Theses and Dissertations Collection

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    Assessment of socio-economic factors influencing women participation in environmental management in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2004) Natai, Margaret Mtemi
    This study was undertaken to assess the socio-economic factors influencing women participation in environmental management. Tree planting and solid waste management were taken as indicators of environmental management. The specific objectives were to; document on how urban women contribute to disposal of solid domestic waste and tree planting as indicators of environmental conservation, identify socio-economic factors influencing women participation in domestic waste management and tree planting and assess women’s knowledge and perception on environmental conservation issues. A survey was done in 12 wards of Dar es Salaam City where women from randomly selected households were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions done with government officials from solid waste management and forestry departments in all municipals, and women from private solid waste management associations in order to get the opinions and suggestions regarding tree planting and solid waste management in their localities. The data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Programme (SPSS), Chi-square tests, regression analysis and descriptive statistics. The study revealed that 97 percent of women in the city were involved in domestic solid waste management through collection, storage and disposal of solid waste, while 38 percent were involved in tree planting activities. Participation of women in tree nursery production was mainly motivated by economic gains though it contributes to environmental management through provision of tree seedlings to the community. Generally, household solid waste management was done exclusively by women. Poor storage facilities, poor collection and poor disposal methods were the major problems hampering the efficiency of women participation in domestic solid waste management. On the other hand small plot areas and land ownership were the factors that hinder women contribution to tree planting in the city. Education, land ownership, marital status and income were the most important socio- economic factors influencing women participation in environmental management especially tree planting. Participation in environmental management activities will likely depend on how aware the community is on environmental management issues. Education on the different facets of environmental management will boost women participation in environmental management.
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    Potentials and constraints of eco-tourism in improving nature conservation and livelihoods: the case of Amani nature reserve, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2009) Shoo, Rehema Abeli
    Amani Nature Reserve (ANR), which is within the Eastern Arc Mountains, is well known for its biological and ecological values. Eco-tourism is being practiced in the reserve. However, despite the fact that eco-tourism has been proposed as a viable economic activity that can minimize negative human impacts on wildlife habitat and provide an incentive to preserve natural areas, little has been reported on the potentials and constraints of the practice in the area. This study was conducted in the villages adjacent to ANR, to determine the potentials and constraints of eco-tourism in nature conservation and livelihoods improvement in and around ANR. Questionnaire survey, Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and key informant interviews were the methods used in data collection. The results reveal that there are enormous natural (flora, fauna and sceneries) and cultural resources for development of productive eco-tourism in ANR. However, the existing potential is not fully exploited. Despite an increase in tourists and hence revenues in ANR, little is accrued by the local communities. Results further show that eco-tourism contributed only 9.6% to total household income annually and only 22.7% of the surveyed households were engaged in eco-tourism-relatcd activities. The study concludes that the existing level and type of involvement in eco-tourism is not effective enough to bring about significant impact, which comes into view that the potentials for eco-tourism in improving livelihoods is yet to be realized in the area. Increased local community involvements in tourism in order to improve people’s livelihoods and to enable them understand the inter-relationships between humans and the environment are recommended.
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    Estimation of volume and biomass for pinus patula tree species grown at Suatf Plantation Olmotonyi-Arusha, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2014) Pastory, Msalika
    This study was done to estimate volume and biomass of Pinus patula tree species grown at Sokoinc University of Agriculture Training Forest plantation in Arusha region. P. patula is the most widely planted tree species in Tanzania compared to other exotic tree species. Quantification of carbon stock in forests is a key component in the implementation of the emerging carbon credit market mechanisms. This calls for development of appropriate allometric models for predicting biomass which currently are scarce. Fifty trees with minimum and maximum dbh of 4.3 and 65 cm respectively were sampled for destructive sampling. Four model forms for volume and biomass were fitted and selection of the best models based on the Alkaike Information Criterion. Tree volume and biomass models were developed. Basic wood density, biomass expansion factor and Root to shoot ratio were determined. Testing for applicability of existing models was carried out. The sawlog stem volume and aboveground biomass estimates derived from previously developed models were not significant different (P > 0.05) from the observed sawlog stem volume and aboveground biomass respectively while significant different (P < 0.05) was revealed between the observed total tree volume values and total tree volume estimates derived from the existing total tree volume model. Stand sawlog and total tree volume estimated using the developed equations ranged from 73.45 ± 8.97 to 387.8 ± 56.06 and 101.66 ± 12.23 to 490.96 ± 69.87 m3 ha1 for the tree age of 4 and 28 years respectively. Aboveground and belowground biomass estimates ranged from 18.68 ± 2.61 to 213.33 ± 31.70 and 3.33 ± 0.49 to 60.39 ± 9.68 Mg ha'1 respectively while total tree biomass ranged from 37.16 ± 4.73 to 269.20 ±41.33 Mg ha'1 for tree age of 4 and 28 years respectively.
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    Deforestation in the deforestation in the Himalayas: Mainstream views, institutional failure and 'alternative system'. a case study from Northern Pakistan.
