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    Review: Rangeland management in Tanzania: opportunities, challenges, and prospects for sustainability
    (Trop Drylands, 2023-11-24) Muzzo, Bashiri Iddy; Maleko, David Dawson; Thacker, Eric; Provenza, Fred D.
    Muzzo BI, Maleko DD, Thacker E, Provenza FD. 2023. Review: Rangeland management in Tanzania: Opportunities, challenges, and prospects for sustainability. Intl J Trop Drylands 7: 83-102. Rangelands in Tanzania play a crucial role in supporting local livelihoods and the country's economic development. However, their long-term sustainability is threatened. This review paper identifies challenges and explores opportunities to ensure their continued sustainability. Opportunities include implementing dedicated policies and regulations, using expertise in range science, leveraging technological advancements, investing in land for private ranches, using ample bushes and shrub resources for small ruminant production, and responding appropriately to high market demand for milk and meat from ruminants. Major challenges include insufficient technology and limited technical know-how, low and erratic rains leading to dry season pasture scarcity, infectious diseases and the spread of invasive species. Other challenges include conflicting interests from other land users that have led to the massive conversion of communal rangelands to croplands, and the need for areas to protect wildlife and human settlements. These challenges can be addressed by policy enforcement, strengthening pastoral organizations, fostering the growth of experts in climate-adapted forage and livestock breeding, and embracing advanced technology. Active involvement of local communities in decision-making processes and facilitating rangeland restoration can ensure the sustainable management of rangelands in Tanzania. Another promising avenue is the strategic use of locally adapted livestock species to control invasive plants, complemented by governmental enforcement of a grading system for meat and establishing a price-based quality meat market. Incorporating these prospects into rangeland management strategies can enhance the ecological sustainability and resilience of rangelands while supporting local livelihoods. Future research should focus on evaluating and implementing these strategies to promote sustainable rangeland management practices in Tanzania and elsewhere with similar environment.
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    Review: Rangeland management in Tanzania: opportunities, challenges, and prospects for sustainability
    (INTL J TROP DRYLANDS, 2023) Muzzo, Bashiri Iddy; Maleko, David Dawson; Thacker, Eric; Provenza, Fred D
    Muzzo BI, Maleko DD, Thacker E, Provenza FD. 2023. Review: Rangeland management in Tanzania: Opportunities, challenges, and prospects for sustainability. Intl J Trop Drylands 7: 83-102. Rangelands in Tanzania play a crucial role in supporting local livelihoods and the country's economic development. However, their long-term sustainability is threatened. This review paper identifies challenges and explores opportunities to ensure their continued sustainability. Opportunities include implementing dedicated policies and regulations, using expertise in range science, leveraging technological advancements, investing in land for private ranches, using ample bushes and shrub resources for small ruminant production, and responding appropriately to high market demand for milk and meat from ruminants. Major challenges include insufficient technology and limited technical know-how, low and erratic rains leading to dry season pasture scarcity, infectious diseases and the spread of invasive species. Other challenges include conflicting interests from other land users that have led to the massive conversion of communal rangelands to croplands, and the need for areas to protect wildlife and human settlements. These challenges can be addressed by policy enforcement, strengthening pastoral organizations, fostering the growth of experts in climate-adapted forage and livestock breeding, and embracing advanced technology. Active involvement of local communities in decision-making processes and facilitating rangeland restoration can ensure the sustainable management of rangelands in Tanzania. Another promising avenue is the strategic use of locally adapted livestock species to control invasive plants, complemented by governmental enforcement of a grading system for meat and establishing a price-based quality meat market. Incorporating these prospects into rangeland management strategies can enhance the ecological sustainability and resilience of rangelands while supporting local livelihoods. Future research should focus on evaluating and implementing these strategies to promote sustainable rangeland management practices in Tanzania and elsewhere with similar environment.
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    Use of integrated range management practices for improving growth and dry matter yield of forage species in Mvomero district, Morogoro, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2023) Mlowe, G.D; Msalya, G.M
    Scarcity of forage particularly during dry seasons is among the major factors which limit improved meat production from livestock in many pastoral communities in tropical countries. The scarcity is associated with low level of soil nutrients, irregularity in weather patterns and climate change. One way of making more feeds available for livestock in such times include the adoption of Integrated Range Management practices (IRM), rangelands management technique which involve a range of practices including application of manure, furrowing the land and oversowing among others. The IRM was a focus for this study which was conducted in one pastoral village namely Mela, in Mvomero District in Morogoro Region, Tanzania. Field trials were conducted based on a Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) and aimed to assess the influence of oversowing Cenchrus ciliaris on grazing lands, the effect of manure application on growth performance and dry matter yield of the specie, and the effect of furrowing on grazing land. Fifteen plots of equal sizes (16m2) were needed for this study and from which the dry matter (DM), number and height of tillers of the target specie were determined. Comparison on the study factors among the plots were done based on the One -way analysis of variance (ANOVA), results obtained from the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0. In general, growth was significant (p≤0.05) among the different plots being fast in the plots which combined manure, oversowing and furrowing followed by those which had manure and oversowing, and least were those which oversowing and furrowing was the option. The major reason for high growth in the three factors plot was with no doubt shown to be high level of IRM with three or more factors (practices) for increased fodder productivity.
