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    Profiling of Haematological Indices in Relation to Body Score and Altitude Among Norwegian Goats in Morogoro, Tanzania
    (Science Publishing Group, 2021-12) Ally, Mohamed Hamed Sango
    Blood samples were collected from 180 apparently healthy adult Norwegian goats each 90 Norwegian goats, from high altitude and low altitude in Morogoro urban and peri-urban to assess the influence of altitude on their hematological indices. The (RBC) Red blood cells, PCV (packed cell volume), WBC (White blood cells) and HB (Hemoglobin) concentration were determined. Analysis of hematological indices was done using Automated Hematological Analyzer (Msn4s). Data on age, weight, body score, health and nutritional status were recorded for each animal. Epi-info version7.1 was used to analyze data for means, standard deviation and percentages. T-test and Chi-square were used to compare similarities between the groups. Results were compared to normal ranges of the parameters. Most parameters were within normal ranges. However significant increase in white blood cell count and decrease in hemoglobin concentration was observed from blood collected from groups of Norwegian goats located at low altitudes. Whereas the value of RBC (Red blood cells), PCV (packed cell volume) and HB (Hemoglobin) concentration in blood samples from high altitude were significantly high compared to those found at low altitude. These results revealed that, the level of hematological parameters were significantly affected by nature of areas animal located, that is altitude, although other confounding factors such as age, diseases, stress, sex, body weight and climatic condition may result to variations on the blood indices.
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    In-vitro wound healing properties of commiphora swynnertonii resinous extracts
    (2021-09) Bakari, G. G.; Mshamu, S.A; Ally, M. H; Max, R.A; Bai, H
    Wound healing is a complex multicellular process involving many cell types which include; inflammatory cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and keratinocytes. The process involves an orderly sequence of events with four overlapping phases namely; haemostasis, inflammatory, proliferation and remodeling phases. The process can be facilitated by the use of wound healing agents including herbal remedies from plants. In this study the main objective was to evaluate the in vitro wound healing activity of the resin obtained from Commiphora swynnertonii (C.swynnertonii). First the NIH -3T3 cells viability were evaluated using (3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl Tetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay. Then the wound scratch assay model was used to evaluate cellular proliferation, closure of the wound and release of matrix metalloproteinase enzymes. Results indicate differences in mean cell viability between different concentrations within 24 hours of incubation. The highest viability was recorded at the concentration of 1% (v/v). The in-vitro wound scratch assay showed positive NIH - 3T3 cells proliferation on the wound area and cells migration when compared with control group (without treatment) at 0 and 24 hours. In addition, C. swynnertonii was able to stimulate secretion of MMP-2 release from NIH - 3T3 cells. MMP-2 is an important enzyme for extracellular matrix remodeling during wound healing suggesting that C. swynnertonii promotes wound healing by stimulating cell proliferation and production of MMP-2 in a mechanism that is currently not known.
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    Prevalence and serotypes diversity of Salmonella species in the Nile Perch (Lates niloticus) of the Lake Victoria, Tanzania
    (Macrothink Institute, 2022-03) Sango, Mohamed H
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence, serotypes, antimicrobial resistance and plasmids profiles of Salmonella spp. in Nile perch of Lake Victoria, Tanzania. Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli in water and fish samples were investigated by the bacteriological methods. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella spp. were determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. A total of 324 samples were analysed including Nile perch, water and swabs from surfaces of facilities used for fish transport. The finding showed the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in fish at fishing ground were 16/60 (26.7%), landing sites and markets were 9/60 (15%) and 18/60 (30%) respectively. A significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in fish from fishing ground and those at landing sites, but not with those from markets (p>0.05). The main serotypes recovered were Salmonella ser. Waycross (41: z4z23 :-) and Salmonella enterica ssp. salamae (42: r :-). Most Salmonella serotypes showed the low resistance profiles against most of antimicrobials, but few isolates were resistant to Nalidixic acid 3/64 (4.7%), ampicillin 5/64 (7.8%), azithromycin 14/64 (21.9%) and sulfamethoxazole 22/64 (34.4%). Plasmids were detected in few Salmonella ser. Waycross compared to none of Salmonella ssp. salamae. Escherichia coli count ranged 0.77 to 2.44 log 10 cfu/g in fish and 0.44 to 1.71 log 10 cfu/ml in water. Contaminated fish with different Salmonella serovars imply pollution of the lake attributable to waste from point and nonpoint sources that may contain antibiotic residues accounting for resistant bacteria in aquatic environment. Un-hygienic fish handling and poor conditions of markets account for the high prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Nile perch at markets.