    (Norwegian University of Life Science, 2009-06) Ali, Jawad
    The sustainable management of forests is of central concern to the local people who depend on forest resources for their livelihood, to international conservation agencies, and to the legal custodians of the forests, the forest services. This study explores the roles of these actors in forest management in the Northern Areas of Pakistan, particularly in the Basho Valley in the Baltistan region. During the last three decades, the mainstream view of deforestation in the Hindukush-Himalayan region attributed the phenomenon to increased local use due to population growth. This view has been contested in recent years by those who see deforestation rather as a result of complex changes in the socio­ economic conditions of the region. This study contributes to this debate by means of providing empirical data from Basho. The study consists of three papers and an introductory chapter. The introductory chapter discusses some of the key approaches to studying common property management, including political ecology, property rights, and co-management. It describes the local and policy context, the implications of the study for the Protected and Private Forests in the NAs and summarizes the main conclusions. Paper 1 uses local data on firewood consumption and timber extraction from the Basho Valley to investigate whether the general perception regarding forest depletion due to population growth is supported by empirical data. The results of Paper 1 indicate that local firewood collection is not the main cause of deforestation. Instead, deforestation has occurred due to commercial harvesting and mismanagement by the government Forest Department. Paper 2 investigates the extent and time period of deforestation in the Basho Valley. Using oral sources as well as satellite imagery, Paper 2 estimates a 50 percent loss of forest cover over the last 30 years, while population growth has been relatively low. Therefore the theory of massive deforestation due to population growth is not supported by the data collected and analyzed in Paper 2. Instead, it was found that large quantities of timber and firewood were removed on the basis of informal permits called chits during a period of commercial harvesting in the 1970s and 80s. The results show that most of the iiiwood was taken out by contractors and members of what is called the ‘timber mafia’, after the construction of the Basho link road in 1968. Paper 3 explores institutional aspects of forest management, exposing the limitations of conventional ideas regarding corruption in the forestry services. The data gathered for Paper 3 show that, faced with a severe shortage of resources. Forest Department officials engage in what is called ‘alternative systems’, in order to perform their official tasks. Through such ‘alternative systems’, they generate extra-legal resources to finance official tasks. Conventional analyses focus only on the deficiencies of forest services, and fail to offer constructive, realistic assessments of the potential positive role the forest services could play in community-based resource management. The paper identifies possible areas of intervention in order to improve the functioning of the Forest Department of the Northern Areas (NAs) of Pakistan. Combining the data in all three papers and in the relevant introductory chapters, this study shows that the forests in the study area have been severely depleted. While this has been due largely to the weakness of the Forest Department, the response - a greatly increased role in resource management played by conservation agencies, without a concomitant strengthening of the government Forest Department - is problematic. Conservation agencies claim to promote conservation through decentralization and local participation. While a certain degree of decentralization in the NAs has occurred, real powers have, to a large extent, shifted from the Forest Department to conservation agencies, rather than to local communities. The strengthening of the power of international conservation agencies in this manner, at the expense of strengthening a national institution for natural resource management, will undermine community interests in the long run. This is due to the fact that in reality, the approach of the conservation agencies remains as centralized as the Forest Department’s conventional approach has been.
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    Variation, association and Inheritance of morphological and wood characters in an improvement programme for eucalyptus dsglupta blume
    (Australian National University, 1972-03) Davidson, John
    DAVIDSON, J. (1972) Variation, association and Inheritance of morphological and wood characters In an Improvement programme for Eucalyptus dsglupta Blume. Ph.D. Thesis, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. Up to 93 percent of variation In the wood of 20-year-old Eucalyptus dsglupta Bl. has been explained by four components of a principal components analysis. Fibre cross-sectional characters were the main parameters contributing to this variation. Dens Ity satisfactorily represented the main and one subsidiary component which, together, represented 70 per cent of the total variation. Density was easy to measure and had a phenotypic variation of about 20 per cent of the mean value.. It had a broad sense herltabillty of 0.68 ± 0.17 and a narrow sense herltablllty of 0.44 ± 0.23 In seedling material. Density could be modified Irrespective of growth rate and stem form In trees 14-20 years old. Hence wood density Is a very suitable factor for Including In a tree Improvement programme.
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    Estimation of foreign tourists’ willingness to pay for conservation of threatened species in Serengeti national park, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2022) Rugaimukamu, Christian
    Willingness to pay studies are common studies that are done worldwide for various reasons. Normally before setting new prices the study of this kind is conducted so as to measure readiness and how much should be added without compromising service consumption. Therefore this study was conducted in Serengeti ecosystem with overall objective of estimating foreign tourists’ willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of threatened species. The study aimed specifically at, solving financial constraint to conservation of threatened species through; finding out the level of foreign tourists’ WTP, determining factors that influence foreign tourists’ WTP and assessing the influence of satisfaction level with animal species on WTP. A sample size of 145 respondents was purposively drawn to represent entire population. Primary and secondary data for this study were collected through semi- structured questionnaire, key informants interview and direct observation and then analyzed with descriptive statistics, multiple linear regression and content analysis. Findings indicated that 63% of the respondents showed a WTP additional amount for conservation of threatened species, out of which 52.6% were willing to pay up to 60 USD more. It also showed that parameters of respondents’ age and education were found to be statistically significant at 0.01 level of significance, whereby respondents’ average income per month were statistically significant at 0.05 level of significance. However findings revealed that there was an inverse relationship between WTP and respondents’ age. This was perhaps due to the fact that older tourists have less income compared to younger ones, thereby leading to low level of WTP. Moreover findings showed that R 2 = 0.536 implying that 53.6% of the variation in dependent variable willingness to pay, was explained by the variables included in the model. Satisfaction level with animal species also appeared to have influence on WTP by 89% of the respondents who ranked it as “highest” and “high”. Therefore, the study recommended that an additional amount could be introduced as new entrance fee, proper implementation and facilitation of wildlife watching tourism, strategic marketing and educating the community on conservation. Doing this would ensure the survival of threatened species hence sustainable tourism activities in Tanzania.
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    Assessment of the status of agroforestry practices in Mvomero district, Morogoro, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2022) Mwakalalile, Emmanuel M.
