Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Collection

Permanent URI for this collectionhttp://10.10.97.169:4000/handle/123456789/1002

Browse

Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 29
  • Item
    Performance of evening street markets of agri-food products in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2011) Habib, Zobida Habib Omer
    The study aimed at assessing the performance of street evening marketing of agri-food products in Morogoro municipality by examining the structure of evening agri-food street markets, assessing the conduct of sellers, analysing performance of the markets in terms of cost and profitability, and identifying factors underlying profitability. A structured questionnaire was administered to 118 sellers and 40 consumers selected using convenience sampling. The results showed that the market structure for both snack-meals and fresh fruits were competitive, with concentration indices of 20.64% and 18.98% respectively, and 83% of sellers derived their income entirely from the business. Profit margin analysis showed that the snack-meals sellers in the town centre earned significantly (P<0.05) more profit per day (TAS 39 142) compared to sellers in the periphery (TAS 16 225). Although fresh fruit sellers in the town centre earned more profit per day (TAS 10 157) compared to sellers in the periphery (TAS 7 811), the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.1). Regression analysis indicated that gender product diversification and type of product had a significant (P<0.05) positive impact on the sellers’ profit. Results also showed that majority of consumers (58%) preferred the street food because it was cheap, with 40% of them preferred to eat fried banana with beef barbeque. In conclusion, street evening marketing in Morogoro municipality is profitable and competitive, with limited barriers to market entry. Recommendations include enhancing the operational efficiency of evening street agri-food markets and formalisation of the operations by the municipal council through: allocation of hygienic premises, provision of business permits and facilitation of formation of sellers’ associations to promote growth and credit worthiness of the evening agri-food street markets.
  • Item
    Production and marketing of paddy and cotton in Ulanga district of Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 1998) Gabagambi, Damian Mulokozi
    Agriculture market reforms have been underway in Tanzania since mid 1980s. The ultimate objective of such policy change was to improve agricultural marketing efficiency in the economy. The extent to which this goal has been achieved in various parts of the country needs to be analysed. This study therefore attempts to assess the agricultural marketing problems in Ulanga district, Morogoro, Tanzania. The main objective of the study was to assess the marketing efficiency of paddy and cotton systems in the study area with a view to identifying areas of weaknesses which need improvements. A sample of 85 paddy and/or cotton producers and 40 paddy traders were interviewed using structured questionnaires. The production season was confined to 1994/95 production season. The tools of analysis used include descriptive statistics, correlation and regression. The results of the analysis revealed that (i) farm gross margin and returns to inputs for both crops were very low; (ii) in terms of market concentration ratio, and pricing efficiency there was some improvements in the paddy marketing system due to competition among traders; (iii) operational and pricing efficiency indicated that there is still a lot more to be done to improve the situation. For both crops, production and marketing costs in some operations were found to be unnecessarily high because of poor infrastructure and lack of competition on the part of cotton sector; and (iv) paddy producers were being discouraged by price instability.From the above results it is recommended that (i) paddy productivity be increased using appropriate technology to enable producers benefit from low average production cost; (ii) crop buying posts be established in each-village where exchange could take place. Apart from reducing collection cost to traders the buying posts would increase market transparency thereby motivating market participants which could result into improved marketing efficiency; (iii) the problem of small working capital for traders could be solved by carefully planned and monitored revolving fund scheme. This could start by identifying honest traders in the area; (iv) to minimise price fluctuations in the paddy marketing systems forward contracts and futures trading could be encouraged. For cotton marketing it is recommended that (i) cotton productivity should be increased so that private buyers could be motivated to invest in the cotton sector in Ulanga District; (ii) the present ginneries should be privatised so that cotton buyers in the area could have access to them at a ginning fee; (iii) the long bureaucratic procedure before obtaining licences to handle cotton should be minimised. This could be achieved by leaving this task with the Tanzania Cotton Lint and Seed Board TCLSB); (iv) road communication system in the study area if improved could facilitate production and marketing of agricultural products in the study area.
  • Item
    Effects of decentralization on the functionality of health facility governing committees in lower and middle-income countries: a systematic literature review
    (Taylor & Francis, 2022-05-02) Kesale, Anosisye M.; Mahonge, Christopher; Muhanga, Mikidadi
    Background: Health facility governing committees (HFGCs) were established by lower and middle-income countries (LMICs) to facilitate community participation at the primary facility level to improve health system performance. However, empirical evidence on their effects under decentralization reform on the functionality of HFGCs is scant and inconclusive. Objective: This article reviews the effects of decentralization on the functionality of HFGCs in LMICs. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted using various search engines to obtain a total number of 24 relevant articles from 14 countries published between 2000 and 2020. Inclusion criteria include studies must be on community health committees, carried out under decentralization, HFGCs operating at the individual facility, effects of HFGCs on health performance or health outcomes and peer-reviewed empirical studies conducted in LMICs. Results: The study has found varied functionality of HFGCs under a decentralization context. The study has found many HFGCs to have very low functionality, while a few HFGCs in other LMICs countries are performing very well. The context and decentralization type, members’ awareness of their roles, membership allowance and availability of resource to the facility in which HFGCs operate to produce the desired outcomes play a significant role in facilitating/ limiting them to effectively carry out the devolved duties and responsibilities. Conclusion: Fiscal decentralization has largely been seen as important in making health committees more autonomous, even though it does not guarantee the performance of HFGCs.