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    Strategies to upgrade animal health delivery in village poultry systems: perspectives of stakeholders from Northern Ghana and Central zones in Tanzania
    (ORIGINAL RESEARCH, 2021-06-07) Enahoro, Dolapo; Galiè, Alessandra; Abukari, Yakubu; Chiwanga, Gaspar H.; Kelly, Terra R.; Kahamba, Judith; Massawe, Fatihiya A.; Mapunda, Fausta; Jumba, Humphrey; Weber, Christoph; Dione, Michel; Kayang, Boniface; Ouma, Emily
    Village chicken production holds much potential for the alleviation of malnutrition and poverty in rural communities in Africa. Owing to their subsistence nature, however, such systems are rife with infectious poultry diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND). Strategies common for the management of ND and other poultry diseases in intensive production systems, including vaccination and biosecurity measures, have seen limited success in the village production systems. New approaches are needed that can successfully deliver animal health inputs and services for the effective management of poultry health challenges in low-input systems. Our study utilized focus group discussions with men and women farmers as well as other poultry value chain actors such as input suppliers, live bird traders and processed poultry meat retailers, to investigate potential options for delivery of animal health care to village poultry systems in northern Ghana and central Tanzania. ND was commonly reported as a major disease constraint in the study sites of the two countries, with resulting fatalities particularly impactful on men and women producers and on traders. We therefore also conducted interviews that focused specifically on the gender component of village chicken production. The key health related challenges prioritized by women and men participants included limited access to, and poor quality of, vaccines and veterinary drugs, a shortage of veterinary officers, and insufficient knowledge and training of farmers on flock management practices. Women, more than men, emphasized the difficulties of accessing poultry health services. Our assessments suggest that for poultry health care delivery in the studied communities to be effective, there is need to improve the supply of good quality drugs and vaccines in rural areas, respond to the needs of both men and women, and recognize the different incentives for farmers, traders and other value chain actors. Community-based approaches and increased use of ICT technology such as mobile phones have much to offer in this regard.
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    Feed utilization and growth performance of Tanzania shorthorn zebu fed untreated or urea treated rice straws as hay replacement in traditional feedlot system
    (Science Publishing Group, 2023-05-17) Kilyenyi, Edson Henry; Mushi, Daniel Elius; Chenyambuga, Sebastian Wilson
    This study evaluated the effects of complete or partial replacement of Cenchrus ciliaris hay with untreated or urea treated rice straws on feed intake, growth performance, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and gross margin of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu (TSHZ) cattle under feedlot condition. A total of 50 bulls with age of 2.5 - 3.0 years and mean initial weight of 132.4 ± 26.7 kg were assigned randomly to five treatments i.e. 100% Cenchrus ciliaris hay (CCH), 100% untreated rice straws (URS), 100% urea treated rice straws (TRS), 50% untreated rice straw + 50% C. ciliaris hay (URH) and 50% treated rice straw + 50% C. ciliaris (TRH). All animals were supplemented with a diet comprised of 53% maize bran, 25% molasses, 20% sunflower seed cake, 1.5% mineral premix and 0.5% table salt. The results show that average daily gain and weight gain did not differ (p > 0.05) among the treatments. However, animals on TRH showed the highest growth rate (770.0 ± 0.1 g/day) and weight gain (64.7 ± 4.4 kg), followed by those on TRS (growth rate = 725.0 ± 0.1 g/day, weight gain = 60.9 ± 4.4 kg) while those on URS had the lowest growth rate (599.0 ± 0.1 g/day) and weight gain (50.3 ± 4.4 kg). Animals fed TRS (9.8 ± 0.1) and TRH (8.9 ± 0.1) had lower (p ≤ 0.001) FCR than those fed CCH (10.3 ± 0.1), URS (11.9 ± 0.1) and URH (10.4 ± 0.1). The highest gross margin was obtained on animals under TRS (TZS 154,293.00) while the lowest was found on animals under CCH (TZS 120,450.00). Partial or complete replacement of hay with treated or untreated rice straws resulted into higher growth performance than feeding hay alone. Feeding animals with urea treated rice straws resulted into higher growth performance and better feed utilization compared to feeding hay or untreated rice straws. It is concluded that complete replacement of hay with urea treated rice straws resulted into high growth rate, lower FCR and high gross margin, hence, it is recommended as the best basal diet for fattening of TSHZ under traditional feedlot system.