    The present study on assessment of the status of Agroforestry practices adoption in Mvomero District, Morogoro, Tanzania. The study was conducted during September 2020 to December 2021 at Dihombo, Hembeti and Mkindo villages in Mvomero ward. Mvomero with its three villages were purposively sampled, and then thirty households from each village were randomly selected to make a total sample of 90 households, Data collection was done through reconnaissance survey, questionnaires, checklist of probe questions and field survey. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and inferential statistics with the aid of Statistical package for Social Science (SPSS). The results indicated that Agriculture contributes more than Agroforestry in terms of food and income generation. Also when the Data analyzed descriptively on the contributions of Agriculture and Agroforestry on fire wood and charcoal to the people, it found that, there were very small differences in contribution between Agroforestry ad Natural forest, but on further inferential statistics it found that, there were no significance in differences contributions of fire wood and charcoal as a source of energy between Agroforestry and Natural forest, both used as sources of fire wood and charcoal. From results, it is important to increase efforts on the promotion of the Agroforestry so as to increase on the adoption of Agroforestry which then will help to increase the wide range of food production and will reduce the uses of the fire wood and charcoal from the Natural forestry which then reduces the environmental destruction by cutting down trees as a sources of firewood and charcoal. Also factors that can enhance adoption of agroforestry were analyzed descriptively, the results shows almost all factors were on the similar percentage, also factors which limit the adoption of the agroforestry ware in similar percentages, So all of the factors that enhance adoption of agroforestry and those which limit adoption of agroforestry should be taken in consideration in order for improvements of the agroforestry
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    Assessment of trade flows of wildlife products: the case of Ruaha landscape, Tanzania
    (Sokoine university of agriculture, 2022) Mrosso, Hillary T
    Wildlife species are utilized and traded in a wide range of items, including food, clothing, medicines, pets, ornaments, building and construction materials all over the world. However, in many parts of East Africa, the trade patterns of these products are inadequately documented, making it difficult to build good strategic management and long-term conservation plans. The Ruaha landscape in southern Tanzania is home to a potential animal population and is one of the hotspot locations for wildlife trade. The purpose of this research in the Ruaha landscape was to (i) assess the wildlife poaching practices (ii) to assess the temporal variation of illegal hunting and (iii) Map illegal trade flow of wildlife products and facilitation methods in the Ruaha landscape Tanzania. A semi-structured interview was conducted using the Snowball method to gather the necessary information. The data was analysed using Chi-square tests, Social Network Analysis (SNA), and Generalized Linear Models (GLM) with Poisson and Binomial error distributions. Impala, did-dik, guinea fowls, kudu, and lions were found to be the most hunted species, and meat, skin, claws, fat, and ivory were the most often collected wildlife products. The majority of the products were utilized for food and as sources of revenue. Domestic dogs, spears, snares, and torches were found being used in hunting and this was frequently being done at night. Occupation, ethnic group, religion, residency time, number of individuals participated in each hunt, presence of moonlight, age, and education of respondents were the factors influencing the hunting. However, during the last five years, the overall tendency revealed a drop in hunting, while animal protection in protected areas increased. According to the findings, 70% of the wildlife products came from Ruaha National Park and MBOMIPA Wildlife Management Areas, with the other 30% coming from villages near these protected areas. Bicycles and walking were the primary modes of transportation for wildlife products. In addition, the findings suggest that respondents have long and deep relationships with their clients and merchants, the majority of whom are friends and relatives. It was also shown that the majority of poachers are motivated to engage in illegal wildlife trafficking by their friends and relatives. Furthermore, in circumstances where customers and sellers lacked cash, commodities such as corn and rice were traded for wildlife products. When it comes to illegal wildlife hunting the findings of this study provide critical information on the importance of taking species and ethnic group peculiarities into account. Wildlife protection, such as day and night patrols, is critical, particularly at night. In order to address illegal wildlife hunting in this landscape, sociological aspects must be taken into account. Increased law enforcement could have a positive impact on the declining trend of wildlife hunting. As a result, it is suggested that providing conservation education, in combination with an employment, may help to reduce illegal wildlife product off-take in the Ruaha landscape.
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    Germination characteristics and early seedling growth performances of vachellia erioloba, pterocarpus angolensis and dalbergia melanoxylon
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Tselakgosi, Keamogetse Olga
    The exploitation of Miombo trees, including Vachellia erioloba, Pterocarpus angolensis and Dalbergia melanoxylon depends on the naturally growing populations because their domestication in artificial plantations has little success. The rate at which D. melanoxylon and P. angolensis are harvested is of great concern considering that the trees regenerate poorly in the forest because of poor survival of seedlings. There is also a delay in seed production for D. melanoxylon and the seed is susceptible to diseases. The assessment of germination characteristics and early seedling growth of V. erioloba, P. angolensis and D. melanoxylon was conducted to provide scientific recommendations on the outcomes of the effects of pre-treatments on germination and seedling growth. Two experiments were conducted on seed germination with a complete randomized design (CRD) with four replications in the laboratory and on the seedling growth from germinated seeds in the nursery. The germination experiment involved five pre-germination treatments; (i) hot water treatment at temperature of 100oC for 30 minutes; (ii) chemical scarification method using concentrated Sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) 98% exposure for 20 minutes; (iii) 6% Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) exposure for 20 minutes; (iv) mechanical scarification; and (v) control. After the germination experiment, seedlings were taken to the growth room then arranged in a CRD design. Shoot length, root collar diameter, and number of leaves were measured after every five days until they reached five months old. Root diameter, root length, dry weight and green weight were taken at the end of the experiment. Results from the study identified optimum seed germination mean percentages of the three species to five pre-treatments where by mechanical scarification showed a higher percentage of 78% in V. erioloba while hot water had a lowest percentage of 23%. For P. angolensis, mechanical scarification had the highest percentage of 68%, while the lowest percentage was 33% in the Hydrogen peroxide treatment. D. melanoxylon, had a higher germinationiii of 58% with hot water treatment while seeds could not germinate (0%) with Sulphuric acid treatment. Moreover, results showed a significant differences in the shoot length, number of leaves and root- collar diameter in all pre-sowing treatments for the three tree species (P<0.05). The recommended pretreatment for P. angolensis and V. erioloba is mechanical scarification while hot water is recommended for D. melanoxylon.