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    Occurrence and removal of three antibiotics in two wastewater treatment plants in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania
    (2021-06) Mohamed, H.S.A 1; Robinson, H.M; Uswege, M
    Urban wastewater treatment plants (UWTPs) are among the main sources of antibiotics release into various compartments of environment worldwide. These antibiotics have aggravated increasing anxiety, particularly as no legitimate requirements have been set for discharge into surface water bodies of these ubiquitous, persistent and biologically active substances. Massive quantities of antibiotics are used in human and veterinary medicine in all parts of the globe to treat diseases with bacterial, fungal and parasitic origins. These are also largely used in animal operations for growth promotion and for disease prophylaxis .These are often partially metabolized depending on type of antibiotics. After administration a significant fraction of the antibiotic can be excreted as a parent compound, metabolites or in conjugate forms that can be converted back to parent antibiotic. The residual antibiotics from human and animal use can enter the environment via various pathways, including wastewater, runoff from land in which manure or human waste has been applied and leaching. In this study occurrence and removal of three selected antibiotics, tetracyclines, sulfonamides and quinolones were studied in two large wastewater treatment plants in Morogoro Municipality using ELISA technique. Results indicated that the highest mean concentrations were 27.2753±2.83878μg/l, quinolones 48.7615±7.9343.91μg/l tetracyclines and 18.7492±5.4906μg/l sulfonamides. The elimination of antibiotics through these wastewater treatment plants was incomplete. The removal efficiency was 28.50% tetracyclines, 11.33 % quinolones and 82.32% sulfonamides at mafisa wastewater treatment plant. At Mzumbe wastewater treatment plant removal efficiency was 2.5% tetracyclines, 7.259% quinolones and 2.28% sulfonamides.
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    Occurrence and distribution of sulfonamides, Tetracyclines and Quinolones in livestock manure in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania
    (iMedPub Journals, 2017-11) Mohameda, H.S.A; Anders, D; Uswege, M; Robinson, H.M
    Antibiotics are deployed in large quantities both in human and veterinary medicine. They have played a major role in improving human health and supporting livestock production. However, the relevance of non-therapeutic and therapeutic applications needs a time-to-time re-evaluation due to its significant relationship to increased emergence of resistant pathogen strains both in humans and animals. This is due to widespread discharge into the aquatic environment from both domestic and agricultural sources of antibiotics which are not completely metabolized (original compounds) or metabolites of which are recycled through drinking water under low doses. A study was conducted to analyze the presence of sulfonamide, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline in swine, cattle and poultry manure in Morogoro municipality. A total of sixty grab manure samples from poultry, swine and cattle were analyzed. Twenty samples for each type of livestock manure were collected from Morogoro municipality for analysis. The respective antibiotics were analyzed by ELISA. The highest mean concentrations in manure sample were 1320.9967 ± 710.06372 μg/ kg, 2083.2640 ± 826.64583 μg/kg and 1573.7528 ± 222.95739 μg/kg, Sulfonamide, Ciprofloxacin and Tetracycline respectively. In overall, higher concentrations of the antibiotics were detected in poultry and swine manure than in cattle. This indicates heavier usage of veterinary antibiotics in poultry and swine husbandry in the study area as compared to cattle. The findings of this study provide basic information on the risk of environmental antibiotic contamination from animal effluents.