  • Item
    Effect of processing on quality of cassava flour in Rwanda: a case study of Kamonyi and Ruhango districts
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2014) Nayabo, Alice
    Consumption of cassava products, which linked to diseases such as Konzo. The need to study the effect of processing methods on the quality of cassava flour in Kamonyi and Ruhango was necessary. A survey was conducted to identify processing methods. Flours from locally processed cassava and modem industries were screened for nutrients, cyanogenic potential, physico chemical and microbiological quality using official methods of analysis. The survey results revealed that cassava was processed by fermenting them by submerging peeled whole roots(local 1) or pieces (modem 1) in tanks or wetland (unpeeled roots, local 2) or by grating (modem 2). They also showed that fermentation effluent water was often reused for next batches. The analytical results showed that the cyanogenic potential from the processing methods ranged between 0 and 10 ppm, which was within the EAC recommendations (lOppm). Cassava flour from chips processed by Modem 1 and 2 had moisture content within the EAC recommendation of 13% (max). For processing methods Local 1 and Local 2, results showed high moisture content (19.3 - 26.2%) above that recommended by EAC. This explains the high microbial count (bacteria, 2.6 - 5.5 log CFU/g and coliforms, 2 - >1600 MPN/g) but fungal count was within the WFP recommend value of 51og CFU/g. The pH (6.19 - 7.49) and TTA (0 - 1.05%) for both methods (local and modem) indicated microbial activity taking place. The cyanide in cassava flour was within the permissible limit of less than 10 ppm, thus not a health problem. The microbiological quality of cassava flour in studied districts confirmed that the processing methods used did not follow the good hygienic practices and thus affecting safety of cassava flour. Use of tap water and modem driers for processing and close monitoring to ensure strict compliance are recommended.
  • Item
    Consumers’ reactions to involvement of large retailers in selling of fair trade coffee
    (Newcastle University, 2010) Nandonde, Felix Adamu
    The Fairtrade Labelling International Organisation (FLO) reported recently global sales of Fair Trade (FT) products estimated to reach €1.3 billion in 2009. Certified FT coffee is the leading commodity and estimated to be 0.01 of the international coffee trade. The United Kingdom is among of the major market of the Fair Trade (FT) products with annual growth sales of 33 percent and sales estimated to reach £700 million in 2009, while coffee sales stand at £ 157 million and estimated to be 20 percent of the country coffee business. Recently worldwide expansion of FT with other factors was highly reported to be accelerated with the involvement of large retailers (LRs). Since 2002 when own label of FT products was introduced in the UK, grievances started and many authors criticised the FLO movement of commercialisation by giving LRs licence to use Fairtrade mark, which once were produced by alternatives trading organisations (ATOs). To reach mass market FT products needs LRs distribution channels which many retailers started to stocked FT products e.g The Coop stocked Cafedirect FT coffee since 1994. However, the challenge is on the use of own label and the willingness of the LRs to implement the Fairtrade guiding principles for the benefit of small producers in the South. The purpose of this research is to explore consumers’ reactions to the involvement of large retailers (LRs) in selling FT coffee. Two objectives addressed by the study related to coffee, first understanding factors influencing coffee purchase intention and consumers attitudes to involvement of LRs in selling FT coffee. And two analytical techniques used to analyse data collected in June, 2010 in the high street of Newcastle by face to face interviews. (1) Factor analysis conducted with sample of 219 coffee consumers to understanding factors influencing purchase decision, (2) Cluster analysis employed to identify customers’ reaction to LRs involvement in selling FT coffee. Factor analysis was employed to identify consumers’ attitudes towards coffee. The study indicates that credence processing attributes are the major factors that influence consumers in the intention of coffee purchasing in the UK. such as ‘ethical’, ‘production techniques and fair trade products’. However, credence process content attributes such as ‘quality’ and decaffeinated coffee are most significant in influencing consumers’ attitudes towards coffee. Second is on cluster analysis, two clusters identified, cluster one is the male ‘ethical consumers’ influenced by retailers image and social responsibilities activities. This group is Findings of the study need to be interpreted with cautions because, there are two major additional factors can change coffee purchase. in favour of LRs to use their own label. Cluster two is female ‘ethical and well being consumers, the group is not favouring LRs to have their own label for fair trade coffee. Interesting findings is that this group is not against the involvement of LRs to sell FT coffee limitations first js-the^ample size is a very limited number of the UK coffee consumers, second is the result based on the evaluation of hypothetical attributes of coffee and any additional factors can change coffee purchase.