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    The impacts of land tenure systems on range land productivity, health and resource use conflicts in Northern Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Koka, Eliengerasia Godliving
    Worldwide, rangelands comprise the largest land use, estimated to cover about 25% of Earth’s land surface. Rangelands cover at least 10 million km 2 of the earth's land surface and are estimated to cover about 66% of the land surface in Africa. Although there are variations among countries, for example rangeland cover 44% in Uganda, 65% in Ethiopia, in Tanzania 74%, and 80% in Kenya. Land tenure in rangeland is often categorized as private, communal, open access, and state rangeland. Conflict in rangelands can happen between different groups like pastoralists and other pastoralists, pastoralists and crop growers, crop growers and rangelands management, pastoralists and rangelands management and boundary conflict, although conflict between pastoralist and crop growers is common in many areas in Tanzania. The study aims to assess the impact of land tenure change on rangeland health, productivity and resource use conflicts. Two rangelands from different tenure system were selected. Data on vegetation, above ground biomass, soil organic carbon (SOC), species composition, and diversity were collected from 90 rectangular plots (20 x 50 m) distributed randomly in selected rangelands managed under open access and communal management. Perceptions on resource use conflicts and drivers were assessed through a semi-structured interview with 180 households from six villages. An independent t-test was used to compare differences in vegetation biomass, species diversity, and Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) between open access and communal rangelands. Two Way Cluster Analysis (TWCA) was used to assess plant species assemblage in both rangelands. Descriptive analyses were used to assess trends in resource use conflicts in the two rangelands.
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    Soil moisture dynamics and components performance in relay intercropping of tephrosia vogeli1 and maize in semi-arid Gairo, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2005) Ngegba, Moses S.
    A study investigating the effect of time of planting and spacing of Tephrosia on soil moisture and components performance in relay intercropping with maize were conducted at Gairo, Tanzania in three seasons. A split-plot design with main plot factor as time of planting having levels 0, 2 and 4 weeks after maize and spacing as minor plots factor with levels 30 x 90 (Tv30), 60 x 90 (Tv60) and 90 x 90 (Tv90) cm (intercrop and monoculture Tephrosia vogelii) plus control (TvO), was laid in the first season. For second and third seasons, a split- split-plot design was laid, where spacing treatment was split to two levels of fertilizer (without and with half and full recommended doses of N and P respectively). In the first season, soil moisture was assessed within 100 cm soil depths using Profile Probe. Maize height and stover yield were assessed at tasselling while grain yield was assessed at maturity, and Tephrosia biomass yield was assessed at three, six and eleven months of growth. Soil bulk density, organic carbon and root biomass yield were assessed at 11 months. In the second and third seasons, field mineral nitrogen and maize yield were assessed. Highest soil moisture and maize yield were maintained with Wk2Tv60 in first season. At three months in intercrops, total shrub biomass was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Wk2Tv30 than the rest. Total shrub yields at eleven months in monoculture plots were 2-6 times higher than intercrops. Mean shrub biomass increment, mean shrub height increment and mean shrub diameter increment were significantly higher (P<0.05) in Wk0Tv90 than the rest between six and eleven month assessments for intercrops. Soil properties after eleven months did not consistently differ, but monoculture Tephrosia showed superiority in most cases over intercrops. Maize yield was maximized with fertilized monoculture Tephrosia, but unfertilized intercrops recorded 50 and 58 percent increase over unfertilized TvO in second and third seasons, respectively. The study concludes that Tephrosia rclay-intcrcroppcd with maize can enhance sustainable maize production in land-scarce semi arid areas and recommends further study on continuous intercropping involving various provenances of Tephrosia.
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    Productivity ,cost, wood waste and environmental impact of the current and improved logging operations in Ugandan forest plantations.
    (Sokoine University of agriculture, 2007) Balimunsi, Kivumbi H.
    This study was conducted in two logging site in Uganda to collect information on major factors responsible for the current wood waste and ground surface disturbances during logging in order to provide a basis for future selection of the most suitable and appropriate forest harvesting methods and techniques in plantation forests. The two plantation forests selected were Mafuga on steep slopes and Katugo on flat terrain, where Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) and Conventional Logging (CL) methods were compared. Data on logging productivity, cost, wood waste and ground disturbance were collected and analysed. Felling production rates were found to be lower under RIL. In Mafuga for example, felling production was 16.39 m3/hr as compared to 25.78 m3/hr when using CL. In Katugo productivity was 20.40 m3/hr when using RIL as opposed to 34.47 m3/hr when applying CL. This was because directional felling (RIL) consumed more time than the random and uncontrolled felling during (CL). Productivity however can be improved if workers practice more directional felling and undergo more RIL training courses. During the application of RIL, limbing was carried out as a separate operation in order to improve the quality of logs. Limbing production rates were 19.93 m3/hr for Mafuga and 17.94 m3/hr for Katugo plantations. RIL was more productive than CL during the bucking operation in Mafuga, producing 10.09 m3/hr against 9.29 m3/hr respectively. In Katugo productivity was almost similar (RIL, 10.08 m3/hr against 10.61 m3/hr CL). Productivity when applying RIL can be even better through further practice and training. Log rolling production was higher under RIL, producing 6.99 m3/hr against 5.79 m3/hr during CL in Mafuga. In Katugo productivity was 5.22 m3/hr under RIL against 4.04 m3/hr under CL. This improvement was achieved through proper application of appropriate logging techniques and close supervision. Production cost per cubic meter delivered at the mill was slightly higher under RIL relative to CL, costing 1738.33 Ushs/m3 against 1724.11 Ushs/m3 in Mafuga and 1795.15 Ushs/m3 against 1755.30 Ushs/m3 in Katugo. Increase in wood recovery per tree however seemed to have outweighed this slight difference in production cost. RIL managed to reduce wood waste by 30% for Mafuga and 29% for Katugo and ground disturbance by 59% in Mafuga. In Katugo ground surface disturbance was not significant. During the course of the study the following conclusions were drawn; Logging operators and supervisors in most forests have no training in their field, there are no safety precautions and safety gears neither provided nor used. Training of operators can reduce wood losses and ground disturbance besides improving productivity, and Government and funding agencies need to place greater emphasis on the development and delivery of training in the forest industry.