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    Determination of tetracycline tesidues in honey from Tabora and Singida Regions Tanzania produced Using modern heehives
    (2020-09) Sango, Mohamed Hamed; Mnyakavilli, Anna
    A liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC MS/MS) method is proposed for identification and quantification of antibiotics residues and metabolites in honey and other matrices such as water, manure, soil, meat and sediments. This method was used to detect tetracycline derived residues in honey samples from Tabora and Singida regions, Tanzania. This honey was obtained from modern beehives. Three hundred honey samples were tested for the presence of tetracycline derivative residues. Of the examined samples 15% had these drug residues. Majority of samples contained residues to a proportion of 0.002–0.008 mg/kg. The findings show that tetracycline antibiotic residues are present in honey from Tabora and Singida regions, although in small concentrations, however, this can possibly influence the naturally occurring protective properties of this medicinal food. Also can lead to drug resistance to consumers. Prospective studies that simultaneously track both resistance genes and antibiotic residues will go far in resolving some of the gagging questions that cloud our understanding of antibiotic resistance dissemination
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    Quantitative determination of selected antibiotic residues in Water from rivers, dam and wastewater in Morogoro, Tanzania
    (2019-09) Sango, Ally, Mohamed Hamed; Mdegela
    The anthropogenic load of antibiotics in Morogoro Municipality water bodies was estimated using the ELISA technique. Commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits commonly used for detection of tetracyclines, sulfonamides and quinolones residues in meat, milk, eggs and honey were adopted for analysis of these antibiotics in surface waters. Thirty-three sampling points were selected, including two rivers, one dam and one wastewater treatment plant. Results showed that there were detectable levels of the selected antibiotics in all the sampling sites. In rivers there were slightly higher mean concentration of antibiotics in the downstream rivers in close vicinity to high human activities. High mean concentrations of antibiotics were also found in wastewater treatment plant. In rivers, the maximum mean concentrations detected were 7.74±2.45, 8.76±2.65 and 8.94±3.83μg/l quinolones, tetracyclines and sulfonamides, respectively. At Mindu Dam, mean concentrations were, 1.61±0.17, 4.84±1.23 and 3.65±1.37μg/l, quinolones, tetracyclines and sulfonamides, respectively, while at Wastewater Treatment Plant mean concentrations were 31.55±11.23, 48.89±21.82 and 37.94±14.05μg/l quinolones, tetracyclines and sulfonamides, respectively. Differences in mean concentrations in Rivers, Dam and Wastewater Plant were attributed to the fact that in wastewater treatment plant antibiotic residues are continuously poured through human domestic and hospital waste, while at Mindu Dam and Rivers antibiotic residues are poured mainly through run-off during rainy season, hence high mean concentrations in Wastewater Treatment Plant than in rivers and dam. The presence of antibiotics residues in rivers, Mindu Dam and Wastewater Treatment Plant although in very low concentrations poses risks to population who take antibiotics at low doses. This can be through drinking water and consumption of crops produced through irrigation using water from these sources; this can lead to acceleration of antibiotic resistance through selection pressure; also can harm organisms in water ecosystem in long time exposure
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    Assessment of antimicrobial activity of velvet bush willow (Combretum molle) crude bark extracts on selected bacteria species
    (2021-10) Mgonja, Frida Richard; Ally, Mohamed Hamed Sango
    Treatment and control of infectious diseases in humans and animals play a vital role in prevention of illness and death. Conventional drugs treatment has been providing effective therapy for treatment of infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms; However, some do not respond to conventional therapy. Conventional therapy are expensive and have more adverse side effects. Plant based medicinal productshas been used as an alternative curative for infections caused by resistant pathogenic microorganisms, moreover, plant medicinal products have less adverse side effects. This study was conducted to assess thecrude Combretummolle bark extracts antimicrobial activityagainst three selected bacteria species. Three solvents, distilled water; ethanol and acetone were used for crude combretum molle bark extraction. The agar well diffusion method was used to assess antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of the most active extracts was determined by the broth dilution technique. Extracts from three solvents tested demonstrated antimicrobial activity with zone of inhibition diameters ranging from 14 to 24 mm. Acetone extract was the most potent with its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 1.25 to 2.50 mg/ml. There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in the potency of the three extracts and standard antibiotic ciprofloxacin on the bacteria species tested. The study showed that the crude bark extract of C. molle has antimicrobial activity against all the test microorganisms.