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    Reducing GHG emissions from traditional livestock systems to mitigate changing climate and biodiversity
    (Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2015) Mushi, Daniel E.; Eik, Lars Olav; Bernués, A.; Ripoll-Bosch, R.; Sundstøl, F.; Mo, M.
    Climate change (CC) directly impacts the economy, ecosystems, water resources, weather events, health issues, desertification, sea level rise, and even political and social stability. The effects of CC affect different groups of societies differently. In Tanzania, the effects of CC have even acquired a gender dimension, whereby women are viewed as more vulnerable than men because of socioeco- nomic and historic barriers. CC is largely caused by anthropogenic activities, including those that increase the concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. Recent findings indicate that the livestock sector is responsible for 18 % of GHG emissions measured in the CO 2 equivalent. Moreover, some gases emitted by livestock have higher potential to warm the atmosphere than CO 2 and have a very long atmospheric lifetime. Methane (CH 4 ) has 23 times the global warming potential (GWP) of CO 2 , whereas nitrous oxide (N 2 O) has 296 times the GWP of CO 2 . It is now estimated that the atmospheric concentrations of CH 4 and N 2 O are increasing at a rate of approximately 0.6 % and 0.25 % per year, respec- tively. Cattle may emit CH 4 from enteric fermentation equivalent to 2–12 % of the ingested energy, whereas produced manure can emit N 2 O up to 1.25 % of its weight. The estimated total CH 4 and N 2 O emissions from Tanzanian ruminants stand at 26.17 Gg and 0.57 Gg, respectively. In this paper, we first very briefly review emissions of GHGs from different livestock production systems in Tanzania with the view of identifying the main hot spots. Then, we concentrate on the available adaptation options and the limitations on the adoption of such adaptation options in Tanzania. Emission of these GHGs per unit product varies with the level of intensification, the types of livestock kept, and manure management. Intensifi- cation of livestock production reduces the size of the land required to sustain a livestock unit and frees up the land necessary for carbon sequestration. In Tanzania, such intensification could take the form of the early harvesting and storing forage for dry-season feeding. The advantage of this intervention is twofold: young harvests have higher digestibility and emit less CH 4 when fed to ruminants than mature lignified forage; use of stored roughage in the dry season will reduce the desertification of rangeland and deforestation that occur when livestock search for pastureland. Dry-season supplementation of ruminants with energy and protein-rich diets will reduce CH 4 emission. The chemical treatment of crops byproducts will increase the crops’ digestibility and reduce CH 4 emission from ruminants. Cross- breds of indigenous and exotic breeds are more efficient converters of feed into products like meat and milk, with less GHG emitted per unit product. The use of manure for biogas production will reduce the emission of both CH 4 and N 2 O into the atmosphere. Shifting from liquid to solid manure management has the potential to reduce CH 4 emissions. Most of these interventions, however, are not cost neutral – enhancing awareness alone will not lead to their widespread adoption. In the absence of subsidies, the adoption of these interventions will depend on the relative cost of other options. Although some traditional livestock systems in Tanzania are already coping with the impact of CC, such efforts are handicapped by inadequate resources, poor coordination, and implementation of competing measures.
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    Feeding strategies for improved beef productivity and reduced GHG emission in Tanzania: effect of type of finish-feeding on carcass yield and meat quality of Zebu steers
    (Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2015) Selemani, Ismail Saidi; Eik, Lars Olav; Holand, Øystein; Ådnøy, Tormod; Mtengeti, Ephraim J.; Mushi, Daniel E.; Oddvin, Sørheim
    The study was conducted to elucidate the effects of grazing on natural pastures alone versus total stall feeding on growth performance, carcass character- istics, and meat quality of Tanzania Zebu steers. In this experiment, 27 steers were distributed into 2 dietary groups; stall feeding (SF) and natural pasture feeding (NP). Animals in SF were totally confined in the feedlot with free access to wheat straw as a basal diet and supplemented with concentrate mixture, while those in NP were freely grazed on natural pasture. Animals in SF displayed 500 g higher average daily gain (ADG) and four units higher dressing percentage than those in NP. The marbling scores, hind leg length (HL), and hind leg circumference (Circ.) was also statistically higher among animals in SF than among those in NP (P 0.05). Moreover, postmortem temperature was observed to decline more rapidly among animals in NP than in SF. However, postmortem carcass pH, meat tenderness, meat color, meat chemical composition (moisture content, dry matter (DM), ash, Ether Extract (EE), and Crude Protein (CP)) were independent of concentrate supplementation (P > 0.05). The high performance of the SF group in terms of ADG, dressing percentage, and intramuscular fat deposition was associ- ated with utilization of high energy rich concentrate and improved utilization of wheat straw following concentrate supplementation. It was concluded that, in addition to the manipulation of the animals’ body through nutrition, other factors such as reducing pre-slaughter stress and appropriate ageing of meat should be manipulated to improve the meat quality of indigenous Zebu cattle.
