Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Collection

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    Smallholder rice farmers’ contractual choice under cooperative irrigation schemes in Coast and Morogoro regions, Tanzania
    (ResearchGate, 2019-02) Kangile, R. J; Mpenda, Z. T
    Smallholder rice farmers purchasing inputs through irrigation scheme cooperative is vital since collective purchasing of production inputs reduces unit input cost and economizes transaction cost. This study was conducted to analyze factors underlying farmers’ decision making level on choosing (contractual choice) whether to purchase production inputs through the cooperative or other input providers. It also ascertains whether it makes differences in production cost for farmers purchasing inputs through cooperative and those who do not. Data were collected from 200 farmers that are members of rice specialized irrigation schemes in Morogoro and Coast regions. Descriptive statistics and choice model (logit model) were used for data analysis. Results revealed that, distance from the cooperative to the nearest town, number of organizations in which a farmer is a member, extension services, input quality satisfaction and availability of cash and credit as payment mode at the irrigation scheme cooperative are factors influencing smallholder irrigated rice farmers’ choice of production inputs provider. It was shown further that, farmers purchasing inputs through irrigation scheme cooperative have lower production costs than farmers purchasing from other input providers. It is therefore plausible to encourage farmers to purchase inputs through irrigation scheme cooperative of which will contribute to reduction of their production costs. This can be enhanced through ensuring that, inputs provided are of satisfactory quality and both cash and credit payment methods are used. In encouraging farmers to purchase inputs through the irrigation scheme cooperative, it is important to provide price incentive in the purchase of inputs.
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    Economic analysis of hass-avocado production and export market in Rungwe District-Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2023) Barongo Adrian Alphonce
    The production and exportation of avocados in Tanzania have been steadily increasing over time. Despite this observed growth, there is still great potential for the production and exportation of the Hass avocado variety. This highlights the need for strategies to capture the available potential. To develop appropriate strategies, a clear understanding of the current situation in the country's avocado industry is required. Nevertheless, there is a lack of literature on the economic viability of the avocado business, especially in Rungwe District. Additionally, there is limited knowledge in the public domain regarding the factors that affect avocado production farmers’ willingness to participate in the export market. Therefore, the focus of this study was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the economics of avocado production and the export market in the industry, specifically in Rungwe District. The study selected a sample of 360 farmers from a pool of 4,000 avocado out-growers. Out of the selected farmers, 36 were randomly chosen from ten selected wards, using a probability proportional to size. A questionnaire was administered to the farmers, while key informants were interviewed using a guide. The collected data underwent various analyses, including descriptive analysis, cost-benefit analysis, severity index analysis, and a binary logit model. The results obtained from primary data indicated the current status of avocado production, productivity, and cultivated area. Positive growth was observed in terms of quantity produced, cultivated area, and exported volume. The Cost-Benefit analysis using the Dolye Model revealed a positive net present value (NPV) of 55,075,088 TZS per acre. The benefit-cost ratio was greater than 1 at 1:9, and the internal rate of return (IRR) was 63.78%, surpassing the 10% discounting factor. Similarly, the primary data showed a positive NPV of 57,333,143 TZS per acre. The benefit-cost ratio exceeded 1 at 1:8.78, and the IRR was 70.0145%. However, variations were observed due to differences in plant population per acre among farmers, compared to the standard farm size for avocados. Consequently, the study employed severity index analysis to rank and identify the constraints. Furthermore, socio-economic factors were assessed to determine their influence on farmers' willingness to participate in the export market. Significant factors influencing farmers' willingness included education, age, non- farm activities, formal employment, credit access, and extension access. Based on the study's results and the available literature, it can be concluded that the avocado industry has significantly improved in terms of production area, output, productivity, and exports. The return on investment has been positive and higher than the prevailing discounting rate. Additionally, the study identified constraints and factors that affect farmers' willingness to participate in the export market. As a result, the study recommends further improvements to catch up with competitors from leading avocado producers. It calls for the implementation of effective policies in the Horticulture subsector to support and promote farmers and exporting companies in increasing production and exports. Local governments in potential avocado production areas, such as Rungwe District, should prioritize and encourage avocado production in order to exploit the untapped potential at the international markets. Moreover, farmers and other stakeholders should collaborate as associations to address the constraining factors related to avocado production and export.