  • Item
    The effects of state intervention in public parastatals: the case of Tanzania dairy farming company limited Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 1994) Ng'ui, Urughu Emmanuel
    The study aimed at analyzing the effects of state intervention on the performance of public parastatals in Tanzania with special reference to the Tanzania Dairy Farming Company Limited (DAFCO). The specific objectives of the study were to: (a) Describe the milk production trends, marketing and pricing arrangements; (b) Analyze the effects of government intervention policy on the performance of marketing and pricing of milk; (c) Determine alternative Marketing and pricing arrangements of milk and other dairy products (heifers and bulls) from DAFCO farms; (d) Develop a dairy subsector policy in marketing and pricing; Both primary and secondary data were collected and analyzed by employing both qualitative and quantitative methods. The results on trends of milk production in DAFCO farms, revealed two phases of production i.e. an increasing phase between 1976 and 1982 and decreasing one between 1982 and 1991. Milk production increased from 1 220.2 thousand litres in 1976 to 4 570 thousand litres in 1982 and decreased to 2 371 thousand litres in 1991. The study showed that production performance of DAFCO has deteriorated greatly compared to the original design and objectives, (milk production decreased from highest of 4 571 to 2 371 thousand litres (-48%) , milk yield per cow per day decreased from highest of 7.7 to 6.8 litres (-12%), total herd decreased from highest of 5 592 to 3 633 heads (-35%) and milking cows decreased from highest of 1 686 to 930 heads (-45%). It was also found that the company has been making financial losses in all fiscal years except for 1977 when it reported a net profit of Tshs 23.8 million. The study also revealed that through Government intervention policy DAFCO was directed to sell all its milk to TDL as its sole marketing channel and milk prices were determined and fixed by the government, this policy was found to be detrimental to DAFCO. Results of regression analysis model indicated that price of milk is negatively related to quantity of milk produced which is contrary to economic theory. This indicated how firms which are protected through state intervention are not sensitive to market signals. Other variables i.e. price of feed, the minimum wage rate and trend variable were found to have the right relationship to quantity of milk produced as implied by economic theory i.e. increase in feed price will result into decreased milk production, increase in wage rate will lead to increased milk output and that for trend variable, improvement in dairy technology will result into increased milk production. All these variables were found to be significant at 0.05 significance level in determining milk production in DAFCO. farms with the explanatory power of 87.6% which shows that they are all important factors to be considered for decisions involving milk production. Policy recommendations include: (a) DAFCO to be given sole autonomy in decision making on its own policies, objectives and strategies and planning process; (b) The company should take the open market as the only marketing channel for its products. The prices of milk and other dairy products should also be determined by open market forces of supply and demand; (c) DAFCO should seek for funds from internal and external as well as from its own sources. It should also look for both internal and external joint ventures; (d) Husbandry aspects i.e. disease control and feeding procedures should be improved to reduce cattle's high mortality rates; (e) Technological improvement is required to increase production; (f) Managerial skills should be improved through recruitment of qualified and experienced staff and offering further training; (g) All farms need to be well equipped with adequate farm machinery and equipments for their development
  • Item
    Value chain analysis for cassava in the eastern zone of Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2008) Njau, Pudensiana Hipolity
    A study was conducted in the Eastern zone of Tanzania to evaluate the existing value chain for cassava using the Profit Margin and Sustainable Livelihood Approaches. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and Participatory' Rural Appraisal (PRA). The results of analysis showed that cassava was marketed mainly as a fresh root, dry roots/chips and cassava flours. The analysis of livelihood assets revealed that PANTIL project farmers had more favourable livelihood portfolios than their counterpart non-PANTIL project farmers. The former owned significantly larger land holdings than the latter farmers (P < 0.05), averaging at 2.4 versus 1.7 ha. respectively. When human capital was evaluated using the proxy of average years of schooling for family members aged 25 to 64 years, the results showed statistically significant higher portfolios of human capital for PANTIL project farmers than non- PANTIL project farmers (P < 0.05). The difference in human capital measured in terms of Adult Labour Equivalent was not significant (P < 0.05). The PANTIL farmers had also adopted more cassava processing technologies than the non- PANTIL farmers (P < 0.05). The former farmers obtained higher net margins than the latter (a mean difference of Tshs 129 919 which was significant at P < 0.05). The study recommended that the government should help facilitating the introduction and adoption of appropriate technologies that can reduce labour bottlenecks and enhance cassava production, processing, marketing and utilization. The opportunity for processing enterprises must be identified based on the existence of viable market opportunities and the financial aspects of technology acquisition (affordability) and operation should be taken into account.
  • Item
    Cassava value chain analysis in Mkuranga district coast region in Tanzania.