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    Alternative goat kid-rearing systems for improved performance and milk sharing between humans and offspring in climate change mitigation
    (Springer International Publishing AG, 2015) Chigwa, Fanny C.; Eik, Lars Olav; Kifaro, G.C.; Muhikambele, V.C.M.; Mushi, Daniel E.
    Intensification of livestock production reduces the amount of land required to sustain a livestock unit and frees up the land necessary for carbon sequestration. Transforming the goat sector from meat only to a dual-purpose system with both milk and meat is reported to increase food production per unit of land. Dairy goats have been widely adopted among smallholders in Tanzania and are now gaining popularity in Malawi. High mortalities due to poor feeding of goat- kids have been identified as a major challenge and therefore kid rearing systems of different milking systems for dairy goats and use of different creep feeds and alternate rearing systems for meat goat on Likoma Island were evaluated. In study I, the methods used were (a) suckling one teat twice daily and milking the other teat; (b) suckling in daytime only and morning-milking of dams, and (c) early weaning and bottle-rearing using goat’s milk. In study II, three different types of locally available creep feed supplements were evaluated for animals grazed on unimproved rangeland. The third study qualitative differences in kid rearing systems for local goats, with or without milking, were evaluated on Likoma Island in Malawi using a semi-structured questionnaire. In study I, kid growth rates, ranging from 62 to 76 g/day did not significantly differ; one teat milking provided the most milk for human consumption and artificial rearing was found to be the most labor intensive and therefore not recommended under small-holder condi- tions. Goat farmers on Likoma Island preferred faster kid growth to more milk for human consumption. It is concluded that successful kid rearing systems should address farmer milk utilization and kid growth and evaluate locally available feeds for creep feeding and dam feeding.
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    Effects of concentrate supplementation on the fatty acid composition of fat depots in crossbred goats
    (Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2020) Mushi, D. E.; Eik, L. O.
    The effects of concentrate diet supplementation on the fatty acid compo- sitions of M. longissimus dorsi (LD), minced meat (MM) and omental fat (OF) in Small East African and Norwegian crossbred goats (9.5 months old, 17.1 kg live weight) were studied. Thirty-two castrated male goats were equally allotted into four levels of concentrate supplementation for 90 days: at 100% (T100), 66% (T66), 33% (T33) and 0% (T0) of ad libitum allowance. In LD and MM, proportions of linolenic acid and other n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decreased, whereas that of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) and total desirable fatty acids (DFA) increased with a higher level of supplementation. Concentrate supplementation had limited effect on the fatty acid composition of OF, marked by an increase in t-MUFA and CLA with a higher level of supplementation. Overall, concentrate supplementation beyond 66% of ad libitum feeding had limited effects on fatty acid composition, as depicted by the similarity between T66 and T100 goats in the proportions of oleic acid, CLA, total MUFA as well as n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in LD and MM. Irrespective of the level of supplementation, LD was associated with higher proportions of total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), MM with higher proportions of MUFA and OF with higher proportions of total saturated fatty acids (SFA). It is concluded that in order to optimise the healthfulness of goat meat, concentrate supplementation should be limited to 66% of ad libitum feeding. Consumers should be advised to refrain from high intake of internal fat depots due to the abundance of SFA and unfavourable n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.
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    Profitability of supplementary feeding of indigenous cattle in dry areas of Tanzania
    (Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2020) Ringheim, Alexander Solstad; Mushi, Daniel; Mtengeti, Ephraim; Selemani, Ismail; Åsli, Magnus; Eik, Lars Olav; Kimbita, Elikira; Asheim, Leif Jarle
    By 2050, global food consumption is expected to rise by 60% compared to the 2005–2007 level. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the population increase may be as much as 250% by the same period. Hence, there is an urgent need to increase food production and introduce productivity-enhancing measures in SSA agricul- ture, including the livestock sector, which is the main focus of this article. The cur- rent productivity of the Tanzanian livestock sector is low due to seasonal variations in the availability and quality of pasture and other feeds. The cattle gain weight during the rainy season and lose weight in the subsequent dry season. Additionally, pastoralists face challenges due to the conversion of grazing areas into cropland, overgrazing, and the increasingly frequent droughts. Although the optimum age for slaughter is 3.5–4.5 years, farmers in Tanzania slaughter their cows at 5–6 years. This article argues that this may be an unhelpful economical management practice. To study the effects of improved feeding on economic performance, we collected data on on-farm supplementation experiments with indigenous Zebu cattle, in col- laboration with pastoral communities and a large-scale commercial wheat farm in Hanang, Tanzania. The study compared the income and costs associated with tradi- tional cattle keeping (TS) for 6 years at slaughter, with that of two levels of concen- trate supplementation, low (LSS) and medium (MSS), allowing for slaughtering at 4.5 and 3.5 years, respectively. Adjusted net margins for the three systems were 199, 911 and 978 USD, respectively. Our results strongly suggest that farmers should supplement the feeding of their young stock regularly, in times when the animals cannot sustain themselves on grazing alone. The primary explanations for the rec- ommendation were that supplementation would lead to increased production of meat and reduced variable costs, that is, feeds and drugs. Our study was limited to steers. Future studies should include supplementation of cows to obtain annual calv- ing and use of crop by-products instead of concentrates.