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    Beef cattle marketing in Tanzania:the case of Mikongeni and Pugu markets.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2011) Nyabenda Nizigama,J
    ABSTRACT This dissertation examined beef cattle marketing in Tanzania using the ease of Mikongeni and Pugu markets. The specific objectives were to examine the trend of cattle supply by grades and sex, to assess variation in market prices within and between years and to analyze the factors which determine prices of beef cattle sold in livestock markets. In addition to primary data, the study used secondary data which were gathered from the Ministry of Industries, Trade and Marketing. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire and Focus Group interviews with key informants. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were used in analysing the data. The results of analysis indicated seasonality in both real and nominal prices as well as number of beef cattle supplied between and within years. In both markets, real prices for 2005 remained higher than those in 2006 and 2007. Mikongeni market recorded the highest number of beef cattle supply in May and the least in November. Pugu market received the highest number of animals in August, with low supply in December and March. Market survey revealed that most of the animals supplied to these markets originate from the Lake Zone. Cattle buyers in the terminal market mainly preferred buying animals on weight basis; at the primary market, traders preferred mainly to buy/sell animals based on the buyer - seller agreement. Both markets received fewer heads of cows on the ground that they are preferred as parent stock. Based on these findings, formation of beef cattle marketing body to be in charge of all marketing activities in the country was recommended. The board among others would be responsible for placement and maintenance of marketing infrastructures, transmission of marketing information and supervision of beef cattle marketing activities.
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    Gender roles in the domestic and farming systems of Tchenzema ward in Morogoro District Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 1993) Mtenga, Ngoyako Asuman
    Thepurpose of the study was to determine gender roles in the household activities of_ Tchenzema ward in Morogoro district. The specific objectives were description of division of labour by gender and age, determination of sources of income, custodian of family income and decision making by gender. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a randomly A structured questionnaire selected sample of 200 farmers. was used to collect primary data. Secondary data were obtained from literature. Data were compiled by using D Base and analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Programme. Results are presented in tabular and graphical forms. The study findings show that domestic work is a female 1s domain; women contributed 70-87% labour to all tasks, men 25-29%, male children 25-35% and female children 27-46% to the same. Males contributed more labour to livestock husbandry; men's labour contribution to all tasks was 26-72%, women1s 26-42%, male children's 25-34% and female children's 25-27% of the same. Crop production tasks were shared between gender. Custodian of income was gender independent, decisions were jointly made, however men and women had different income sources and income expenditure patterns. There was no gender variation in the extension method preferred.iii: It was observed that, gender roles differ from those documented on patrilineal societies (Due and Mudenda, 1982; Burfisher and Horenstein, 1987; Conelly et al. 1985; 1987 and Swantz, 1985; Polomack, Beshara, 1989) . This matrilineal society has already made room for both men and women although there is still room for improvement. It is recommended that extension service and the development projects contact men and women farmers in order to be effective.
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    The effect of crop marketing liberalization on cotton production and farmers' income in Kahama district.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 1999) Kakwemeire,N. D.K.
    The study aimed at examining the effects of liberalization of cotton marketing system on cotton production and farm income in Kahama district. It had the following specific objectives: (i) To describe the current cotton marketing channel, (ii) To evaluate the efficiency of the present cotton production and marketing system, (iii) To evaluate the effects of the cotton marketing system on farmers' income. Both primary and secondary data were collected. A sample of 150 cotton farmers was randomly selected from six villages in Kahama district. The sample survey was supplemented by interviews with Cotton buyers, cooperative and TCLSB officials and agricultural officers. Data were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative approaches. Analytical techniques included: cross-tabulation, gross margins, concentration ratios, marketing margins and the policy analysis matrix (PAM). Results show that the liberalization of the cotton marketing system has caused the breakdown of the credit system for input supply to cotton farmers which in turn has resulted into the uncontrolled pesticide distribution system. The monopsonistic position of Cooperative Unions has ceased and the ginning capacity has increased tremendously currently surpassing the cotton output in the district. Results further indicate that seed cotton producers receive 51.2% of the f.o.b price of cotton. Returns to labour were found to be Tshs 515 and 498 per manday for handhoe and ox plough users respectively. The PAM results indicate that, basing on international market prices, cotton fanning in Kahama district is a potentially socially profitable farm activity although the current market conditions render it less profitable. The NPC and EPC values were less than one which indicate that farmers are taxed rather than being protected. DRC values were found to be less than one implying that cotton production in Kahama district has a potentially high international comparative advantage. However the SRPs showed that the overall effect of the government policy on cotton production and marketing is the net taxation of farmers up to the tune of 36%. As to improve the situation it is recommended that unnecessary levies, taxes and regulations be removed or reduced in order to make the farmer benefit from his cotton production.
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    Assessment of factors affecting coconut production in Tanzania
    (Academe Research Journals, 2015-08-26) Muyengi Z. E.; Msuya E.; Lazaro E.
