mother pairs. Descriptive analysis, indices and counts on agricultural diversification, HFIAS, DDS and anthropometric measurements were performed. The results indicated the overall agricultural diversification, according to Margalef index factored with kept livestock was 39.60%. The women played both productive and reproductive roles. Mean HFIAS score was 5.49 ± 4.71 (range: 0 – 21) while DDS for children and mothers were 2.48 ± 1.4 and 4.25 ± 1.29 respectively. The 9.8% of mothers were underweight, 13.1% were overweight and 3.3% were obese. The overall average score of WAZ, LAZ and WLZ was -0.5975 ± 1.3125, 1.0835 ± 1.9248 and -0.0348 ± 1.2899 respectively. The agricultural diversification should be improved to include more food groups with proper nutritional education programmes and consideration of women work load.
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    Development of iron rich products from traditional leafy vegetables grown in Lindi, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Abdallah, Afsa
    The current study was conducted to develop iron rich products for feeding children under five years of age. Three Traditional leafy vegetables (TLVs), Amaranth hybrids known as amaranthus leaves (AML), Manihort esculenta known as cassava leaves (CAL) and Ipomea batatas known as sweet potatoes leaves (SPL) grown in Ruangwa and Nachingwea Districts in Lindi Region were used. They were collected from both home gardens (HG) and low land (LL). TLVs samples from the two sources were analysed in triplicate using standard methods for physico chemical parameters (pH, moisture content, dry matter content) and nutrient content for selected minerals and vitamins i.e. (iron, zinc, beta carotene and ascorbic acid) as well as microbial quality of the dried TLVs and vegetable powder formulations. The three TLVs which had been optimized for iron content, were used to prepare 4 vegetable powder formulations (F1–60.0:7.5:22.5); (F2– 70.0:5.0:15.0); (F3–80.0:2.5:7.5) and (F4–40.0:10.0:40.0). Spices were added to the vegetable powder formulations for flavour. The developed vegetable soup formulations were analysed for sensory quality as well as acceptability. Data was analyzed by R – statistical package (R version 4.0.3 2020). One-way analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was carried out to determine if there was any significance difference in micronutrients, physico-chemical among vegetables and across the sites. Means were separated by Tukey’s Honest at p<0.05. Significant differences in iron, zinc and beta- carotene content were found between vegetables at p<0.05. The solar dried TLVs, indicated that AML had the highest iron content, CAL had the highest zinc while SPL had the highest beta-carotene. Moreover, CAL and SPL had statistically significant higher (p<0.05) ascorbic acid than AML. In addition, zinc and ascorbic acid were highest in CAL whereas beta-carotene was highest in SPL for home grown vegetables. Highest iron content (p<0.05) was found from AML that had been grown under lowland grown vegetables. For microbiological parameters, significant differences (p<0.05) in Total plate count (TPC) were observed among the TLVs and between the two sites. The LL had the highest TPC than HG. Moreover, there was no significant difference (p<0.05) in TPC among vegetable powder formulations. No E. coli contamination observed among TLVs, neither from the two sites nor their formulations. Sensory evaluation for descriptive test revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in mean intensity scores between the vegetable soup samples. The descriptive attributes of the vegetable soup samples showed that F1, F2 and F3 had significantly higher (p<0.05) mean intensity scores for colour, aroma, and mouth feel than F4. The acceptability test however showed that all vegetable soup samples were accepted by panelists. F1 was the most liked due to colour, aroma and mouth feel followed by F2, F3 and finally F4. Furthermore, the preference mapping results showed that colour, aroma and mouth feel attributes were the main drivers for positive consumer preference for vegetable soup. Therefore, the development of TLVs soup powder formulations using a locally available processing technique is a promising solution to increase the uptake of iron to the under five children and other vulnerable members of the community. It also increases TLVs shelf life and availability throughout the year as well as an important contribution to income.