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    Gum Arabic studies in Tanzania : production, utilization and economic potentials
    (University of Wales, Bangor, 2003-11) Makonda, Fortunatus B. S
    Studies on gum arabic in Tanzania were conducted in eleven districts aiming at estimating the country’s potential and current production, assessing its utilization and contribution to the local and national economies and its marketing channels. For the gum yield studies, 1,106 trees represented in four diameter classes were sampled and tapped by de-barking a portion of the stem at breast height. The tree parameters assessed were dbh, height and number of branches. Gum from the trees was collected four times at an interval of three weeks, and weighed using a sensitive electronic weight scale. A total number of 518 circular 0.1 ha plots each were selected using a systematic random sampling method for the inventory of Acacia Senegal and other associated woody species. The plot characteristics assessed were elevation, climate, soils, terrain type and disturbance by bush fires whose intensity levels were recognised as 1, 2 and 3. For the studies on actual gum arabic production, economic potentials and marketing data were collected using social survey methods from 630 gum collectors as well as 630 non collectors living in gum producing areas, in 64 villages, eight gum middlemen and three final gum buyers and exporters. The quality of gum was assessed using 90 samples from each district. Secondary data were collected from district and regional forest and natural resources offices in which gum arabic is collected and several other public offices. Data analyses were carried out using the Microsoft Excel package of Microsoft Office 98 and 2000 and SPSS employing descriptive statistics, one-way statistical analysis of variance and regression analyses. Results indicated that the overall mean gum arabic yield per tree is 246±333 g, greatly influenced positively by tree size particularly diameter, up to an optimum size, temperature, fire intensity and stem crowdedness. The overall mean population density of Acacia Senegal was estimated as 225 stems ha'1, marginally influenced negatively by altitude and positively by temperature. The actual mean annual gum arabic production was 4,030 ± 15 metric tonnes composed mainly of gum from A. drepanolobium (65 %), therefore not qualifying for the name gum arabic rather than gum talha. There is a serious lack of a clear definition of gum arabic from the exporters to the collectors, leading to its haphazard collection and trading without processing and grading. All gum is collected from trees in natural stands and not by tapping, by mainly women (44 %), children (30.5 %) and male livestock herders (25.5 %). The gum is important to the subsistence economy of many rural people, using it for food, medicine and glue. The gum is also economically important to the collectors, the middlemen, the final buyers and exporters and local and central governments. The business is however, purely a private enterprise, highly disorganised and controlled by the final buyers and exporters in which the bulk of the gum (75 %) is traded unrecorded. The gum collectors are therefore, the most disadvantaged group receiving the minimum payment in the whole chain. Managing Acacia Senegal plantations for gum is economically viable with LEV of TShs 814,529, NPV of TShs 469,089 and IRR of 63 % at rotation age of 9 years and interest rate of 10 %. Among the recommendations given by these studies include tapping Acacia Senegal trees, gum processing and grading, improvement of the existing A. Senegal resources and closer monitoring of the trade by the local and central governments.
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    Present consumption and forecasting of sawnwood in Arusha and Moshi municipalities
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2008-06) Machumu, Raphael Musomi
    carried out in Arusha and Moshi Municipalities for the year 2007, 2012 and’2017 to determine the consumption of sawnwood in the target years. The sampling units were obtained from a sampling frame of a list of Wards in each municipality bv random selection. A sampling intensity of 30 % of the population was applied in all Questionnaire on specially prep were used to obtain data from the interviewees and data from respective public offices. The was doze usfrm SPSS and MS excel ' I56CC'■er Arusha Municipality and 4 904.5C~ > f CI SHVn-.¥CC., were respectively of sawnwood. In Moshi Municipality' about consumed was hardwood. The per 1000 capita consumptions for —her in Arusha indicating that Arusha consumed nearly 2.50 times more sawnwood than Moshi Municipality. The high incomes in the area influenced the greater consumption of sawnwood in Arusha Municipality than in Moshi Municipality'. Forecasted consumptions for Arusha 108.05m3 for 2007, 329.724m3 for 2012 and 1006.29m3 in 2017. While in Moshi the consumption forecasts are 41.80 m3 in 2007, 200.70 for 2012 and 331.30m3 in 2017. From these results the consumption of timber in the two Municipalities shows to be increasing, all types of hardwood timber species The study on Present Consumption and Forecasting of sawnwood Consumption was consumed included the lesser known. There is a large demand of sawntimber in both Municipality are : o j es were collected from registers in c she w and the remaining 5 307.49 m3 was hardwood, repres f of sawnwood consumed in 2006. In Arusha Munlcmalitv softwood interviewees were selected randomly. and Moshi Municipalities were 86.44 nT and 33.98 mJ programmes. The results of consumed cases. From the selected wards Ill Municipalities and that their sources were too far, about 1000 km away. It is recommended that more efforts are needed through afforestation by increasing areas under forests and by following sustainable forest management procedures
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    Effectiveness of sustainable land management practices in controlling invasive plants and improving crop productivity in East Usambara, Tanzania.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Kaaya, Omega, Emmanuel
    Invasive plant species (IPS) present significant threats to agriculture globally by increasing land preparation and weeding costs and reducing agricultural productivity, consequently IPS reduce yield which leads to low food security particularly for smallholder farmers. In Africa’s agro ecosystems, the management of IPS has been challenging due to a lack of sustainable practices. The traditional practices that have been used are ineffective. Sustainable Land Management (SLM) practices which are developed by diverse stakeholders have the potential to control IPS and improve small-holder farmers’ livelihood but their effectiveness have not been studied. We tested SLM practices and traditional practices to compare their effectiveness in the control of three IPS namely Lantana camara, Clidemia hirta and Pteridium aquilinum, on five farms owned and managed by small-holder farmers. We assessed the farms planted with Cassava (Manihot esculenta) for one cropping season (one year), we compared IPS density, soil condition, plant species diversity and herbaceous biomass between SLM farms and Traditional farms. We also compared the yield of Cassava between SLM practice and traditional practices. Density of IPS, diversity of plant species, and herbaceous biomass and cassava yield was recorded. Data were collected before the implementation and every three months up to the end of cropping season, at the end of the cropping season yield data were collected for both practices. The SLM practices reduced the density of the three IPS, Clidemia hirta by 94% Lantana camara by 96% and Pteridium aquilinum by 46% and the yield of Cassava was 20% higher in SLM practices than under traditional practices. SLM practice significantly reduced IPS density and improved cassava yield with no effects to soil and plant diversity. Therefore, the study findings suggests that SLM practice used is effective enough to be recommended to farmers in control of IPS.