    Coconut is an important oil crop that supports the livelihoods of the majority of coastal people in Tanzania. Despite of the efforts made by the government of Tanzania in coconut sub-sector promotion, little is known about the current production and factors affecting the production. Therefore this study aims to assess the production of coconuts and factors affecting the production of coconut and to advise suitable research and development areas in coconut sub-sector in Tanzania. A diagnostic survey was conducted using a questionnaire, focus group discussion and interview of key informants. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Multiple Regression Model. Results showed that palm population was 50 tree/ha which is below the recommended by 60.8%. Similarly the yield was low as 847 compared to 1800 nuts/ha/year during the program. Fertilizer users were significantly higher during the program period by 26.1% compared to 4% of the current users. Only 10.7% of the farmers attempted to control pests compared to 78.7% during the program. About 36% of the farmers were visited by extension officers compared to 96% during the program. Poor agronomical practices, inputs supply and extension services were among the constraints for coconut production, hence it requires special attention.
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    Analysis of performance in chickpea value chain in Kahama district, Shinyanga region, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2011) Pius Denis Jamhuri
    The general objective of this study was to analyse the chickpea value chain performance in Kahama district in order to provide information to policy and decision makers to design effective programme for assisting farmers to benefit from chickpeas production. The specific objectives of the study were: (i) To analyse the structure of the chickpea value chain in Kahama district (ii) To measure performance at different stages in the chickpea value chain (iii) To determine factors influencing performance in chickpea production. Data for the study were collected from 119 respondents in selected villages in Kahama district including farmers, rural assemblers, wholesalers, retailers, and processors. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, marketing margins, profit margins and regression analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the characteristics of the value chain actors whilst prices, marketing and profit margins were used as indicators of performance at different stage along the chickpea value chain. Specifically, regression analysis was used to determine factors influencing chickpea performance at the farm level. Vertical and horizontal coordination along the chain was found to be weak. The flow of market information was limited to rural assemblers and was not transparent. Fanners had limited means of getting market information through rural assemblers those were not trustful in most cases. Prices and margins obtained by different actors along the chain varied significantly (p<0.05) with the wholesalers obtaining higher prices and profit margins despite the high costs they incurred. Results of the regression analysis indicated that education level, degree of specialization, land size and market access were major factors influencing chickpea profitability at farm level. Constraints like drought, diseases and pests out break found to affect chickpea production. The study recommends on improvement of chickpea productivity, formalization and strengthening of chickpea farmers’ horizontal and vertical coordination.
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    Marketing chain and profitability of finger millet in the central zone of Tanzania: A case of Singida rural district
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2012) Rukelegwa Alfred John
    The need to achieve a profitable crop production as well as systematic marketing chains in the study area is a precondition for the development of the agricultural sector. It is against this background that the study sought to analyse the marketing chains and profitability of finger millet in Singida Rural District. The specific objectives of the study were to provide an overview about the the finger millet value chain from production to consumption, to identify marketing channels in the study area, to measure profit margins at different stages along finger millet market channels, to examine the factors and constraints influencing households finger millet supply to the markets. The study used a sample size of 120 respondents and underwent multistage, purposive and random sampling approaches. Primary and secondary data were collected, coded and analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Binary logistic and multiple linear regression models, gross margin and t-test techniques were applied to analyse data per objectives and hypotheses respectively. The major findings of the study showed that wholesaling (76 526Tshs) and processing (42 500Tshs) are the two effective ways of generating profits based on perfect selling prices. Selling price, land size and gender of the respondents (P<0.01) were the major social-economic factors influencing the profit levels of farmers in the study area. It was concluded that wholesaling and processing activities are ihe two profitable levels along finger millet market channels. There is also need to strengthen on forward, horizontal and backward coordination along the finger millet value chain in order to reduce problems associated with market inefficiencies.