    (Sokoine Universityof Agriculture, 2011) Kihwele,H. M
    The aim of this study was to conduct cassava value chain analysis in Mkuranga district.The data was collected from 90 farmers, 15 farmer processors, 7 service providers and 30 traders from different markets located in Mkuranga district Coast region, Temeke, Ilala and Kinondoni Municipal in Dar es Salaam region. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data from farmers’ while for other categories of respondents the appropriate checklist was used to gather information concerning their participation in cassava value chain. Both quantitative and descriptive analysis was applied. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft excel statistical soft ware used for analysis. The results show that the key actors of cassava value chain include research institutions, input suppliers, farmers, processors, small traders, brokers, wholesalers, retailers and consumers which play different roles in cassava value chain. The study also found that, cassava is constrained by production, processing and marketing but on the other hand cassava from Mkuranga has a lot of market opportunities in the district itself, urban, regional and international markets. Gross margin analysis show that farmers’, wholesalers and retails have the gross margin ratios of 20%, 39%, and 38% respectively. In dry cassava value chain, farmers have a gross margin ratio of 41.1% when they sell to retailers and gross margin ratio of 52.12% when they sell direct to consumers. Fanners gross margin is affected by distance from the market, year of experience in cassava business, planting style, cropping style and farmer’ organization in cassava production activities. The study concluded that dry cassava value chain is more efficient and highly potential compared to fresh cassava value chain for development in Mkuranga district. The study recommends that development of dry cassava value chain is vital and therefore calls for efforts from all development stakeholders in cassava value chain to focus on it.
  • Item
    Analysis of cocoa beans value chain: a case study of Kyela district in Mbeya region
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2011) Kibona,K. J.
    The study on analysis of cocoa value chain was conducted in Kyela District. Kyela is a leading cocoa producing District in the country with annual production of 4344 tonnes. Tanzania exports about 6500 metric tones per year. The general objective of the study was to assess cocoa value chain and performance indicators among smallholder farmers in Kyela District. The specific objectives were to identify the cocoa beans market channels, to determine the gross margin accrued by actors, to compare the gross margin accrued among the actors and to determine the contribution of cocoa fermenting to farmers’ gross margin in Kyela District. A cross sectional research design was used in the study. The study population was cocoa producing farmers and cocoa traders in Kyela District. To meet the objectives of the study, qualitative and quantitative analysis methods were applied. The qualitative techniques involved the use of measures of central tendency to describe characteristics of respondents and in the description of the market chain. In analysis of gross margin, linear regression and one way ANOVA were quantitative methods identified. The first channel comprised of farmers, village collectors, private company agents, private companies and exporters. The second comprised of farmers, private company agents, private companies and exporters. The last channel also found out that, farmers received higher gross margin than other actors and that therefore recommended for farmers to sell fermented cocoa through channels that cocoa fermenting contributed significantly to the level of farmers’ gross margin. It is comprised of farmers, primary cooperative, cooperative union and exporters. It was used. During the study three main channels through which cocoa was sold were give them high return. It is also recommended for the Government to establish cocoa board that will be responsible to supervise cocoa business in the District and the Nation at large.
  • Item
    Assessment of tobacco marketing system at farmers level, a case of Tanzania leaf tobacco company of Morogoro, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2008) Kemilembe J. K
    Tobacco is one of the major agricultural export crops in Tanzania. Tobacco farming industry is a contract farming business involving fanners in primary cooperative societies located in eight production regions namely Tabora, Shinyanga, Mbeya, Singida, Rukwa, Iringa, Songea and Kagera. A large proportion of tobacco grown in Tanzania (85%) is exported to overseas markets. The main tobacco customers demand tobacco leaves of high quality. The tobacco buying companies through Association of Tanzania Tobacco Traders (ATTT) are committed in ensuring that the tobacco purchased is of high quality to make sure that customers choose their produce over those of their competitors. In spite of the company’s effort towards improving the quality of tobacco produced, the problem of poor tobacco quality still exists. Although studies on tobacco marketing had been carried out, information regarding tobacco quality at farmers’ level is still insufficient. Generally the study intended to create a better understanding of the factors influencing the strategies for the improvement of quality of tobacco sold to Primary Cooperative Societies. Specifically, this study examined the impact of tobacco quality to farmers and the buying companies identify factors that lead into marketing of low quality tobacco at farmers level, identify and analyze cost and revenue of tobacco to growers and suggest alternative solutions that would reduce the problem of low quality tobacco at farmers’ level. The data were collected, from seven Primary cooperative Societies, officers from all tobacco stakeholders and company’s officials in Tabora region. Part of the analysis was based on descriptive statistics to describe the responses, characteristics and trends of some data and information regarding the current marketing system of tobacco at farmers’ level. Gross Margin Analysis was used in order to examine the effect of quality and price on farmers’ income. The results of the study indicate that poor post harvest handling methods severely affect the quality of tobacco. The problem of quality has been a cause of higher cost of handling for the buyer companies and has also resulted into lower prices paid to farmers. The study recommended that, the company and other tobacco stakeholders should provide adequate and quality extension services on good agronomic practices, construction of improved barns and tobacco storage which will eventually improve tobacco quality at farmers’ level.