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    Public-Private Partnership for Sustainable Production and Marketing of Goat’s Milk in Light of Climate Change
    (Springer International Publishing AG, 2016) Msalya, G.; Lie, H.; Mfinanga, V.; Ringheim, A.S.; Sandvik, R.; Åsli, M.; Christophersen, O.A.; Haug, A.; Mushi, D.E.; Mwaseba, D.; Kifaro, G.C.; Eik, Lars Olav
    In Tanzania, goat’s milk has a high market value due to its desirable nutritional profile and cultural recognition that it is beneficial to human health. A joint initiative between Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU) that introduced dairy goats to Tanzania has resulted in approximately 400,000 goats in the region to this day, providing households and communities with milk and various other animal byproducts. In areas such as the highlands of Mgeta in the Morogoro region, where there was previously no production of milk, dairy goats have achieved an average milk production of 1.4 L of milk per animal per day. This led to a rise in milk consumption from 0 L per household per day in 1988 to 1.6 L per household per day in 2012. Although the joint initiative between SUA and the NMBU was suc- cessful in diversifying the diets and improving the livelihoods of the poor, farm group efforts to distribute surplus milk to larger and more distant markets has remained a challenge. Suboptimum feeding practices and low education levels in milk handling and entrepreneurship may explain this lack of progress. In order to expand milk distribution beyond the local market, the involvement of an established dairy company is required. This paper will look at collaborations between farmers, private-milk-processing enterprises such as Shambani Graduates Ltd. (SGL) and a research institution (SUA) to discuss the value of milk in human nutrition and the feasibility of a pro-poor value chain for climate-smart goat’s milk processing and dairy goat maintenance.
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    Feedlot performance and profitability of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu finished on local feed resources in Kongwa District, Tanzania
    (Science Publishing Group, 2022-10-11) Kimirei, Saning’o Gabriel; Chenyambuga, Sebastian Wilson; Mushi, Daniel Elia; Msalya, George Mutani; Mpenda, Zena
    An experiment was conducted for 90 days to assess the effects of diets formulated based on locally available feed ingredients on growth performance, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and gross margin of cattle under feedlot condition in Kogwa district, Tanzania. Fifty bulls belonging to Tanzania shorthorn zebu breed, with the age of three to four years and average initial weight of 130 kg were used. The bulls were allotted to five treatments (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 , T 5 ) in a completely randomized design. Animals on treatments T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were kept under confinement, fed Cenchrus ciliaris hay and supplemented with concentrate diets formulated based on locally available ingredients while those on T 5 were grazed in natural pastures without being supplemented. The diet on T 1 contained maize bran as the sole energy source while T 2 comprised maize bran and rice polishing as energy sources, T 3 comprised maize bran and molasses as energy sources and T 4 had maize bran, rice polishing and molasses as energy sources. All diets contained sunflower seed cake and mineral pre-mixes as protein and mineral sources, respectively. The bulls subjected to concentrate supplementation (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 ) had higher (P < 0.0001) weight gain and growth rate than those on T 5 . Among the bulls supplemented with concentrate diets, those on T 3 had the highest weight gain (107 kg) and growth rate (1.28 kg/d) and lower FCR (6.48), followed by those on T 1 (weight gain = 96.70 kg, growth rate = 1.07 kg/d, FCR = 6.509). Moreover, the bulls on T 3 had the highest gross margin (TZS 235,471). In conclusion, the diet on T 3 was found to be better than the other diets. Therefore, it can be used by farmers for fattening of indigenous cattle at an affordable cost and obtain large profit.
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    Preliminary study on slaughter and meat quality characteristics of selected strains of Tanzania shorthorn Zebu
    (Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2021) Mushi, D.E.; Baruani, J.M.
