Human Nutrition and Consumer Sciences Collection

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    Livelihood strategies and household food security of vegetable street vendors in Morogoro town, Tanzania
    (SUA, 2019) Sagaya, A
    The study attempts to examine the livelihood strategies and household food security of vegetable street vendors in Morogoro town, Tanzania. Specifically, the study sought to: (1) To document the nature of the institutional environment in which vegetable street vending business is taking place, (2) To identify the type and extent of livelihood assets owned by individuals working as vegetable street vendors, (3) To measure household food security and dietary diversity of vegetable street vendors and (4) To identify strategies employed by vegetable street vendors to cope with food shortage. A cross sectional study design with mixed methods of sampling was employed whereby data were collected from a total of 234 respondents between February and May, 2018. The study used both quantitative and qualitative data. Semi structured questionnaire, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to obtain the data. Descriptive, inferential, and content analysis methods were used for data analysis. The results showed that respondents own various livelihood assets categorized as human, natural, physical, social and financial capitals. On the other hand, the prevalence of household food insecurity was high (55.5%) among respondents and most of them consumed between 5-9 different food groups (moderate 50.5%) diverse diet. Several factors were identified to influence household food security. These include land size (p<0.000), type of ownership of land (p<0.005), house ownership (p<0.019), motorcycles ownership (p<0.005), bicycles ownership (p<0.005), relative distance to selling point (p<0.011), membership in community Organisation (p<0.000) and type of social Organisation (p<0.035). Others were access to credit (p<0.003), receiving remittances (p<0.000) and training received (p<0.014). Using binary regression model it was found that ownership of the house (p<0.038), membership of community Organisation (p<0.032), and type of transport used (p<0.000) were determinant of food security. It was noted that respondents employ a number of coping strategies during food shortages, which include selling labour, borrowing from relatives, diet change and getting support from relatives were common in the study area. The study concludes that food insecurity is still a problem in the study respondents. It is recommended that LGAs and NGOs support the sector through provision of training on business skills or entrepreneur, low interest credits, formulation of favourable policies to support vegetable vendors and empowering them by forming an association.
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    Effectiveness of selected food storage technologies in reduction of post-harvest losses of beans in selected households of Kilosa District, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2018) Kaseka, F. M.
    Cereal grain losses are high in sub-Saharan Africa countries, Tanzania inclusive. Information on protection of these losses is mainly reported for maize and other cereals but it is limited on bean, particularly for Kilosa district. This study was carried in Kilosa district, where by two wards (Malolo and Lumuma) were used to establish effective storage technology for bean storage and measure the level of understanding on post- harvest management. To measure effectiveness storage technology, different factors were put into consideration, e.g., ability to maintain storage moisture content of bean, ability to reduce bean damage by weevil (bruchids), price, availability and challenges on the use of particular technology. Beans from 20 farmers were kept in three different storage technologies mainly; Metal Silo, Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) and Polypropylene bag (polypropylene bag), and stored for six months. Household survey data showed that there was little knowledge and limited awareness of the community regarding post-harvest management and the mycotoxin problem. The mean percentage bean damage were 23.6, 15.2 and 6.4% for polypropylene bag, silo and PICS, respectively. Overall results showed that PICS was the most effective in terms of beans damage reduction, price affordability and availability. During storage there were some few observations like weakness of PICS bag that made bruchids able to make holes on the two layers of polyethylene and facilitate air entrance. None had received any formal or informal training on postharvest management. The study recommends post-harvest management training of agricultural extensions officers who after the training disseminated the knowledge to farmers. Extension of the hermetic storage technology to beans seems essential. For metal silo technology to be widely adopted subsidy looks necessary to reduce its price.
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    Local perceptions of household’s vulnerability to food insecurity in Bahi district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2011) Shausi, Gosbert
    The study assessed household vulnerability to food insecurity as locally perceived in Bahi district. It was based on the four randomly selected villages namely Mpamantwa, Ibihwa, Mnkola and Bahi Sokoni. Primary data were collected by interviewing 100 farming households, village elders, village leaders and Ward Agricultural Extension Workers. The study addressed the local perceptions of food security and vulnerability to food insecurity; characteristics of households vulnerable to food insecurity and; the strategies employed by households during food shortages. It was locally perceived that a household which took less than 12 months to exhaust millet stock was food insecure and the household vulnerable to food insecurity was the one most likely to remain or become food insecure which was characterized by: owning a relative small piece of land; earning too small income to enable it buy household food; have no alternative source(s) of income other than sale of farm crops; have no livestock; headed by elderly; and does not have millet stocks. Sixty three percent of sampled households were food insecure while 80% were vulnerable to food insecurity. The ANOVA and t-test revealed that the number of food sources, household size, household’s income, marital status of household head, ownership of livestock and size of land were significantly related to household food security. The study concludes that the presence of more vulnerable than food insecure households was an indication that even some of food secure households were at risk of becoming food insecure. The study recommended, among others, that strategies to address food insecurity should focus on both food insecure and vulnerable households.
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    Iodine status of pregnant and lactating women in Arusha municipality
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2011) Marealle, Roseline
    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine iodine status of pregnant and lactating women in Arusha Municipality. Urine and salt samples were collected from a total of 429 respondents who were visiting Themi and Ngarenaro Reproductive and Child Care clinics. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-economic and demographic information from respondents and also wholesale and retail salt traders to ascertain their knowledge about iodised salt and IDD. Results revealed that, overall median UIC for pregnant women (33%) was 205 μg/l (95% CI; 26.7%, 39.2%), and lactating women (22.8%) was 155.5 μg/l (95% CI; 17.1%, 28.4%). Median UIC for pregnant women (62.9%) in Themi was 122 μg/l (95% CI; 46.6%, 79%), while median UIC for lactating women (28.2%) was 178.1 μg/l (95% CI; 20.8%, 35.5%). The median UIC for pregnant women (36.5%) at Ngarenaro was 233.9 μg/l (95% CI; 29.5%, 43.4%), while median UIC for lactating women (39.2%) was 123.5μg/l (95% CI; 27.6%, 50.7%). The recommended UIC for pregnant and lactating women range of 150-249 μg/l indicate adequate iodine intake. These results suggested that, those pregnant women from Themi ward had mild iodine deficiency while the lactating women had optimal iodine intake. Pregnant women from Ngarenaro ward had adequate iodine intake while for lactating women had mild iodine deficiency. About 34% (95% CI; 23%, 44%) of pregnant women had UIC above recommended safety levels of >500 μg/l which suggested that, pregnant women might have excessive iodine intake. Likewise, 15% (95% CI; 3%, 33%) of lactating women had UIC levels above the recommended levels of >500 μg/l suggesting that, lactating women could also be taking excessive iodine. Excessive intake iodine could be due to increased iodine intake from foods due to high levels ofiodine in salt used in cooking. It was concluded from the study that, most respondents had adequate iodine intake. However, 34% and 15% of pregnant and lactating women, respectively, had excessive iodine intake. There is a need to re- examine iodation levels to comply with the WHO recommended levels of 40 ppm at factory. Further studies involving large population groups should be done to ascertain the looming risk of iodine toxicity among pregnant and lactating women.