  • Item
    A parking systems analysis of factors that affect area and induction of cotton: A case study in Shinyanga regeon, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 1980) Kajumulo, D .A .R
    This study describes factors that affect area and production of cotton as part of the overall farming system for smallholders in Shinyanga Region, Tanzania.It involves as description of the characteristics of the existing farming systems and assessment of the production efficiency of the cotton producer. Based on farmer’s resources, priorities and production decision, plans to improve cotton production are studied simultaneously with the other crops in the systems and desirable improvements are suggested./ Primary data were collected from 50 randomly-selected farmers in the area for the 1976/77 and 1577/78 crop seasons.Direct programme planning was used to determine optimum resource allocation.Relations between specified variables were tested by means of Chi-square and correlation analyses. Two major types of farming systems were identified, namely (1) Larger farms with livestock which wore characterized by having more land in crops, slightly bigger families, use of ox-ploughs for land preparation, and much higher per capita income (Sh 710).These farms produced about twice the food they actually required for subsistence, and sold the surplus for cash, but had serious labour problems.(2) Smaller farms without livestock, characterized by less land in crops and use of hand hoes for land preparation.They produced 14 percent less protein and 4 percent less calories than required for subsistence based on PAO norms and had a very low per capita income (Sh 170).They made up over half of the farms. Based on these two types of farms, the study has developed feasible farming systems typical to the area which satisfy family food needs throughout the year and increase family incomes based on a more reasonable work schedule for each type and utilizing family labour only.They arc developed on the following assumptions!(1)Yields per ha of the common food items equal to 80 percent of those believed to be normal for the area so that the determined area for subsistence meets full family food needs in most years.(2) Family labour remaining after meeting subsistence requirements is used as required for optimum cash-crop combinations, (j) Net family incomes are calculated based on 1977/78 crop-year prices and 80 percent of yields as found for EIDHP. The crop which gives the highest net cash return per limiting-month man-day is considered since family labour in peak months is the limiting factor to increased production. For smaller farms without livestock, a cash crop combination of 0.8 ha of sorghum/groundnuts and 0.8 ha of late-planted cotton is suggested. This would give these farms a total net family income of Sh 1,590 or a per capita income of Sh 240, which is about one-third higher than present incomes. However, by hiring ox-ploughing services for lend preparation while school holidays for children staying at home were made to coincide with the critical work peak of weeding, fanners could improve their farming system by growing 1.9 ha of sorghum/groundnuts and 0.8 ha of late-planted cotton.This system would triple their net family income to Sh 3,120 or a per capita income of Sh 470. For larger farms with livestock, the optimum cash crop combina­tion includes 3.1 ha of sorghum/groundnuts intercrop, 0.8 ha of late- planted cotton, and 0.6 ha of paddy, from which these farms likely would realize a total net family income of Sh 5,630 or a per capita income of Sh 790. This is about 10 percent higher than present, excluding returns from livestock. It is concluded therefore that if the aim is to increase farmer’s income, the crop which gives the highest net cash return per limiting month man-day after meeting subsistence requirements, namely sorghum/groundnuts intercrop, should be encouraged. From the Government point of view, (a) school holiday schedules for children staying at home should be made to coincide with the critical work peak of weeding, and (b) an increase by 35 percent over prices used in the systems analyses for cotton, while keeping those of other crops and inputs unchanged, would make cotton more profitable and increase the cash benefit/cost ratio to 3:1 to warrant the risk and costs of using fertilizers and insecticides. If producer prices of other crops and inputs increase simultaneously with -those of cotton, farmers will always be tempted to grow the most profitable crop relative to cotton. Research on cotton improvement should be considered not only for specified cotton operations but in relation to all crops of the systems, given the resources on typical individual farm units.
  • Item
    The honey value chain analysis: case study: snv central portfolio (Morogoro & Dodoma regions)
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2007) Kasongo M. R
    This study examines honey value chain in SNV Central portfolio areas covered Morogoro and Dodoma regions. It draws from the experience of the Beekeepers from the districts of Morogoro rural, Mvomero and Kondoa. The study specifically examines the key production, market constraints and opportunities within the value chain. It analyzes the existing market linkages and identifies the participants within the chain. The study also explores factors influencing the development of honey sub sector in the area. A detailed account is made of the existing stakeholders involved in production, processing and marketing of bee products in the study area. The honey value chain was veiy weak particularly in producer level and experiences many problems such as fragmentation, weak link among the stakeholders, low quantities, poor quality and other external factors like tariffs. Existing marketing channel is direct from the producers (beekeepers) to the consumers for food, for brewing local beer and medicinal purposes. There are no organized markets for collection and/or selling. More than 90% of honey produced is consumed locally. The study winds up by assessing potential interventions that could be used to improve the honey value chain within the area, such as to build capacity to organisations dealing with honey production, assist natural resources department in the process of establishing beekeeping associations and facilitating linkage between producers, inputs and credits providers and other organisations.