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    Effects of insect pollination on okra fruit set and yield along selected habitat gradients at Kilombero District, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Magwira, Joseph A.
    Pollination is the most important ecosystem services for biodiversity of plants on earth. Insect pollinators are playing an indispensable role in the pollination of agricultural crops such as okra (A. esculentus). The main objectives of the study were; to determine the effects of insect pollination on okra (A. esculentus) fruit set rate and yield at Kilombero district, Tanzania. The split plot design was used, where okra plots were arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two treatments and three replications from the edges of natural forest and sugarcane plantation. GenStat Discovery Edition 4 and Microsoft Excel 2021 computer software programs were used in the data analysis. Results indicated that the dominant okra insect pollinators were Macrogalea candida, Braunsapis bouyssouri, Borbo borbonica and Apis mellifera. The insect pollinator species abundance, richness and diversity were higher at the edge of natural forest than sugarcane plantation. The okra plants from the edge of natural forest had significantly higher mean numbers of pods per plant and seed weight per 100 seeds than those from sugarcane plantation. Insect pollination had high significant effects on Okra yield (P < 0.05). In addition, there was high significant effects of insect pollination on okra fruit set rate (P < 0.05). The research has concluded that insect pollinators have substantial effects on fruit set rate and yield of food crops such as okra (A. esculentus). In addition, natural habitats are important. Therefore, conservation of insects' friendly habitats such as natural forests is highly recommended to avoid their decline and consequently declining of pollination services.
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    Analysis of charcoal market system in Handeni, Kinondoni and Magharibi "A" Districts, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Marandu, William D.
    This study aims to analyse the charcoal market system in Handeni, Kinondoni and Magharibi A districts. Despite of the profits gained by charcoal actors in the value chain, the actors are not paying charcoal government fees and unregistered, thus making a significant loss of government revenues through royalties evasion. This study analysed the roles of each actor in value chain, examined the profits gained by each actor, analysed supporting functions and assessed enabling environments for charcoal business in study areas. A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyse the charcoal market system in study areas. Data were collected through questionnaire surveys, Indepth interviews and focus group discussion. Results from descriptive statistics show that among the interviewed respondents charcoal actors play a role of paying the charcoal government fees; Charcoal wholesalers were nearly three thirds (74.2%) while producers were less than half (47.1%) and one third (35.7%) were retailers. Charcoal transporters were more than half (52.8%) played a role of transporting charcoal with government payment documents while very few consumers (9.2%) had received charcoal receipts from sellers. There was a high statistical significant difference of profit gained between charcoal actors who were registered and those who are not registered by using Man- Whitney test (P <0.01). On supporting functions, descriptive analysis shows that about 23.5% of charcoal producers from Handeni district trained on charcoal business. Charcoal wholesalers (46.0%) from Magharibi A district accessed the bank loans. About 44.1% of charcoal producers from Handeni district urged roads were in good to support the business. All charcoal wholesalers from Magharibi A district used charcoal selling centres. All wholesalers found in Magharibi A district joined the charcoal groups. Most of charcoal wholesalers (92.3%) from Magharibi A district urged market information support charcoal business. All charcoal producers used earth mound kilns for charcoal productions. Thematic and descriptive analysis used to assess business enabling environments. Five themes emerged: Charcoal business registration, movement documents, revenue collection and records, agreement between TFS and DFNR- Zanzibar and unstainable charcoal production. Further, supporting functions are unavoidable to make charcoal actors to pay government fees and register their business. This study recommends that policy makers should develop charcoal trade guideline between Government of Tanzania mainland and Zanzibar.
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    Socio-economic and ecological implications of sustainable land management practices for controlling invasive alien species in Moshi rural and Muheza Districts, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Malila, Barnabas P.
    Various practices for controlling invasive alien plant species have been implemented but often end up on the initial stages of implementation due to lack of social acceptance as they are introduced through a top-down approach, high costs of the practices, and poor effectiveness of the recommended practices. Therefore, understanding the relevance of land management practices jointly selected by the community to control invasive alien plant species in different forms of land uses is of great importance. This study aimed to provide a better understanding of socio-economic and ecological implications of sustainable land management practices for control of invasive alien plant species. The study was conducted in Amani (Tanga region) and Kahe (Kilimanjaro region) wards which have been invaded by invasive alien species Lantana camara L and Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) respectively. Specifically, the study aimed to (i) determine factors influencing willingness for adoption of sustainable land management practices, (ii) assess the impact of sustainable land management practices for managing invasive alien plant species on livelihoods of individual farmers, and (iii) determine effectiveness of sustainable land management practices in controlling Prosopis juliflora. Kahe and Amani wards were purposively selected due to the presence of information on invasion by P. juliflora and L. camara respectively. In each ward, four villages were randomly selected as follows: Mlesa, Shebomeza, Mbomole, and Mkwinini (Amani) and Oria, Mtakuja, Chekereni, and Mawala (Kahe). In each village, thirty (30) respondents were selected randomly. Data collection utilized different methods; For the first objective, A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from 240 heads of households from eight villages affected by the alien invasive plants. For the second objective, key informant interviews were conducted using a checklist to 12 farmers who were controlling Prosopis juliflora using SLM and traditional (control) practices to collect data on cost of implementing practices, benefits accrued after starting to implement the practices and yield of crop produce on each cropping cycle. For the third objective, complete enumeration of Prosopis juliflora was done to capture number of individuals present on 12 farms (50 x 50 m) before implementing the practices and after implementing the practices on the third cropping cycle. The results revealed that households’ farming experience, income, invasive species cover, and awareness on conservation to be associated with willingness for adoption of SLM practices for control of L. camara and P. juliflora. The study also revealed higher net benefit in implementing SLM practice compared to traditional practices. Furthermore, the SLM practice was effective in control of invasive alien species (P. juliflora) density compared to traditional practices. The study concludes that smallholder farmers are willing to adopt SLM practices for control of IAPS in Amani and Kahe wards, higher net benefits were observed from SLM practice than traditional practices (control), and the number of individuals per hectare (Prosopis juliflora) was significantly low (F (1,10) = 10.27, p=0.0094) on Sustainable Land Management (SLM) practice compared to traditional practices for control of P. juliflora. I recommend that Sustainable land management (SLM) practices should be promoted through awareness creation campaigns on conservation so that to increase people’s willingness to adopt SLM practices for control of L. camara and P. juliflora. Also, there should be programs for early detection and rapid response (EDRR) to eradicate P. juliflora while at small infestation levels to avoid higher cost of managing them at later stages and local government should introduce new native tree species that will be useful to the community after removing Prosopis juliflora and this will ensure that the land is not left bare.