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    Economic analysis of cash crop production and marketing' in Tanzania under a liberalised market economy: A case study of tobacco in Songea district.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2001) Rweyemamu Dennis Christian
    This study analyses the efficiency of production, degree of distortion in the markets and the pattern of incentives for smallholder tobacco growers in Songea district under liberalization. A survey was conducted on a sample of 120 tobacco growers in the district, and secondary data collected from key organizations in the industry. Because patterns of resource utilization change with shifts in prices of products and inputs whereby producers tend to allocate more resources to enterprises giving higher returns per unit of resource, gross margin analysis was conducted for the two competing crop enterprises in the area, tobacco and maize, so as to establish the relative economic profitability of the crops. Since tobacco is a tradable crop using tradable inputs, a policy analysis matrix for its production system was constructed so as to determine the private and social profitability of the crop, distortions in the markets and efficiency of resource use. Since PAM is a static model, sensitivity analysis was also conducted so as to explore the effect of potential changes in various factors that influence profitability of the enterprise. The analysis revealed that although tobacco production is potentially a profitable enterprise relative to the international market, smallholders are not protected and are paid less than the potential value of their product. The overall effect is a net taxation of tobacco production system at the form level. Thus, the existing marketing arrangements under liberalization have made the enterprise appear uncompetitive with low resource allocation efficiency. There is therefore a net disincentive to produce the crop. Gross margin analysis indicated that tobacco was more profitable compared to maize but considering labour requirements, the former is a highly labour demanding crop with low returns to labour. Sensitivity analysis indicated that an increase in producer prices for tobacco would result into a sharp increase in producer incentives iii and smallholders will be more protected with profits realized in excess of normal returns to domestic resources increasing. With a decrease in the parity price of the product, indicators depict that production of the crop becomes undesirable from the social point of view. However, efficiency indicators were insensitive to an increase in parity prices of tradable inputs implying that tobacco production will still be a desirable enterprise from the social point of view. The study concludes that although liberalization opened up markets by formally allowing private leaf dealers to invest in marketing of tobacco, operational arrangements have not provided adequate incentives to growers in terms of pre-harvest services and marketing efficiency in general. Many problems have been noted which indicated gross inefficiency in the entire production and marketing system. These problems alter costs and revenues in the input/output markets and prevent realization of potential income gains by tobacco growers.
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    The impact of Free market economy on tobacco cooperative societies. A case study of Western zone tobacco growers cooperative union (WETCU) in Tabora region.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2008) Sanga Filberto Hassan.
    Cooperatives as grassroot organizations have engaged themselves in the provision of agro-marketing and of other social services. Cooperatives thus play a key role of promoting development, hand in hand with the government, in the rural as well as in the urban areas. Actually in that way, they have, in deed, been agents of socio­ economic change and for poverty alleviation. After market liberalization, coops fail to deliver and performed poorly under competition partly due to the withdraw of government guarantees. This report is the output of the research study which analyses the impact of free market economy on tobacco marketing cooperatives, in Tabora region as a case study. The study successfully covered 21 randomly selected primary cooperative societies (PCS) in three branches of Western Zone Tobacco Growers Cooperative Union (WETCU). All the PCSs were tobacco marketing cooperative societies. Secondary data were collected from published materials, handbooks, files, and other related documents from WETCU, TTB, association of tobacco companies (ATTT) and the district cooperative offices as well as Regional commissioner’s office. The general objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of cooperative union before and after free market economy. The research findings reveal that free market economy have both advantages and disadvantages to cooperatives. As for the issue of tobacco cooperative societies, there is an improvement on input supply and distribution, extension services, the market for the crop, payments to the farmers and financial stability for tobacco cooperative union (WETCU). However, the findings show that there are no improvements on input price, interest rates on input credit and tobacco marketing have continued to encounter problems. Tobacco Leaf Commercial company (TLCC), which is Ill considered to be an association formed out of collusion of Tanzania tobacco traders, lack of government intervention, poor pricing system, contract farming and low producer prices compared to cost of production are the eminent problems. In this study, the researcher found out that the government efforts, in the present stance towards the restructuring of coops along its promotional role seemed to have less enthusiasm, less seriousness, and less commitment towards the cooperative revival. The study, under the above circumstances, show that the market liberalization has both advantages and disadvantages to cooperatives, and to farmers. Recommendations, based on above findings, are emphasize on the government appropriate coops development and implementation policy. Also, the government should take into consideration the importance of creating a conducive environment under which cooperative societies will be able to operate and thrive under current free market and trade liberalization macro-economic policies. Alternatively, the tobacco farmers can opt for other agricultural crops such as maize, ground nuts, paddy, cotton or paprika which can do better than tobacco.
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    Value chain analysis of coconut in Tanzania: a case of tanga and Dar es salaam regions.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2010) Charles Paul
    This study analysed the coconut value chain in Tanga and Dar es Salaam regions in order to suggest strategies needed to improve coordination in the value chain. The specific objectives were; to assess the roles of actors in the coconut value chain; to study the way coconut value chain is coordinated; to assess the coconut value chain for price and margins at each node and make suggestions for improving coordination of the value chain. The study was cross sectional using data obtained from questionnaires involving 114 respondents. PASW Statistics computer software was used to generate descriptive statistics for describing the characteristics of the value chain. Profit and marketing margins at each node of the value chain were executed to compute efficiency of the value chain. Value chain functions were performed by coconut producers, wholesalers, retailers and consumers. The coconut sub-sector in the study area was characterized by low value addition, low producer price, pests and disease attacking coconut plants. Most of the coconuts (90%) were sold to wholesalers as fresh coconuts without any processing. Vertical coordination or linkage between actors along the chain was found to be moderate but horizontal coordination was found to be weak. Retailers obtained higher profit margins than other actors in the value chain. Key problems to the coconut industry was low coconuts producer price, absence of coconut processing industries, diseases and pests which destroy coconut plants and lack of collective market. The study recommends the establishment of coconut processing industry in the study area, formation of producers’ organisation, reinforcing coordination between actors, improvement in roads, market infrastructures, strengthening research extension farmers’ linkages in fighting coconut pests and diseases, and access to credit by actors.