  • Item
    A parking systems analysis of factors that affect area and induction of cotton: A case study in Shinyanga regeon, Tanzania
    (1980) Kajumulo, D .A .R
    This study describes factors that affect area and production of cotton as part of the overall farming system for smallholders in Shinyanga Region, Tanzania .It involve a description of the characteristics of the existing farming systems and assessment of the production efficiency of the cotton producer.Based on farmer’s resources, priorities and production decision, plans to improve cotton production are studied simultaneously with the other crops in the systems and xdesi 'able improvements as suggested./Primary data were collected from 50 randomly-selected farmers in the area for the 1976/77 and 1577/78 crop seasons. Direct programme planning was used to determine optimum resource allocation.Relations between specified variables were tested by means of Chi-square and correlation analyses.Two major types of farming systems were identified, namely (1) Larger farms with livestock which wore characterized by having more land in crops, slightly bigger families, use of ox-ploughs for land preparation, and much higher per capita income (Sh 710). These farms produced about twice the food they actually required for subsistence, and sold the surplus for cash, but had serious labour problems.(2) Smaller farms without livestock, characterized by less land in crops and use of hand hoes for land preparation.They produced 14 percent less protein and 4 percent less calories than required for subsistence based on PAO norms and had a very low per capita income (Sh 170).They made up over half of the farms.Eased on these two types of farms, the study has developed alternative feasible farming systems typical to the area which satisfy family food needs throughout the year and increase family incomes based on a more reasonable work schedule for each type and utilizing family labour only.They arc developed on the following assumptions! (1) Yields per ha of the common food items equal to 80 percent of those believed to be normal for the area so that the determined area for subsistence meets full family food needs in most years. (2) Family labour remaining after meeting subsistence requirements is used as required for optimum cash-crop combinations, (j) Net family incomes are calculated based on 1977/78 crop-year prices and 80 percent of yields as found for EIDHP.The crop which gives the highest net cash return per limiting-month man-day is considered since family labour in peak months is the limiting factor to increased production.For smaller farms without livestock, a cash crop combination of 0.8 ha of sorghum/groundnuts and 0.8 ha of late-planted cotton is suggested.This would give these farms a total net family income of Sh 1,590 or a per capita income of Sh 240, which is about one-third higher than present incomes.However, by hiring ox-ploughing services for lend preparation while school holidays for children staying at home were made to coincide with the critical work peak of weeding,farmers could improve their farming system by growing 1.9 ha of □orghuE/groundnuts and 0.8 ha of late-planted cotton.This system would triple their net family income to Sh 3,120 or a per capita income of Sh 470.For larger farms with livestock, the optimum cash crop combina­tion includes 3.1 ha of sorghum/groundnuts intercrop, 0.8 ha of late-planted cotton, and 0.6 ha of paddy, from which these farms likely would realize a total net family income of Sh 5,630 or a per capita income of Sh 790.This is about 10 percent higher than present,excluding returns from livestock. It is concluded therefore that if the aim is to increase farmer’s income, the crop which gives the highest net cash return per limiting-month man-day after meeting subsistence requirements,namely sorghum/groundnuts intercrop, should be encouraged.From the Government point of view, (a) school holiday schedules for children staying at home should be made to coincide with the critical work peak of weeding, and (b) an increase by 35 percent over prices used in the systems analyses for cotton, while keeping those of other crops and inputs unchanged, would make cotton more profitable and increase the cash benefit/cost ratio to 3:1 to warrant the risk and costs of using fertilizers and insecticides.If producer prices of other crops and inputs increase simultaneously with -those of cotton, farmers will always be tempted to grow the most profitable crop relative to cotton. Research on cotton improvement should be considered not only for specified cotton operations but in relation to all crops of thesystems, given the resources on typical individual farm units.
  • Item
    Economic analysis of dairying in smallholder farming systems in peri- urban areas of Dar-Es-Salaam and Coast Regions, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2009) Mwakipesile Elukaga Samson
    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the competitiveness of smallholder dairying and the resource use trade-offs that smallholder farmers need to make when introducing dairy production into their farming systems. The specific objectives were: (i) to compare profitability between smallholder dairy and crop enterprises in the mixed crop dairy farming system, (ii) to examine the competitiveness of smallholder dairying and resource use trade-offs in the face access to milk markets and declining land size and (iii) to determine optimum combination of crop and dairy enterprises and suggest ways of improving farm productivity through integration of dairying and the existing crop enterprises. Data for the study were collected using a structured questionnaire from a sample of 120 households selected randomly from lists of households in four crop-dairy keeping villages in Dar-Es-Salaam and Coast regions. The data were analysed using a combination of qualitative and quantitative analytical methods namely, Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS), Farm Enterprise Budgeting and Linear Programming (LP). The results of the enterprise budgeting show that dairy enterprise is more profitable and provided higher returns to land and capital compared to paddy, maize and cassava enterprises where as paddy was found to have higher return to labour followed by cassava, maize and dairy respectively. The optimal combination of dairy and crop enterprises determined using LP indicate that smallholder farmers in the study area should allocate 1.20 ha of fodder, 0.29 ha of paddy and 2 dairy cows, realizing a net revenue of Tshs. 2 840 941.67 per household per year which is 49% higher than what is currently earned. In terms of crop enterprises, paddy realises higher net revenue followed by maize and cassava when all land is devoted to crops.