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    The influence of climate change on bee species distribution across habitat types in Kilombero Sagcot cluster, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) Magesa, Debora M.
    Introduction Bees are known to be the most important group of insects. They are economically and ecologically important to humans. Bees provide various products such as honey, bee wax and bee venom on which human society depends for livelihood. Bees further provide pollination services to agro-ecosystems and natural habitats without which productivity in these ecosystems would not be possible. The diversity and distribution of bee species is determined by type, quantity and quality of suitable habitats in an ecosystem. Several studies have confirmed the influence of climate change on bee distribution. Bee species are expected to respond differently to climate change, either by range shift or disappearance due to loss of their suitable habitats. This study was aimed at assessing the distribution of bee species across habitat types and the influence of climate change on bee populations in the Kilombero SAGCOT cluster of Tanzania. Methods Stratified sampling was employed, where the stratification was based on habitat type. The habitat types were; Closed Forests (CF), Grasslands (GL), Woodlands (WL) and Agro- ecosystems (AE). Transects were established within the strata and plots measuring 20 m x 40 m (0.08 Ha) were laid along the transects. The distance between transects was 300 m and between plots was 200 m. Sweep netting and pan trapping were used to capture bees within the plots. At each plot identification and enumeration of each bee species collected was done. The identification was done later in laboratory using taxonomical keys. Bee species composition was determined as the list of the identified bee species. Euclidean distance measure of similarity and Raup-Crick dissimilarity index were used to compare the similarity/dissimilarity in bee species composition between the habitat types. Bee richness was determined as the number of bee species encountered, relative abundance of bee species was determined as the number of individual of each species relative to the total number for all species. Bee species diversity was determined by the Shannon-Wiener and Simpson Diversity Indices. Bee species evenness was computed by the Pielou's measure of species evenness, (J = H'/ln(S) where H' is Shannon Weiner diversity and S is the total number of species in a sample, across all samples in the dataset. Chi- square test was used to compare bee abundance and richness between habitat types. The influence of climate change on the distribution of dominant bee species was determined using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modelling. The four most dominant bee species selected for modelling were; Apis mellifera, Meliponula ferruginea, Hypotrigona ruspolii and Liotrigona bottegoi. Pearson correlation was used to determine multicollinearity between the environmental variables. The environmental variable obtained after running multicorrelation analysis were; Bio11, Bio13, Bio15, Bio18, Bio19, Bio3, Bio4, Bio7 and Land cover. The highest scenario for GHG emissions (RCP8.5) was used for future prediction of bee distribution for the years 2050 and 2070. Response curves were used to determine the relationships between the environmental variables and the probability of occurrence of bee specie. Jackknife test was used to determine the variable of importance and percentage contribution of variable in influencing bee specie distribution. Findings A total of 818 individual bees, belonging to 169 species from five families were collected during the study period. The dominant family was Apidae and the least dominant was Andrenidae. Euclidean distance measure of similarity shows high similarity of bee species composition between woodlands (WL) and closed forests (CF). The bee species found in Grasslands (GL) were more similar to WL compared to bee species found in the Agro- ecosystem (AE). The bee species in AE were less similar to CF, WL and GL. Pairwise comparison show the habitat types which were significantly different in bee species composition were; CF and AE (p = 0.03), WL and AE (p<0.001) and WL and GL (p<0.001). Bee species abundance differ significant in all habitat types (Chi sq = 5.34; d.f = 3; p = 0.04). Shannon-Wiener Index of Diversity (H’) was highest in GL (H’ = 3.358) and lowest in AE (H’ = 2.012) while evenness was high in CF (E = 0.422) and lowest in AE (E = 0.141). This study revealed that bee species diversity, richness and abundance vary across the habitat types in Kilombero, thus potential implication on habitat conservation and bee species composition and diversity. Precipitation of the wettest period (Bio13) contributed to about 70% in influencing bee distribution on current and future climate change of highest emission scenario (RCP8.5) for the years 2050 and 2070. The study predicted that A. mellifera and M. ferruginea will lose their suitable habitats under future climate scenario of 2050 while H. ruspolii and L. bottegoi will experience slight gain in suitable habitats. Under the future climate scenario of 2070, all bee species will lose their suitable habitats. Conclusion There is apparently high bee species composition, richness and diversity in the Kilombero SACGOT cluster and the distribution varied across habitat types. Climate change has a significant influence on the current and future distribution of bee species in Kilombero SAGCOT cluster with precipitation of the wettest period being the main climatic variable influencing the future distribution of bee species. Loss of suitable habitats for most bees is the major future climate impact on bee population thus conservation of suitable habitats for bees is of paramount importance. Recommendation Mainstreaming these observations in the Kilombero Cluster Development Framework implementation of different cluster value chains, it is important if we should have sustainable production systems that consider both environment and agriculture production. There is a need to develop climate adaptation and mitigation strategies for conservation of bee populations in Kilombero which consider conservation of the potential areas where predictions show a reduction in habitat suitability for bees. Bee conservation under the changing climate needs to consider habitat connectivity to allow bee migration not only between current suitable habitats, but also to the future suitable habitats as predicted by the model. Long term monitoring in changes in the dominant bee populations is essential for predicting future climate change response. Given the potential influence of habitat type on bee populations, future studies should go further on studying the influence of vegetation composition on bee abundance and diversity and their interactions. Dissertation Structure This dissertation is in publishable manuscripts format, which consist of four main chapters. Chapter one comprise of the General introduction, Problem statement, Justification of the study and Objectives. The chapter two (Manuscript one) is on the assessment of bee species composition and diversity across different habitat types in Kilombero SACGOT cluster, Tanzania. The chapter three (Manuscript two) is on the influence of climate change on the distribution of dominant bee species in Kilombero SAGCOT cluster, Tanzania. The chapter four is on the general conclusion and recommendation of the study.