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    The impact of fairtrade standard on smallholder coffee farmers and their organisations in selected areas in Tanzania .
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2008) Shayo Hellen Mungubariki
    Fairtrade has become an alternative approach to convectional trade practices over the past decade. In Tanzania, Fairtrade organisations started doing transactions with Tanzanian coffee producers since early 1990s. Participation in Fairtrade initiatives has brought range of benefits and constraints to the producers and their respective communities. There have been several structural changes since 1999 when the last Fairtrade impact study was done in Tanzanian coffee industry. Up to 2008, Fairtrade standard is yet to be recognized by Tanzania Coffee Board in auction system, though direct export regulations allow the fine washed Fairtrade Arabica coffee of top grades. There is no significant statistical difference in coffee yield and net coffee income (P<0.05) among sampled FT fanners compared to non FT farmers. Harvesting of old coffee trees and high management and operation costs facing FT farmers are among the reasons for insignificant difference in coffee yield and net income. FT premium at KNCU is retained for investment in crop quality and infrastructure improvements or community projects, while at AKSCG it is distributed to the farmers groups for infrastructure construction and/or improvement. FT farmers organisations are guaranteed coffee market, accessibility of imperative market information and organizational capacity building training by Fairtrade organizations (ATOs). Inability to sell all FT coffee stock through FT channel, low level of awareness on FT market, networks, premiums or price floors among FT producers were observed to be some of the constraints related to Fairtrade compliance. FLO should appraise its generic standard concerning value addition to raw coffee to provide smallholder farmers organisations with an opportunity to earn more. FT processors and millers can pursue TCB to recognize Fairtrade standard in auction iii system, this would be further step in creating FT market’ awareness among stakeholders in the coffee industry. FT farmers organisations should improve awareness on Fairtrade standard through educational training so that farmers can make informed decision concerning compliance.
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    Analysis of urban markets-linked cassava value chain: A case of Morogoro rural district, Tanzania.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture., 2010) Sewando Ponsian Thomas
    This study was carried out to examine the value chain for cassava in order to determine strategies needed to enhance profitable participation of smallholder farmers in the cassava value chain for reducing income poverty in Tanzania. Specifically, the study intended: (i) To analyse the structure of the cassava value chain and coordination among actors in the value chain, (ii) To analyse profitability of alternative cassava value chain strands and identify determinants of profitability and (iii) To analyse farmers’ preferential choice decisions of alternative cassava value chain strands and identify their determinants. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 150 fanners from three villages of Morogoro rural district. Data were analysed using descriptive and quantitative methods. Profit and marketing margins along the cassava value chain were computed. ANoVA was employed to measure the variation in profitability among the smallholder farmers. Factor analysis was used to identify the variables for further analysis on likelihood of farmers to participate in alternative cassava value chain strands. Linear and Poisson regression models were estimated to identify the determinants of profitability and farmers’ preferential choice decisions in risks respectively. Results show that there was no significant variation in profitability between the villages at p<0.05 level. Profit margins varied significantly among cassava value chain actors. The factors that contributed to the profit margin at farm gate were farm size, experience, total family labour, group participation, non-crop livelihood sources and food insecurity. Results also indicate that farmers have positive risk attitude towards participation in the alternative cassava value chain strands and farm size, experience, female-headed households and land-holding had influenced the farmers’ preferential choice decision. Recommendations for enhancing farmers’ participation in profitable cassava value chain strands are strengthening coordination, provision of improved cassava varieties and introduction of cassava processing technologies.