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    Influence of storage conditions on efficacy of selected veterinary antimicrobials dispensed under different storage conditions in Morogoro, Tanzania
    (Medtext Publications, 2019) Ally, M.H.S; Lusekelo, M
    Efficacy of antimicrobials is of vital importance for patient safety and activity. The loss of potency may influence the efficacy and safety of antimicrobials. This study aimed to determine the influence of different storage conditions on the efficacy of selected antimicrobials. A significant statistical difference was observed across the efficacy data of selected antimicrobial brands. The data showed that the maximum reduction of efficacy was observed in light exposed antimicrobials compared to cool and properly store antimicrobials. These results authenticated that improper storage conditions resulted in failure to meet product characteristic and specification during shelf life. Optimum storage conditions and procedures ensure that the efficacy and integrity of medicinal products are maintained throughout their shelf life. This study emphasizes the importance of proper storage of antimicrobials from the time of their movement from manufacturing premises till reaches consumers.
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    The influence of weather on the occurrence of aflatoxin b1 in harvested maize from Kenya and Tanzania
    (MDIP, 2021) Temba, Benigni A.; Darnell, Ross E.; Gichangi, Anne; Lwezaura, Deogratias; Pardey, Philip G.; Harvey, Jagger J.; Karanja, James; Massomo, Said M. S.; Ota, Noboru; Wainaina, James M.; Fletcher, Mary T.; Kriticos, Darren J.
    : A study was conducted using maize samples collected from different agroecological zones of Kenya (n = 471) and Tanzania (n = 100) during the 2013 maize harvest season to estimate a relationship between aflatoxin B1 concentration and occurrence with weather conditions during the growing season. The toxins were analysed by the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. Aflatoxin B1 incidence ranged between 0–100% of samples in different regions with an average value of 29.4% and aflatoxin concentrations of up to 6075 µg/kg recorded in one sample. Several regression techniques were explored. Random forests achieved the highest overall accuracy of 80%, while the accuracy of a logistic regression model was 65%. Low rainfall occurring during the early stage of the maize plant maturing combined with high temperatures leading up to full maturity provide warning signs of aflatoxin contamination. Risk maps for the two countries for the 2013 season were generated using both random forests and logistic regression models.
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    Maize milling and modifying atmospheric conditions limit formation of aflatoxin B1 by aspergillus flavus
    (Macrothink Institute, 2021) Temba, Benigni Alfred; Bakari, Gaymary George
    Occurrence of mycotoxins in foods poses a serious health concern all over the world. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic, with widest occurrence in various foods, but mainly in cereals and nuts and its accumulation depends on substrate and environmental factors. This study investigated the how physical status (milling) of maize kernels and atmospheric conditions (aeration, moisture and temperature) affect production of aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus flavus (ATCC 28862). Intact kernels and flour were incubated for up to 20 days in open and partially sealed petri dishes under controlled temperatures of 25 ºC, 30 ºC and 37 ºC and initial moisture contents of 27%, 22%, 18%, 15% and 12%. It was found that on average, significantly higher (p < 0.05) aflatoxin B1 level was accumulated in intact kernels (145.7 µg/kg) as compared to milled kernels (2.2 µg/kg). Also, none of the samples incubated under partially sealed conditions, compared to up to 100% of the samples incubated in open atmosphere had detectable levels of aflatoxin B1 after 20 days. Fungal growth was not affected by milling or aeration, but sporulation was low at 37 ºC and high at 25 ºC and 30 ºC. The findings of this study provide baseline information on how conditions can be modified to control postharvest accumulation of aflatoxin B1 in cereals
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    Effects of sweet potato leaves, roselle calyces and beetroot on body weight, selected hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken
    (Macrothink Institute, 2019) Max, Robert Arsen; Kitimu, Shedrack Reuben; Mshamu, Shaabani; Temba, Benigni Alfred; Muhairwa, Amandus P.