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    Occurrence, management and forecasted distribution of pine pitch canker disease on pine plantations in Tanzania.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) EMILY, COSMAS JOHN
    Pine Pitch Canker (PPC) is a disease of pine trees caused by Fusarium circinatum. The disease is reported to damage pine plantations and woodlots in Tanzania. Disease attack result in a reduction of productivity which causes significant loss of national income. The disease occurrence and distribution is influenced by various factors such as climate, topography, and management practices. Currently in Tanzania there is an increasing rate of PPC disease incidences on pine plantations and woodlots mostly affecting tree aged 5 – 6 years. The risk of disease spread in Tanzania is high due to the wide distribution of host range, as pine covers about 78% of planted trees in mono-culture plantations. Numerous studies have been conducted to predict the suitable areas of PPC disease distribution to various parts of the world. The global prediction of climatic suitability to pitch canker disease by the CLIMEX model showed Tanzania as one of the areas suitable for disease establishment. However, the model was biased showing a larger portion of PPC establishment on water bodies in Tanzania, possibly due to limited occurrence records for Tanzania during model calibration. Furthermore, there is no records of PPC disease incidence and severity; and the pattern of suitable areas for disease establishment in Tanzania. Therefore, the study aimed (i) to determine incidence and severity of PPC disease in pine plantations for different management regimes, (ii) to determine the influence of management practice and stand characteristics on PPC disease incidence and severity, and (iii) to predict the suitable areas for PPC disease distribution in Tanzania. The study employed different sampling and data collection methods. To determine the incidence and severity of PPC disease in pine plantations, purposive sampling was usediii where three management regimes comprising of government managed plantation, large- scale private managed plantation, and small-scale private pine woodlots were selected. A total of 14 square plots of 20 x 20 meters were established, at an interval of at least 100 m apart in each selected plantation. Assessment of disease infestation was done to 25 individual trees near the plot center totaling 1050 trees for the whole study area. A Pine Pitch Canker severity ranking system was used to determine disease severity index (DSI), and a total number of symptomatic trees were used to determine disease incidence (DI). The management practices were obtained from compartment register and by interviewing key informant. Stand parameters including tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and height were measured. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare means of disease incidence and severity index between management regimes. Then, Tukey’s Honest Significant Difference (HSD) test was employed to separate the means within different management regimes. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to establish the association between disease incidences, severity index and stand parameters. The effect of management practices on PPC disease incidence and severity index was determined by using multiple linear regression model. The management practices comprise; land preparations techniques, seed source, weeding, spacing, pruning, and thinning. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) was used to predict the suitable areas of PPC establishment. Pine Pitch Canker disease occurrence and environmental variables (climate and topographic) were used in prediction. The GPS coordinates for affected areas were obtained from the field survey, plantation managers, woodlots owners and various published and unpublished reports. A total of 70 affected points were used in prediction of the potential distribution of PPC disease in Tanzania.iv The disease incidence was significantly higher in large-scale private plantations and woodlots (p< 0.05) than government-owned plantations. The results were similar to disease severity index which was significantly higher at large-scale private plantations than government managed plantations (p< 0.05). It was found that, the disease incidence and severity was significant negatively correlated with stand age, DBH and height regardless of the management regime. Among the practice that may cause a wound to tree stems, only pruning had a positive significant influence on disease incidence and severity. Maximum Entropy model accurate predicted the suitable area for PPC disease establishment in Tanzania with area under the curve (AUC) value greater than 0.9. Bioclimatic variables related to temperature have a high percentage contribution to the model. The mean temperature of the coldest quarter (Bio11) and temperature seasonality (Bio4) contributed higher to the prediction with 68% and 32% respectively. The PPC disease establishment is much favored under scenario of low emission of Green House Gases (RCP 2.6). Since under RCP 2.6, the predicted suitable area for PPC disease occurrence will be stable in 2050 with a minor smaller decrease in 2070. But under scenario of high greenhouse gases emission (RCP 8.5) the model predicts a continuous decrease of suitable areas for PPC disease occurrence from the current climate condition to future (2070) climatic condition. The model predicts areas suitable for PPC disease will cover much on southern, southern highland, and northern zones of Tanzania. The study conclude that PPC disease exist in all management regimes with a high occurrences on the private managed plantation in Tanzania. The disease incidence and severity correlated negatively with height, DBH and age. The management practices that are likely to cause a wound on tree stems especially pruning increase chance of PPC occurrence and severity. Bioclimatic variables related to temperature (mean temperature ofv the coldest quarter (Bio11) and temperature seasonality (Bio4)) influence and limit the distribution of PPC disease. Southern highland, southern and northern zones of Tanzania were predicted to be high susceptible to PPC disease infestations. The PPC disease establishment is much favored with a low concentration of greenhouse gas that provides an intermediate warmer environment and high humidity level. Under current conditions, the area suitable for PPC disease establishment is much larger than that of future climate scenarios. The study recommends development of holistic management approach to include all tree growers to reduce the spread of PPC disease to pine plantations. Pruning should be done during the dry season with minimum damage level, to reduce the chances of infections through wounds. Also effective screening of imported seeds should be done before planting. Furthermore, the study recommends the development of strict quarantine and monitoring system of the disease so as to prevent introductions of the pathogen to the predicted regions where PPC disease is not reported.