Review: Rangeland management in Tanzania: opportunities, challenges, and prospects for sustainability

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Muzzo BI, Maleko DD, Thacker E, Provenza FD. 2023. Review: Rangeland management in Tanzania: Opportunities, challenges, and prospects for sustainability. Intl J Trop Drylands 7: 83-102. Rangelands in Tanzania play a crucial role in supporting local livelihoods and the country's economic development. However, their long-term sustainability is threatened. This review paper identifies challenges and explores opportunities to ensure their continued sustainability. Opportunities include implementing dedicated policies and regulations, using expertise in range science, leveraging technological advancements, investing in land for private ranches, using ample bushes and shrub resources for small ruminant production, and responding appropriately to high market demand for milk and meat from ruminants. Major challenges include insufficient technology and limited technical know-how, low and erratic rains leading to dry season pasture scarcity, infectious diseases and the spread of invasive species. Other challenges include conflicting interests from other land users that have led to the massive conversion of communal rangelands to croplands, and the need for areas to protect wildlife and human settlements. These challenges can be addressed by policy enforcement, strengthening pastoral organizations, fostering the growth of experts in climate-adapted forage and livestock breeding, and embracing advanced technology. Active involvement of local communities in decision-making processes and facilitating rangeland restoration can ensure the sustainable management of rangelands in Tanzania. Another promising avenue is the strategic use of locally adapted livestock species to control invasive plants, complemented by governmental enforcement of a grading system for meat and establishing a price-based quality meat market. Incorporating these prospects into rangeland management strategies can enhance the ecological sustainability and resilience of rangelands while supporting local livelihoods. Future research should focus on evaluating and implementing these strategies to promote sustainable rangeland management practices in Tanzania and elsewhere with similar environment.


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Invasive species, Nomadism, Rangeland improvement, Shrubs and bushes, Tanzania