    The study was conducted to assess the effects of sweet potato leaves, roselle calyces and beetroot tubers on body weight, selected hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chickens. Eighty four (84) broiler chickens aged four weeks were randomly assigned into six groups of 14 chickens each. The first group (G0) remained as untreated control while the other groups were the treated groups which received 25% of ground sweet potato leaves (G1), rosella calyces (G2), beetroot tubers (G3) and their mixtures (G4 and G5) for 28 days. Following inclusion of these different vegetables, blood samples were collected and analyzed for selected hematological and biochemical parameters on day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Results showed that consumption of the three vegetables caused significant decreases (p < 0.05) in body weight, serum glucose and cholesterol. On the other hand, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (PCV) and total white blood cell (WBC) counts were shown to increase significantly (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. It is concluded that the hypoglycemic and hypocholesteremic effects in chickens following consumption of the three vegetables together with their positive effects on PCV and WBC counts are important qualities which can be utilized in the management of conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases (atherosclerosis and coronary disease) in humans. Further studies in other animals are recommended.
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    The PCR identification of trypanosomes isolated from cattle and Glossina Spp. in wildlife-human-animal interface of Meatu District, North Eastern Tanzania
    (JAVR, 2019) Malulu, Deusdedit J.; Tuntufye, Huruma N.; Temba, Benigni A.; Kimbita, Elikira N.; Malele, Imna. I; Kinung’hi, Safari; Nyingilili, Hamisi S.; Mbilu, Togolai; Kaboya, Josephat S.; Lyaruu, Eugene
    African trypanosomes are etiological agents of trypanosomosis transmitted by tsetse flies (Glossina spp). Thus, identifying them in vectors and hosts together with their classification into species, sub species is crucial for effective control of the diseases they cause to animals and human. This study analysed 350 samples collected from cattle (100) and tsetse flies (250) of Meatu district for identification of trypanosomes through amplification of Internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region in order to sup port formulation of tsetse and trypanosomosis control strategies within the district. Occurrence of try panosomes in cattle was 15%, while in tsetse was 1.20%. Trypanosoma congolense was identified in cattle whereas; T. simiae and T. godfreyi were identified in tsetse flies. The tsetse and trypanosomosis control options were discussed.
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    Curcumin-based photosensitization inactivates aspergillus flavus and reduces aflatoxin B1 in maize kernels
    (ELSEVIER, 2019) Temba, Benigni A.; Fletcher, Mary T.; Fox, Glen P.; Harvey, Jagger; Okoth, Sheila A.; Sultanbawa, Yasmina
    Different methods have been applied in controlling contamination of foods and feeds by the carcinogenic fungal toxin, aflatoxin, but nevertheless the problem remains pervasive in developing countries. Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound from the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) that has been identified as an efficient photosensitiser for inactivation of Aspergillus flavus conidia. Curcumin mediated photoinactivation of A. flavus has revealed the potential of this technology to be an effective method for reducing population density of the aflatoxin-producing fungus in foods. This study demonstrates the influence of pH and temperature on efficiency of photoinactivation of the fungus and how treating spore-contaminated maize kernels affects aflatoxin pro duction. The results show the efficiency of curcumin mediated photoinactivation of fungal conidia and hyphae were not affected by temperatures between 15 and 35 °C or pH range of 1.5–9.0. The production of aflatoxin B1 was significantly lower (p < 0.05), with an average of 82.4 μg/kg as compared to up to 305.9 μg/kg observed in untreated maize kept under similar conditions. The results of this study indicate that curcumin mediated pho tosensitization can potentially be applied under simple environmental conditions to achieve significant reduc tion of post-harvest contamination of aflatoxin B1 in maize.