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    An evaluation of the role played by coffee marketing Institutions to coffee smallholders in Kilimanjaro region, 1970-1984
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 1990) Shuma Geoffrey Petro
    Changing socio-political and economic circumstances and technological innovations necessitate institutional and conceptual adjustments to new conditions. Such changes which have occurred in Tanzania since Independence in 1961 have changed the country's crop marketing system. The purpose of this study has been to find out and narrate the causes, effects and salient features of the institutional changes of the Tanzania's crop marketing system in the period between 1970 and 1984. Coffee marketing institutions in Ki 1imanj aro Region are used as a case study. In this study two hypotheses were set and tested. First it was hypothesized that coffee marketing system under the Tanganyika Coffee Board (TCB)/ Kilimanjaro Native Cooperative Union (KNCU) was more efficient than under the Coffee Authority of Tanzania (CAT). To test this hypothesis secondary time series data on producer's price as percentage of f . o . b price, un i t marketing margin, unit marketing costs, potential final payment, unit administrative expenses, unit administrative expenses as percentage of unit marketing costs, current ratio and quantity of coffee sold were collected. Regression Analysis of these secondary data has shown that unit administrative and marketing costs were significantly lower during KNCU time than period. These factors enabled KNCU to * significantly higher producer's price as f.o.b price than could CAT. From these observations the during CAT pay farmers percentage of : (iii) hypothesis that coffee marketing system under TCB/KNCU was more efficient than under CAT cannot be rejected and it is cone1uded that TCB/KNCU was significantly more efficient than CAT when marketing farmers coffee. Secondly5 it was hypothesized that TCB/KNCU and affiliated cooperative societies were more concerned with the development of coffee farmers than the CAT. To test this hypothesis primary data on attitudes of farmers towards the crop marketing organization were collected by means of a questionnaire administered to fifty (50) randomly selected farmers. t and Chi-square tests were used to test the hypothesis. The corresponding parametric and non—parametric statistical inference proved that KNCU was significantly more efficient in providing managerial services when purchasing farmers coffee. The services included inspection, grading, weighing of crops and paying farmers. CAT was, however, significantly more efficient in the provision of inputs and extension services to farmers. Consequently it is recommended that in Tanzania agricultural crops shou1d be marketed by agricultural marketing cooperatives and marketing boards. The cooperative should be owned and controlled by the members on a democratic basis. The effectiveness of marketing boards can be improved by increasing the participation of farmers, processors, merchants and consumers in their decision making process.
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    Structure and performance of the bean marketing system in tanzania: A case study of Kigoma region
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture., 2010) Silomba Luseshelo Barnaba
    This study attempts to evaluate the structure and performance of the bean marketing system (BMS) in Tanzania with particular emphasis on Kigoma Urban, Kigoma Rural and Kasulu districts in Kigoma region. Specifically the study aims at: describing the present bean marketing channels (BMC) and the structure of trader networks; evaluating the efficiency of the BMS; and examining the overall performance of the BMS. A simple random selection technique was employed for selecting farmer, trader and consumer samples. Ten farming households were randomly selected from eight villages (based in Kigoma Rural and Kasulu districts) making a sample size of 80 farmers. On the other hand, thirty and twenty traders were randomly selected from markets located in Kigoma Urban and Kasulu districts respectively. Also, thirty bean consuming households were randomly selected from Mwanga Kaskazini and Kasulu mjini wards in Kigoma Urban and Kasulu districts respectively. Descriptive and quantitative assessments were employed in this study based on objectives and hypotheses to be tested. For descriptive analysis, the use of means, percentages, ranges and other statistics were employed to describe the characteristics and trends of the bean marketing system. Quantitative analysis involved the use of Gross margin, Marketing Margin, market concentration index (CI) and correlation analyses. iii Results show that in the study area there are seven BMC for beans namely: (i) producer-consumer, (ii) producer-retailer (village/inter-village collectors)-consumer, (iii) producer-wholesaler (regional)-retailer-consumer, (iv) producer-wholesaler (regional)-wholesaler (regional)-retailer-consumer, (v) producer-wholesaler (regional)-wholesaler (regional)-consumer, (vi) producer-wholesaler (regional)- wholesaler (inter-regional)-retailer-consumer, and (vii) producer-wholesaler (regional)-wholesaler (inter-regional)-consumer. Also the study found that the BMS is competitive as there are many bean traders to prevent any monopolistic tendencies. This is indicated by weak levels of CL The CI for retailers were 38.8 and 46.8% for Kigoma Urban and Kasulu respectively. Results for the wholesalers indicated unconcentrated (CI 27.6%) and existence of weak monopolistic situation (CI 35.6%) for Kigoma Urban and Kasulu respectively. Apart from being competitive the BMS was found to be inefficient in terms of market transparency and barriers to entry (structure). Market transparency is obscured by lack of proper information transmission among the market participants. There are no uniform measurements, weights or standards such that direct price comparisons are very difficult. Lack of enough capital and high market fees were found to be major barriers to business expansion because they do not really prevent people from entering into the business as it is indicated by low CI. Furthermore, the study found that there is no form of collusion among traders in determining buying and selling iv prices. As a result each trader buys bean supplies at varied prices and marketing costs, a fact that has caused considerable variations in the retail prices. Generally, it can be concluded that the BMS is performing poorly as it is suggested by a low ratio of gross margin earned per Kg to the per unit cost which was approximately 1:9.4. Lack of transparency, high transport costs and market fees (structure) and lack of appreciable cooperation among traders (conduct) further aggravate poor performance. Based on the findings of this study the following are recommended for better performance of the BMS: (i) the road network in the region should be improved, (ii) traders should be encouraged to form groups, (iii) the measuring devices should be standardized and the quality of beans traded should be monitored closely, and (iv) market fees should be revisited to make them affordable to traders.