    A study was carried out to assess slaughter characteristics and meat quality of five strains of Tanzanian shorthorn zebu (TSZ): Singida white (SW), Gogo (GG), Iringa red (IR), Maasai (MS) and Mbulu (MB). A total of 50 animals (25 entire bulls and 25 castrates) aged 3-4 years were sampled from five slaughter facilities in Tanzania. Slaughter traits, physicochemical properties and the response of beef from the five strains to post-mortem ageing were assessed. IR strain had the highest (P<0.05) values for estimated slaughter weight (ESW), empty body weight (EBW), hot carcass weight (HCW) and linear carcass measurements while MB strain had the lowest values for these parameters. IR strain was 48, 64, 25 kg heavier than MB in terms of ESW, EBW and HCW, respectively. MB strain had the least (P<0.05) proportion of bone in the carcass with about 3% unit less than the rest of the strains. SW strain had the highest (P<0.05) ultimate pH (5.9) while GG had the lowest (5.6). Meat from the GG strain had higher (P<0.05) values for relative redness (15.9) and yellowness (9.8) than that of other strains. Meat from the GG strain had the highest colour stability with only 0.5 units decrease in a* value even after 14 days of ageing. Meat from SW and GG strains became sufficiently tender (<55 N) just after 7 days of ageing whereas that from IR and MB became only moderately tender (55 – 75 N) even after 14 days of ageing. It is concluded that beef from GG strain is the most suitable for processing into high quality meat products owing to its high relative redness (a*), colour stability, tenderness and low pHu.
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    Feedlot performance of Tanzanian Shorthorn Zebu finished on local feed resources
    (Springer Nature B.V., 2020-07-07) Mushi, D. E.
    A study was conducted in Hanang District to assess potential for on-farm feedlot finishing of Tanzanian Shorthorn Zebu (TSHZ) in dry season using locally available feed resources. A total of 65 (2–3 years old, 150–250 kg LWT) steers were randomly distributed into two dietary treatments in three villages. The steers were finished either in feedlots using compounded diets or under free grazing in accordance with farmers’ practice. Following 90 days of feeding, all steers were slaughtered for detailed carcass and meat quality assessment. Growth performance, carcass and meat quality of experimental animals were assessed to determine feedlot performance of TSHZ. Results show that average daily gain of feedlot-finished animals (620 g/day) was nearly three-fold higher (P = 0.042) than that of grazed steers (223 g/day). Feedlot-finished steers produced 28 kg (P = 0.001) heavier carcasses than grazed ones. Carcasses from feedlot-finished steers cooled slowly as they had higher (P = 0.001) temperatures than that of grazed ones at 45 min (33.1 vs. 30.5 °C) and 6 h (21.0 vs. 19.5 °C) post-mortem. Feedlot-finished steers produced beef with higher (P = 0.003) marbling scores (3.4) than grazed ones (2.4). As a result, beef from the feedlot-finished steers was more tender (P = 0.016) than that from grazed ones, and it required 13 N less force to shear. It is concluded that TSHZ responds positively to improved feeding with significant enhancement on carcass gain and meat quality. Use of diets compounded using agro-processing by-products, instead of whole grain, can lower the cost of finishing TSHZ steers significantly.
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    Growth performance and carcass characteristics of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses or maize grain with rice or maize by-products
    (Elsevier Inc., 2015-11-03) Asimwe, L.; Kimambo, A.E.; Laswai, G.H.; Mtenga, L.A.; Weisbjerg, M.R.; Madsen, J.; Mushi, D.E.
    Forty five steers (2.5–3.0 years of age and 200 7 5 (SEM) kg body weight) were allotted randomly into five diets to assess the effects of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu (TSZ) cattle in feedlot using diets based on either molasses or maize grain combined with maize or rice by-products. The diets were hay and concentrate mixtures of hominy feed with molasses (HFMO), rice polishing with molasses (RPMO), hominy feed with maize meal (HFMM), rice polishing with maize meal (RPMM) and a control of maize meal with molasses (MMMO). All concentrate mixtures contained cotton seed cake, mineral mixture, salt and urea. Both hay and concentrate were fed ad libitum and with free access to drinking water for 90 days. Feed intake, body weights and carcass characteristics were recorded. The daily total dry matter intake (DMI, kg/day) was greater (Po 0.05) in molasses based diets (7.64 for RPMO and 7.35 for HFMO) than in maize grain based diets (6.94, 6.73 and 6.19 for RPMM, MMMO and HFMM, respectively). Energy intake was highest (P o0.05) in HFMO (86 MJ/day) and lowest in RPMM (69 MJ/day). Crude protein intake was highest in HFMO (867 g/day) and lowest in RPMO (725 g/day). Feed conversion ratio (kg feed DMI/kg gain) was lower (P o0.05) for steers fed on HFMM (7.87) and HFMO (8.09) than those fed on MMMO (10.4), RPMM (11.0) and RPMO (11.5). Steers fed on HFMO had the highest (Po 0.05) daily weight gain (919 g/day), total weight gain (83 kg), final live weight (283 kg), empty body weight (268 kg) and hot carcass weight (151 kg). The proportion of internal fat to empty body weight (2.7%) in steers fed on HFMO was higher (P o0.05) than those from other diets. Nevertheless, all carcasses showed relatively high fat cover (1.1–1.6 cm). It is concluded that agro-processing by products are good feed resources for finishing TSZ cattle in feedlots with formulations based on molasses being superior over those based on maize meal, and hominy feed being superior over rice polishing. A combination of molasses and hominy feed (HFMO) could be used successfully as an alternative to maize meal in finishing TSZ cattle in feedlot.