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    Tools for defusing a major global food and feed safety risk: non biological postharvest procedures to decontaminate mycotoxins in foods and feeds
    (American Chemical Society, 2016) Temba, Benigni A.; Sultanbawa, Yasmina; Kriticos, Darren J.; Fox, Glen P.; Harvey, Jagger J. W.; Fletcher, Mary T.
    Mycotoxin contamination of foods and animal feeds is a worldwide problem for human and animal health. Controlling mycotoxin contamination has drawn the attention of scientists and other food and feed stakeholders all over the world. Despite best efforts targeting field and storage preventive measures, environmental conditions can still lead to mycotoxin contamination. This raises a need for developing decontamination methods to inactivate or remove the toxins from contaminated products. At present, decontamination methods applied include an array of both biological and nonbiological methods. The targeted use of nonbiological methods spans from the latter half of last century, when ammoniation and ozonation were first used to inactivate mycotoxins in animal feeds, to the novel techniques being developed today such as photosensitization. Effectiveness and drawbacks of different nonbiological methods have been reported in the literature, and this review examines the utility of these methods in addressing food safety. Particular consideration is given to the application of such methods in the developing world, where mycotoxin contamination is a serious food safety issue in staple crops such as maize and rice.
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    Inactivation of aspergillus flavus spores by curcumin-mediated photosensitization
    (ELSEVIER, 2016) Temba, Benigni A.; Fletcher, Mary T.; Fox, Glen P.; Harvey, Jagger J. W.
    Minimizing fungal infection is essential to the control of mycotoxin contamination of foods and feeds but many potential control methods are not without their own safety concerns for the consumers. Photo dynamic inactivation is a novel light-based approach which offers a promising alternative to conven tional methods for the control of mycotoxigenic fungi. This study describes the use of curcumin to inactivate spores of Aspergillus flavus, one of the major aflatoxin producing fungi in foods and feeds. Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound from the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa). In this study the plant has shown to be an effective photosensitiser when combined with visible light (420 nm). The experiment was conducted in in vitro and in vivo where A. flavus spores were treated with different photosensitiser concentration and light dose both in buffer solution and on maize kernels. Comparison of fungal load from treated and untreated samples was determined, and reductions of fungal spore counts of up to 3 log CFU ml 1 in suspension and 2 log CFU g 1 in maize kernels were obtained using optimal dye concentrations and light dose combinations. The results in this study indicate that curcumin mediated photosensitization is a potentially effective method to decontaminate A. flavus spores in foods and feeds.
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    Accessibility and use of information and communication tools among farmers for improving chicken production in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania
    (Livestock Research for Rural Development, 2016) Temba, B. A.; Kajuna, F. K.; Pango, G. S.; Benard, R
    Obtaining correct and appropriate extension services is an important aspect of maximizing production among farmers. This is a cross sectional study carried out to assess the use of information and communication tools (ICTs) to get extension services among chicken farmers and identifying factors hindering the accessibility and use. The study was conducted using structured questionnaire involving 160 chicken keepers randomly chosen from list of poultry keepers and voluntarily concerted to participate in four wards of Morogoro municipality. Data collected were analyzed for descriptive statistics, comparisons and correlations. It was identified that majority of farmers used televisions, mobile phones and radio to get extension information while few farmers occasionally use internet, magazines, books, fliers and audio-visual materials like DVDs. 82.5% of the farmers do not get enough information they needed for their projects. High costs, unreliable electricity, poor TV and radio signals and lack of knowledge on the use or modern tools were pointed as major limiting factors. It was however observed that the use of information and communication tools to access extension services strongly correlated with productivity of chicken enterprises. We therefore recommend for more efforts to facilitate and sensitize farmers on the better use of ICTs for their enterprises.