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    Prevalence of aflatoxin m1 in pasteurized and ultra-high temperature (uht) milk marketed in Dar es salaam, Tanzania.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture., 2021) Mwakosya, Hilda, Fredy
    A survey was conducted in year 2020/2021 to establish the levels of aflatoxin M 1 (AFM 1 ) in pasteurized and ultra-heat-treated milk (n=118) and awareness on mycotoxins by milk processors in Kinondoni, Temeke, Ubungo, Ilala and Kigamboni district of Dar es Salaam, the commercial capital of Tanzania. The levels of AFM 1 in pasteurized milk (n=75) and UHT milk (n=43) samples were determined by using immuno-affinity high performance liquid chromatography. AFM 1 was detected in 97% (115/118) of the heat-treated samples. Pasteurized milk and UHT milk samples were contaminated by 96% (72/75) and 100% (43/43), respectively. About 82% of the contaminated pasteurized and UHT had aflatoxin M 1 above the EU acceptable levels (0.05 μg/L) however none of the contaminated pasteurized and UHT milk sample exceed Codex limits of 0.5 μg/L. The observed contamination levels of AFM 1 in heated milk could pose a serious public health problem. Therefore, best practices including regular monitoring of AFM 1 levels in milk and milk products are crucial to protect consumers. Awareness of aflatoxin contamination of milk was assessed by using a cross-sectional descriptive statistic involving 30 milk processors. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and statistically analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS® Version 27 (2020). Descriptive statistics was used to determine frequencies and percentages of social demographic, knowledge, handling and feeding practices of lactating cow. Cross tabulation was used to determine relationship between knowledge on aflatoxins with age and education level of the respondents. The majority of the respondents (83.3%) were aware of aflatoxins and none (0.0%) of the respondents were aware that milk and milk products could be contaminated with aflatoxins. It was also observed that the cattle feeding practices were poor and were a major reason for AFM 1 contamination of milk. None of the respondents were aware that feeding lactating cow with mouldy feeds could results into AFM 1 contamination of milk. It was observed that, AFM 1 analysis was not carried out in rawiii milk before processing in order to control AFM 1 contamination of milk and milk products. This could be due to lack of knowledge and techniques for detection and analysis of aflatoxins. This study recommended that creation of awareness of aflatoxins and use of best practices along the milk value chain was crucial in order to enhance the safety of consumers.
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    Effectiveness of micronutrients powder in rehabilitating anaemic children aged two – five years in Morogoro rural district
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Sehaba, Diana Godfrey
    Iron deficiency anaemia is a condition where blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells. In Tanzania, 58 percent of under-five children suffering iron deficiency anaemia. This study aimed to assessing the effectiveness of micronutrients powder in reducing iron deficiency anaemia among under-five children. A longitudinal, randomized study was carried out. A total of 167 children were randomly assigned into three intervention groups which received MNP for 60 days, Group one (n= 56) received one sachet of MNP daily, group two (n = 55) received one sachet of MNP in alternate days while Group three (n= 56) received one sachet per week. Using the HemoCue technique, a finger-prick blood was taken at all period of the intervention and used to determine haemoglobin concentrations. A questionnaire was constructed to solicit information on the perception of mothers/caregivers, dietary diversity score and anthropometric measurements. Data collected using questionnaire were coded and analyzed using SPSS. Comparison of anthropometric measurements was analyzed by ANOVA. Result showed that, at the end of the intervention, haemoglobin concentrations were significantly higher (P ˂ 0.05) in participants who received dose one and dose two relative to those who received dose three. At baseline, prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia was 65.5%. There was significant difference (P ˂ 0.05) in the prevalence of anthropometric measurements before and after intervention. There was no significant difference (P ˃ 0.05) between DDS and increased haemoglobin concentration. Mothers/caregivers perceived some positive effects on their children health behaviours.It was concluded from this study that, MNP is effective in reducing the iron deficiency anaemia to under-five children. It also improved weight for age and weight for height. Based on this study it is recommended that, mothers/caregivers with low income should use dose two in reducing iron deficiency anaemia. Dose three is only effective for mildly anaemia children.
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    Iron status and dietary diversity of adolescent girls in selected urban and rural communities of Moshi district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Swaty, Salutari Simon
    Adolescence is the transitional phase of growth and development between childhood and adulthood. It presents a window of opportunity to correct nutritional status of children. Limited data are available on iron status among adolescents in Tanzania, including in Moshi district, Kilimanjaro. The aim of this study was to assess iron status and dietary diversity of adolescent girls in selected urban and rural communities of Moshi District. A total of 311 adolescent girls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Height and weight were taken. Hb concentration was measured using haemo-Cue photometer and dietary data were gathered using 24hr recall. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS and WHO-anthro. Results indicated that, there was a significant difference (P<0.05) in the prevalence of anaemia among adolescent girls in urban (14.7%) and rural (18.5%) communities. Also there was a significant difference in dietary diversity among adolescent girls in urban and rural communities of Moshi (P< 0.05). Adolescent girls in rural communities had a lower dietary diversity (8.3%) compared to their peers in urban communities (4.9%). The prevalence of undernutrition among adolescent girls in rural communities (23.8%) was higher compared to their peers in urban (19.6%) and the prevalence of overweight/obese (26.6%) among adolescent girls in urban communities was higher compared to their peers in rural communities (14.3%). Generally, there was a significant difference in iron status and dietary diversity among adolescent girls living in urban and rural communities of Moshi. It was recommended based on the results of this study that adolescent girls in both communities should ensure intake of a more diversified diet rich in fruits and vegetables, meat and meat products also engage in physical activities such as games, sports and home activities.