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    Productivity and parasitic infections of pigs kept under different management systems by smallholder farmers in Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania
    (Springer, 2015-05-05) Lipendele, Calvin Paul; Lekule, Faustine Paul; Mushi, Daniel Elias; Ngowi, Helena; Kimbi, Eliakunda Casmir; Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang
    An on farm experiment was carried out to assess the effects of production systems on the performance of local pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Six villages from Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania were purposely selected based on the prominent pig production systems: free range, semi- confinement and total confinement. Fifteen pig keeping households were randomly selected from each village to par- ticipate in the study. A participatory rural appraisal and struc- tured questionnaire were used for collecting information from the households on pig production and reproduction perfor- mance. In addition, a total of 180 weaner pigs, 2–3 months old, were purchased and randomly allocated to the 90 partic- ipating households. The pigs were subjected to three produc- tion systems: free range (M1), confinement with local diet (M2) and confinement with a compounded diet and anthel- mintic treatment (M3). The anthelmintic treatment (piperazine citrate) was administered at 1 g per kg body weight. Faecal and blood samples were collected at month three of the exper- iment to assess the burden of intestinal helminths and sero- prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis, respectively. Sows kept under free range system were reported to have smaller litter size both at farrowing and at weaning compared to those kept under confinement. The experiment showed pigs under M3 had higher (P<0.05) liveweight gains (136 g/day) com- pared to pigs in M2 (73 g/day) and M1 (68 g/day). In addition, pigs in M3 had higher body length and heart girth size with the feed to gain ratio of 8.5. Free range pigs tended to have lower faecal egg counts for most worm species compared to perma- nently confined pigs. Sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysti- cercosis was 26 %, with village prevalence ranging from 8 to 52 %. Although pigs kept in M3 performed better than the rest, the compounded feed was too expensive for the farmers to afford. Locally available feed types combined with vitamin and mineral supplements may be a more sustainable option.
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    Influence of age and method of carcass suspension on meat quality attributes of pure bred Ankole bulls
    (Elsevier B.V., 2014-09-09) Kamatara, K.; Mpairwe, D.; Christensen, M.; Eskildsen, C.E.; Mutetikka, D.; Muyonga, J.; Mushi, D.; Omagor, S.; Nantongo, Z.; Madsen, J.
    This study investigated the effect of age at slaughter, pre-rigour carcass suspension and their interaction on meat quality of longissimus dorsi from Ankole bulls. Ankole bulls (45) were evenly distributed into three age groups (2, 3 or 5 years). Immediately after slaughter, carcasses were weighed, halved and sides were either suspended in the Achilles tendon or pelvic bone until 48 h postmortem. Carcass weights, grades and fat scores increased (P o 0.001) with increasing age. Pelvic suspended sides had lower (P o0.001) chilling and cooking loss than Achilles-suspended sides across all age groups. Collagen solubility decreased (Po 0.001), while shear force increased (P o 0.001) with increasing age. Pelvic suspension decreased shear force across all age groups and the decrease was more pronounced in 5 year old bulls. The present study indicates that pelvic suspension is beneficial in eliminating the age-induced increase in toughness in longissimus thoracis from Ankole bulls.
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    Meat quality characteristics of small East African goats and Norwegian crosses finished under small scale farming conditions
    (Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2014-12) Hozza, W. A.; Mtenga, L. A.; Kifaro, G. C.; Shija, D. S. N.; Mushi, D. E.; Safari, J. G.; Shirima, E. J. M.