  • Item
    Economics of on-farm maize storage in Tanzania: The case of Kilosa District
    (University of Nairobi Kenya, 1993) Ashimogo Gasper Cleophas
    This study describes the technological and economic aspects of traditional and improved farm level storage of maize in Kilosa district of rural Tanzania. A brief review of the maize industry in the country is provided. Storage patterns in two survey villages using two different kinds of traditional storage structures are examined followed by a temporal price analysis of the parallel market. An economic and financial appraisal of farm storage improvements is presented. Primary data from the survey villages and secondary data from the Ministry of Agr iculture and Livestock Development are the bas is for the analysis. The study reveals that farmers store grain mainly for home consumption with the surplus used for sale, seed and other socioeconomic obligations. The temporal pr ice analysis shows that parallel market price increases over time resulting from grain supply flactuations are in excess of storage costs. This provides an opportunity for storers to make profits. It is further noted that farmers are aware of rodent and insect pest losses incured in their traditional granaries. Proposed farm level storage improvements aimed at reducing these losses were found to be profitable in terms of parallel market prices. Benefit-cost ratios (BCR) ranging between 1:1 and 4:1 and internal rates of return (IRR) well above the cut-off rate of 18 percent were estimated. To ensure a stable food supply and restrained prices it is recommended that official prices should be made to vary over time to reflect storage costs. The costeffective improvements proposed in this text may further contribute to the realization of these objectives. To be more effective it is suggested in this study that future on-farm storage improvement programs prefer the multidisciplinary systems approach over the specialists symptomatic approach.
  • Item
    Evaluation of on-farm cassava processing and its implication on marketing and farmer’s income: a case of Coast region
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2007) Mashimba, Semistatus
    On-farm processing for agricultural produces is becoming more important in the economies of most developing countries like Tanzania. This study aimed at evaluating the potential of on-farm processing in increasing farmers’ income in developing economies using cassava in Coast Region as a case. Specifically the study determines economic viability of on-farm cassava processing technology. Primary data were collected through a cross section survey of 100 farmers using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were used to describe the respondents’ characteristics. Gross Margin Analysis was conducted to estimate relative profitability of two different processing technologies in a view of ascertaining their appropriateness and effectiveness. The results show that, flour processing is a more profitable technology than chips processing. Regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between processing technology and marketability of cassava products, results showed that processing has negative relation with marketability of cassava products implying that those farmers who process have a low possibility of accessing market. Independent sample t-test was employed to compare income generated by farmers from the main processing technologies and those who sell raw cassava, however the results showed that raw cassava in Coast Region has a significant impact on increasing farmer’s income than on-farm processing of chips and flour. The study also found that there are several problems that hinder prosperity of on-farm processing, these include lack of reliable markets, few processing facilities and poor packing facilities. This case study clearly suggests that on-farm flour processing is more important in generating household income than chips production. The study recommends that the government should educate the use of processed cassava and expand flour production in areas growing cassava by investing in providing processing services to farmers together with finding the way of increasing processed cassava price as one way of improving farmer’s income and reduce poverty.
  • Item
    The status of beekeeping and its potentials for development in Manyoni District, Singida Region, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2015) Kassim Ally
    This study was carried out between November 2013 and September 2014 to determine the status of beekeeping industry and its potentials for development in Manyoni District. Singida Region, Tanzania. The methods used included reconnaissance, field and social surveys using questionnaires on the household heads and checklists of probe questions with key informants. Data collected was analysed using SPSS software. The results revealed that the adoption status of beekeeping in the district was currently 70% and although it had started earlier than the 1970s, initially the adoption accelerated in the 1990s and 2000s. Most of the beekeeping activities were based on traditional practices using log and bark hives but the use of the modern bee hives is growing rapidly. Moreover, the results indicated that beekeepers have rich indigenous knowledge on beekeeping activities which they utilize effectively in identifying appropriate local baiting materials, tree species for hive construction and preferable bee forage plants. Most of the beekeepers harvest honey by using fire to calm down the honeybees; processing and storage of honey is locally done. The mean annual honey yield from commercial bee hives was highest followed by log bee hives, gourd hives, bark hives, Tanzania Transitional Hives and stingless bee hives. Beekeeping plays a significant role in the socio-economic development through generation of cash incomes and contribution to food security. Inadequate training and extension services, lack of capital, unreliable markets, long distance from homesteads to apiaries, fear of bees, theft of hives and forest degradation were the main constraints to beekeeping. The study therefore, recommends that the Government should enhance availability of proper beekeeping equipment, training and extension services, accessibility to credit facilities. formulation of coordinated marketing strategies of the bee products and promotion of beekeeping integration into the agroforestry practices to ensue sustainable supply of bee forage and water resources for enhanced sustainability of productivity and the beekeeping industry.