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    Factors influencing small-scale fruit and vegetable producers’ access to high value markets: a case study of dar es salaam region
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2010) Simon James
    This study was conducted to investigate the factors influencing small- scale fruit and vegetable producers' access to high value markets. To do so, the study provides a micro level survey. The survey was conducted on fruit and vegetable farmers, traders and supermarket operators along three districts namely Kinondoni, Ilala and Temeke in Par es Salaam region. The Specific objectives were to (a) describe the current market structure for small-scale fruit and vegetable farmers (b) Assess various farmers' marketing chains for fruit and vegetable (c) To determine the potential of training to small scale fruit and vegetable farmers access to niche market (d) To examine the role of education level to small scale fruit and vegetable farmers access to niche market. The hypothesis to be tested states as follows (a) There is no significant different between various farmers’ chain for fruit and vegetable marketing chain (b) Training does not have influence on fruits and vegetables farmers’ access to niche markets (c) Education levels for fruit and vegetable farmers have no impact on niche market accessible. Results reveal that the trade was uncompetitive with a seller concentration ratio of 50.4% and 60.2% for tomatoes and mangoes respectively. Implying oligopolistic behaviors in the market. The intermediary traders linking producers and urban market traders to access to niche markets which implies uncompetitiveness of the market. The results reveal 58% of the land used for production is through renting. This can be one of the limitations for producers to access niche markets. Only 5% of the farmers sell processed products such as juices and used packages of low quality mainly plastic materials such as nylon packets. It shows that, 33.3% and 36.7% of tomato and mango traders respectively used colour and 25% and 21.67% of tomatoes and mangoes traders respectively used rottenness of the produce as the quality measures respectively. However, those methods alone would not guarantee safety ofthe products.
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    Economic analysis of production efficiency and marketing performance of dairy value chain in Tanga city
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2013) Wikedzi Ibrahim Ahabu
    This study was conducted in the Tanga City with the aim of analyzing production efficiency and marketing performance of milk value chain. The specific objectives were to quantify and assess production costs of raw milk, to characterize the market structure, conduct and performance in the milk value chain and to estimate the production function of dairy producers. This was a cross sectional research design which used simple random sampling technique to select the subjects into the study. In total, a sample of 80 smallholder dairy farmers, 30 milk traders and 2 processors were interviewed using semi­ structured questionnaire and checklists respectively. Data analysis techniques included collating field data and decomposing it into descriptive statistics, characterizing the S-C-P market model and estimating the stochastic production frontier model for dairy keepers in Tanga City. The average per unit production cost was found to be TSh 550 per litre of raw milk with high contribution from labour (45.7%) and feeds (19.4%) while the remaining dairy operations (e.g. veterinary services) accounted for 34.9% of the total production cost. The average production cost per litre and farm gate price per litre (TSh 580) of raw milk were found to be statistically different at p< 0.05 level of significance. Smallholder dairy farmers received gross profit margins of 5.2% and 21.4% in the formal and informal channels respectively while processors and traders received gross profit margins of 18.8% and 36.1% per litre of milk respectively. Milk traders received higher Gross Profit Margin (GPM) because they sold their milk on the informal chain which offers relatively higher prices. The overall Technical Efficiency (TE) of smallholder dairy farmers in Tanga City was 89.7%. Labour cost was found to have a negative effect on the TE while feeds, veterinary services and capital stock had positive effect. The study found low price for raw milk and limited bargaining power of TDCU as barriers to dairy development. The study recommends intervention in price setting strategy and producers' training on production techniques that will increase the performance.