    The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of feeding system on meat quality characteristics of Small East African (SEA) goats and their crosses with Norwegian (SEA×N) goats finished under small scale farming conditions. Twenty four castrated goats at the age of 18 months with live body weight of 16.7±0.54 kg from each breed (SEA and SEA×N) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement (two breed, and three dietary treatments). The dietary treatments were; no access to concentrate (T0), 66% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance (T66) and 100% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance with 20% refusal (T100) and the experimental period was for 84 days. In addition, all goats were allowed to graze for 2 hours daily and later fed grass hay on ad libitum basis. Daily feed intakes were recorded for all 84-days of experiment after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/d, which was 183 g/d higher than that of T66 group. Supplemented goats had significantly (p<0.05) better feed conversion efficiency. The SEA had higher (p<0.05) hot carcass weight (8.2 vs 7.9 kg), true dressing percentage (54.5 vs 53.3) and commercial dressing percentage (43.3 vs 41.6) compared to SEA×N. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) for dressing percentage and carcass conformation among supplemented goats except fatness score, total fat depots and carcass fat which increased (p<0.05) with increasing concentrate levels in the diet. Increasing level of concentrate on offer increased meat dry matter with subsequent increase of fat in the meat. Muscle pH of goats fed concentrate declined rapidly and reached below 6 at 6 h post- mortem but temperature remained at 28°C. Cooking loss and meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) and thawing loss increased (p<0.05) with ageing period. Similarly, meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) with concentrate supplementation. Shear force of muscles varied from 36 to 66, the high values been associated with Semimembranosus and Gluteobiceps muscles. The present study demonstrates that there are differences in meat quality characteristics of meat from SEA goats and their crosses with Norwegian breeds finished under small scale farming conditions in rural areas. Therefore, concentrate supplementation of goats of both breeds improves meat quality attributes.
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    Influence of age at entry and level of concentrate feeding on growth and carcass characteristics of feedlot-finished Tanzanian long-fat-tailed sheep
    (Springer, 2014-03-22) Shirima, Eligy J. M.; Mtenga, Louis A.; Kimambo, Abiliza E.; Laswai, Germana H.; Mgheni, Dyness M.; Mushi, Daniel E.; Shija, Dismas S.
    A 4×3 factorial experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of age at entry to feedlot (AEF) and levels of concentrate feeding (LCF) on body weight gain, feed utilization and killing out characteristics of Tanzanian long- fat-tailed castrate sheep. The AEF points were 9, 12, 15 and 18 months, designated as AEF9, AEF12, AEF15 and AEF18, and the LCF were 50, 75 and 100 % of ad libitum concentrate intake designated as LCF50, LCF75 and LCF100, the last representing ad libitum concentrate intake with 10 % refusal rate. Grass hay as basal diet was offered ad libitum to each sheep. Daily feed intake and weekly live weight were record- ed for a period of 84 days. Animals were slaughtered and carcass and non-carcass parameters were recorded. Dry matter intake (DMI) of hay decreased while DMI of concentrate increased (p<0.01) with increasing LCF. Daily gain in high level (LCF100) was 93.1 g/day, almost twofold higher than that in low level (LCF50) of feeding (39 g/day). Overall dressing percentage ranged from 40.7 to 46.5 % and increased with increasing AEF. The proportion of carcass bone de- creased (p<0.05) with increasing AEF while that of fat in- creased (p<0.05) with increasing LCF. Age at entry × level of concentrate feeding interaction was detected for DMI, feedconversion ratio (FCR), slaughter body weight (SBW), muscle/bone ratio and bone (as % cold carcass weight (CCW)), but the effect was not regular. Entering fattening at 18th month seems too late, hence to get in the shortest time the highest output slaughter and carcass weights, fattening should start latest at 15 month.
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    Effect of concentrate supplementation levels on growth and slaughter characteristics of SEA and SEA × Norwegian goats under on- farm conditions
    (Springer, 2013-07-07) Hozza, William A.; Kifaro, George C.; Safari, John G.; Mushi, Daniel E.
    A 2×3 factorial experiment was carried out to eval- uate the effect of goat genotypes and different concentrate levels on growth and slaughter characteristics of Small East African × Norwegian crossbred (SEA × N) and Small East African (SEA) goats. The three concentrate levels were T0 (no access to concentrate), T66 (66 % access to ad libitum concentrate allow- ance) and T100 (100 % access to ad libitum concentrate allow- ance). Twenty-four castrated goats of each genotype (18 months old with an average weight of 16.7±0.54 kg) were randomly allotted into T0, T66 and T100 treatments. Daily feed intake and fortnight body weight measurements were recorded for the whole 84-day experimental period, after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/day, which was 183 g/day higher than that of the T66 group. Supplemented goats (T66 and T100) had significantly (P<0.05) higher daily gain and body condition score, and better feed conversion efficiency and dressing percentage than T0 goats. The SEA goats had higher (P<0.05) hot carcass weight (8.2 vs. 7.9 kg) and showed better (P<0.05) dressing percentage than SEA × N animals. Among supplemented goats, the cost of a 1-kg gain under T66 was Tshs 213/= cheaper than T100 (US$1≈Tshs 1,500). It is concluded that goats should be grazed and supplemented with 353 g concentrate/day for satisfactory fat- tening performance and higher economic return on investment.