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    Effect of freezing on stability of oxytetracycline residues in beef from Dodoma region, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Veterinary Associatian Proceedings, 2017-12-05) Mgonja, F.
    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of freezing on the concentration of oxytetracycline (OTC) residues in beef samples stored at -20 °C (core beef temperature -12 °C and below) for 60 and 120 days. A total of 60 fresh beef samples were randomly obtained from cattle slaughterhouses and butcher shops in district in Dodoma region in Tanzania. The OTC residues were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD). Results showed that the mean concentration of OTC residues in 16 positive samples before freezing was 191.71 ± 90.21 ng/g. The mean concentration of OTC after freezing at -20 °C for 60 and 120 days were 166.40 ± 86.49 ng/g and 133.50 ± 83.24 ng/g respectively. These results revealed a significant (p<0.05) reduction of OTC residues of 30% after 60 days and 65% after 120 days of freezing at -20 °C. The percentage reduction of OTC residues was not dependent on the initial concentration or the freezing process but was rather due to unknown time dependent individual beef sample factors. It is concluded that. despite OTC levels in beef decreasing due to non-freezing factors. any residues significantly above Maximum Residues Level (MRL) may not be expected to reduce to acceptable levels as a result of freezing.
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    Multiplicity of infections and level of recrudescence in Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Mlimba, Tanzania
    (Academic Journals, 2006-09) Mbugi, Erasto V.; Mutayoba, Benezeth M; Balthazary, Sakurani T; Malisa, Allen L; Nyambo, Thomas B; Mshinda, Hassan
    Polymorphism and antigenic variation are important biological survival strategies of malaria parasites determining the episode, outcome and implications of treatment interventions. In P. falciparum, polymorphic antigens are associated with the asexual blood-stage; merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2). The MSP2 genes have been invaluable in post-treatment discrimination of parasite resurgence from new infection, especially in high transmission areas. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on DNA extracted from blood samples of 141 malaria-infected infants, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of PCR products. The findings showed multiplicity of infections of single to six infections with an average of 2.58 infections per patient. Single infections of either 3D7 or FC27 allelic families of the MSP2 gene occurred in 51 patients (50.5%) out of all PCR-RFLP successful samples (n = 101). Out of 15 (10.6%) follow up samples with resurgent parasitaemia, 3 (20%) samples had recrudescent infections while 12 (80%) had variable results. Our findings provide an insight on the prevalence of the genetic determinants of suphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in Mlimba during the study period, and in the face of rapidly spreading resistance, calls for the periodic surveillance in order to timely detect early warning signal of the deteriorating SP cure rate.
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    The potential of mitochondrial DNA markers and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism for domestic and wild species identification
    (African Journal of Biotechnology, 2006-09-18) Malisa, A.L.; Gwakisa, P; Balthazary, S; Wasser, S; Mutayoba, B.M
    Poaching is increasingly presenting challenge to conservational authorities in Africa. Accurate and reliable methods for the identification of poached wildlife meat when morphological features are missing, has been lacking in Africa. We describe a molecular based approach that has a potential of serving as a tool for game and domestic meat identification in Africa. A mitochondrial (mt246) marker and Rsa1 restriction enzyme were used in the PCR-RFLP species identification of game and domestic meat. Species-specific reference DNA fragment patterns were obtained using fresh meat from ten major wild herbivores, representing the highly targeted wild meat species in Tanzania and four domesticated animal species. With the exception of the zebra, all species produced unique monomorphic RFLP patterns that were species specific. These reference fragment patterns enabled identification of about 75% of unknown meat samples, demonstrating the ability of the technique in discriminating between and among wild and domestic species. The results provide preliminary promising fingerprints which need further validation for future use for the control of the up-surging bush meat trade in the continent.