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    Interactive radio programming and gender perspectives in agricultural knowledge sharing: A study of women crop farmers in Dodoma city, Tanzania
    (East african journal of agriculture and biotechnology, 2024-02-20) Libent Stella; Madaha Rasel M; Busindeli Innocent. M
    This study examines the accessibility of interactive radio-based agricultural information for women crop farmers in Dodoma City, Tanzania. With a focus on face-to-face interviews, supplemented by Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews, the research involved 32 purposively selected individual participants. The study uses content analysis to unveil a limited interaction between radio programmers and women crop farmers in Dodoma City. Identified barriers include a scarcity of radios and mobile phones, absence of electricity for device charging, domestic responsibilities, fear of spousal disapproval, non-contact by programmers, voucher purchase costs, and language obstacles. The findings underscore the need for intervention to enhance women's engagement with radio programs. The study recommends that the Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority (TCRA) addresses financial constraints hindering women's interaction. This aligns with the TCRA's commitment to prioritizing information consumer interests. Additionally, the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology is urged to empower schoolgirls by providing agricultural education through secondary levels. Such initiatives can foster improved access to vital agricultural information for women crop farmers in Dodoma City, contributing to their socio-economic development.
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    Performance of evening street markets of agri-food products in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2011) Habib, Zobida Habib Omer
    The study aimed at assessing the performance of street evening marketing of agri-food products in Morogoro municipality by examining the structure of evening agri-food street markets, assessing the conduct of sellers, analysing performance of the markets in terms of cost and profitability, and identifying factors underlying profitability. A structured questionnaire was administered to 118 sellers and 40 consumers selected using convenience sampling. The results showed that the market structure for both snack-meals and fresh fruits were competitive, with concentration indices of 20.64% and 18.98% respectively, and 83% of sellers derived their income entirely from the business. Profit margin analysis showed that the snack-meals sellers in the town centre earned significantly (P<0.05) more profit per day (TAS 39 142) compared to sellers in the periphery (TAS 16 225). Although fresh fruit sellers in the town centre earned more profit per day (TAS 10 157) compared to sellers in the periphery (TAS 7 811), the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.1). Regression analysis indicated that gender product diversification and type of product had a significant (P<0.05) positive impact on the sellers’ profit. Results also showed that majority of consumers (58%) preferred the street food because it was cheap, with 40% of them preferred to eat fried banana with beef barbeque. In conclusion, street evening marketing in Morogoro municipality is profitable and competitive, with limited barriers to market entry. Recommendations include enhancing the operational efficiency of evening street agri-food markets and formalisation of the operations by the municipal council through: allocation of hygienic premises, provision of business permits and facilitation of formation of sellers’ associations to promote growth and credit worthiness of the evening agri-food street markets.
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    Production and marketing of paddy and cotton in Ulanga district of Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 1998) Gabagambi, Damian Mulokozi
    Agriculture market reforms have been underway in Tanzania since mid 1980s. The ultimate objective of such policy change was to improve agricultural marketing efficiency in the economy. The extent to which this goal has been achieved in various parts of the country needs to be analysed. This study therefore attempts to assess the agricultural marketing problems in Ulanga district, Morogoro, Tanzania. The main objective of the study was to assess the marketing efficiency of paddy and cotton systems in the study area with a view to identifying areas of weaknesses which need improvements. A sample of 85 paddy and/or cotton producers and 40 paddy traders were interviewed using structured questionnaires. The production season was confined to 1994/95 production season. The tools of analysis used include descriptive statistics, correlation and regression. The results of the analysis revealed that (i) farm gross margin and returns to inputs for both crops were very low; (ii) in terms of market concentration ratio, and pricing efficiency there was some improvements in the paddy marketing system due to competition among traders; (iii) operational and pricing efficiency indicated that there is still a lot more to be done to improve the situation. For both crops, production and marketing costs in some operations were found to be unnecessarily high because of poor infrastructure and lack of competition on the part of cotton sector; and (iv) paddy producers were being discouraged by price instability.From the above results it is recommended that (i) paddy productivity be increased using appropriate technology to enable producers benefit from low average production cost; (ii) crop buying posts be established in each-village where exchange could take place. Apart from reducing collection cost to traders the buying posts would increase market transparency thereby motivating market participants which could result into improved marketing efficiency; (iii) the problem of small working capital for traders could be solved by carefully planned and monitored revolving fund scheme. This could start by identifying honest traders in the area; (iv) to minimise price fluctuations in the paddy marketing systems forward contracts and futures trading could be encouraged. For cotton marketing it is recommended that (i) cotton productivity should be increased so that private buyers could be motivated to invest in the cotton sector in Ulanga District; (ii) the present ginneries should be privatised so that cotton buyers in the area could have access to them at a ginning fee; (iii) the long bureaucratic procedure before obtaining licences to handle cotton should be minimised. This could be achieved by leaving this task with the Tanzania Cotton Lint and Seed Board TCLSB); (iv) road communication system in the study area if improved could facilitate production and marketing of agricultural products in the study area.