  • Item
    A socio economic analysts of modern irrigation projects under small -scale farming: a case study of the lower MCSPI Irrigation Project in Kilimanjaro Region
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 1993) Orota Germana Chanuo Laurent
    This study analyses the socio-economic aspects of the Lower Moshi Irrigation Project in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. Financial and economic analyses are performed to determine if th® investment is a justifiable us® of the scarce resources available in Tanzania for investment. Survey results show that the project is doing well th average yields per ba of 6.5 tons for paddy and 2.5 tons for maize. A benefit-cost ratio of 2.5, net present worth of shs 614 million and internal rate of return of over 50 percent is obtained from the financial analysis •.•.’hen. costs and benefits are discounted at 18 percent. Results from economic analysis show a benefit-cost ratio of 2.3, a net present worth of shs 1028 million, and an internal rate of return of 49.25 percent when a 12 percent discount factor is used. Both the financial and economic analyses therefore, judge the project very profitable to the farmer and the economy as a whole. This study also attempts to evaluate the impact of the project on employment, cropping patterns, yield levels of principal, crops, farm income and land values. It is revealed that, the provision of irrigation facility has increased labour employment in the study area. Impacts of the project on cropping patterns, yield levels, farm income and land values show positive results when compared to the same in the non-project area. This study also .looks into the problems that hinder •project dev:-’.oniunnt arid -expansion. These .include problems of drought; high unit rater requirements: illegal use of water outside the project area and institutional problems such as those of farmers’ ignorance of the farming operations under modern irrigation. The following are the recommendations: 1. There is a need to improve the knowledge about modern irrigation practices at the farmer’s level. 2. .Water User Groups should be separated from other political and administrative bodies in the project area : 3. There is a need to look for alternative •.-.•ays of increasing water supply in project area during drought years and also solve the water shortage problem. A example is that of using boreholes to increase water supply. At present there are boreholes for this purpose in the project area. only few boreholes for this purpose in the project area.
  • Item
    Economic analysis of outgrowers’ sugarcane production scheme at Ruembe Sugarcane Basin in Kilosa District, Morogoro
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2008) Chongela Joel
    The study was conducted al Ruembe Sugarcane Basin in Kilosa district in Morogoro region in 2007/08 to analyse economic factors influencing out growers sugarcane production scheme. A Cobb-Douglas production function was used to determine the technical relationship between sugarcane productivity and the inputs (land, labour, fertilizer, herbicide, credit and extension services). Ordinary Least Squares regression technique was used to perform the analysis. Coefficients of the inputs were estimated from the Cobb-Douglas production function. Gross margins of the sugarcane and paddy enterprises were calculated to determine profitability. The results indicate that fertilizer, labour and credit are statistically significant factors of production for sugarcane at P<0.05 where as land, herbicide and extension services are not statistically significant at P<0.05. The estimated coefficients for the input factors were 0.52878, 0.34376, 0.22464, 0.13025, 0.00160 and -0.01758 for fertilizer, labour, herbicide, credit, land and extension services, respectively. The positive coefficients indicate increased sugarcane productivity where as the negative coefficient for extension service means decreased productivity. The Gross margin analysis showed that sugarcane enterprise has higher returns of 561 498.48 Tshs/ha followed by paddy enterprise which has returns of 73 929.64 Tshs/ha. The mean annual contribution of Ruembe sugarcane out growers to the Kilombero II Sugar factory is 220.277 tonnes of cane/capita. The mean sugarcane price was 35 360.42 Tshs/tonne at mean sucrose content of 9.11%/tonne of rendement. The mean annual per capita sugar consumption of Ruembe outgrowers’ is 12 kg due to high sugar price which limits consumers to use more sugar. This implies that sugar consumption is still a constraint to consumers due to inflation of sugar price caused by inadequate of sugar supply in the market leading to importation of sugar from abroad which distort the domestic market price.
  • Item
    Modus operandi for cluster development
    (WWF-Tanzania Country Office, 2021-06) Kadigi, Reuben M. J.
    CDF is envisioned to address the challenges of ness, ecological sustainability and improved income and livelihoods. SAGCOT aims to mobilize the agricultural potential of southern Tanzania for investment in agriculture and supporting infrastructure. It also encourages an enabling policy environment and supports improved natural resource management and green growth. Working as an informal advisory body, the SAGCOT Green Reference Group (GRG) was established to assist the SAGCOT Centre Limited (SCL) coordinate and monitor the environmental aspects in all programmes in the SAGCOT region. Where applicable, the GRG also advises the SAGCOT Catalytic Fund. The GRG brings together a representative group of stakeholders from government, the private sector (including farmers), the donor community and civil society, together with independent scientific advisors. Every public and private investor is legitimately required to work within the existing regulatory framework and professionally encourage environmentally-friendly and socially sustainable agricultural growth. The primary objective of GRG is to provide the SCL and its partners with guidance, advice and recommendations on environmental and social issues in the SAGCOT region. This guidance includes development of opportunities for inclusive green growth and climate-smart agriculture, as well as the identification and mitigation of environmental risks and damage. The GRG assists the SCL in identifying key gaps in inclusive green growth efforts, aligning activities of partners and other stakeholders and prioritizing programmes and institutions to partner with, as well as, in promoting and raising awareness on inclusive green growth opportunities.