Articles, Conference and Workshop Papers Collection

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    Eliciting smallholder farmers’ tradeoffs and preferences on the attributes of climate smart agriculture in the breadbasket areas of Tanzania using a conjoint experiment method
    (Science Publishing Group, 2015-11-13) Mussa, Kassim R.; Saria, Josephat A.; Kusiluka, Lughano J. M.; Jiwaji, Noorali T.; Gwambene, Brown; Pauline, Noah M.; Msofe, Nangware K.; Tegeje, Juma A.; Messo, Innocent
    While policy and decision-makers are striving to enhance food security amidst maddening impacts of climate change, climate smart agriculture is thought of as a promising breakthrough for responding to climate change impacts in Tanzania and elsewhere in the world as it strives to increase food productivity; build resilience of agricultural systems to climate change impacts and reduce agricultural greenhouse gas emission. Studies show that agricultural sector is both, a cause and a victim of climate change. It significantly contributes greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. However, achieving climate change mitigation through agriculture without compromising food security is a huge policy and research challenge, some scientists say, it is practically impossible. This study sought to determine tradeoffs and preferences of smallholder farmers on the attributes climate smart agricultural practices, specifically modeling choices of smallholder farmers using choice experiment method. Upon estimating three different models, positive utilities were observed in high productivity, Moderate and low GHG emission as well as on moderate and high resilient farming systems. Smallholder farmers showed a complete disutility on low and moderate agricultural productivity, high GHG emission and low resilient farming systems. The models therefore justified the fact that, attaining more yield without a compromise in greenhouse gas emission reduction targets is a blue-sky dream. In order to concisely inform policy, more research on farmers’ preference and tradeoff on the attributes is needed to establish a scientific and logical progression about the tradeoffs people are willing to make with regard to the attributes of climate smart agriculture practices.
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    Exploring the future land use- biodiversity-climate nexus in East Africa: an application of participatory scenario analysis
    (Whiterose University, 2015-11) Capitani, Claudia; Norfolk, Olivia; Platts, Philip; Burgess, Neil; Mukama, Kusaga; Mbilinyi, Boniface; Malugu, Isaac; Munishi, Pantaleo; Marchant, Rob
    Climate change and land-use-land-cover change (LULCC) are expected to have major impacts on global biodiversity. In highly diverse tropical moist forests, future biodiversity trajectories will also depend on political and societal will to undertake the changes needed to reduce those impacts. We present a framework to build participatory spatially- explicit scenarios that can be used to analyse the biodiversity-climate-land-change trade- offs, and we applied at different scales in East Africa. In Tanzania, under the business-as- usual pattern of economic growth, the Eastern Arc Mountains forests and biodiversity will be heavily impacted on, with increasing pressure on protected areas. Increasing variability of rainfall and temperature are likely to impact on where the LCLCC are going to be, with the mountains likely to be refuges that are even more important for local communities. That may intensify impacts on biodiversity. In Taita Hills (Kenya) and Jimma Highlands (Ethiopia), stakeholders expected that adaptation interventions to climate change would generally improve biodiversity state. Preliminary data on birds community diversity in Taita Hills showed that though agroforestry system supports higher diversity than natural forest, species richness of rarer forest specialists remained highest within natural forests. Anticipating future conservation and agriculture interaction under climate change may contribute to set spatial priorities for intervention sites. Further investigations are required that could benefit from integrating local stakeholders’ perceptions and visions for the future.
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    Adaptive capacity to climate change of pastoralists in Kilosa District, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2020) Kitasho, N; Abdallah, J.M; Zakayo, R.
    A study was conducted to investigate the adaptive capacity of pastoralists in Kilosa district to climate change. Specifically, the study assessed the trend and impact of climate change in the area, adaptive elements of pastoral communities against climate change and determined the contribution of state agencies in enhancing pastoral system’s resilience to climate variability in the district. Data were collected using household questionnaire survey, focus group discussions, key informant interviews and field observation. The data was analysed using Excel and SPSS computer software programs. Results revealed that in the period 1972-1974, there was a significant shift of rainfall in the study area from bi-modal to unimodal. This trend has been consistent with climate change scenarios in recent decades of lower rainfall and more severe droughts. Most pastoralists were aware of climate change impacts namely water scarcity, increase of livestock diseases and increased distance to grazing lands. The capacity of pastoralists to adapt to climate change stress depends largely on the number of livestock. Pastoralists owning more livestock are more likely to adapt to climate change. This study recommends that the community should diversify to other sustainable economic activities rather than relying on livestock only while climatic conditions are not favourable for this economic activity. The Government should put more effort on supporting pastoralists in their adaptive strategies as well as make regular review of policies to favour adaptation measures.
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    Watershed degradation and water provision in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania
    (UNESCO, 2022) Raphael, Antidius; Lalika, Makarius C.S.; Ngaga, Yonika M.
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    Effects of participatory forest management on livelihoods of communities adjacent to forests in redd+ pilot areas of Mufindi, Iringa Rural and Mbozi districts, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2021) Lusambo, L.P; Midtgaard, F; Nyamoga, G
    Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has been introduced as a strategy for sustainable forest management. The extent to which forests managed under PFM strategies contribute to the livelihoods of its adjacent communities remains poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to (i) analyse socio-economic characteristic of respondents in the study area (ii) assess forest products accessed by the communities living adjacent to the forests, (iii) analyse the local communities’ perception on the importance of forests under PFM to their livelihoods and (iv) analyse socio-economic factors influencing the households’ perception on the importance of PFM. Methods of data collection were household survey, direct observations, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Data analysis was done using chi-square analysis and binary logistic regression. Findings revealed that χ 2 test on the importance of PFM forests (compared to non-PFM forests) was statistically significant. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that household size was a statistically significant factor influencing the household’s perception on the importance of PFM forests on livelihoods. We conclude that PFM forests are perceived to have positive effects on their livelihoods. Further studies are recommended explicitly to paint a picture on benefits attributable to PFM.
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    Estimation of household energy consumption intensities around and within miombo woodlands in Morogoro and Songea Districts, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2021) Lusambo, L.P; Mbeyale, G.E
    The aim of the study was to estimate households’ fuel consumption intensities. Stratified random sampling design was used to select a total of 568 respondent households. Data was collected using pre- tested and pilot-tested questionnaires, direct measurements, direct observations, interviews and focus group discussions. A statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft excel computer programmes were used to analyse data. Results showed that 79.8% - 83.2% of households use firewood as energy source at a rate of 6.734 – 6.746 kg household -1 day -1 , and they use charcoal as energy source at a rate of 3.336 – 3.344 kg household -1 day -1 . It is concluded that the household wood fuel consumption is of a sizeable intensity and has the highest contributory effect on total household energy consumption. There was a notable difference in the inter-strata wood fuel consumption. It is recommended that strata (location)- specific strategies would be appropriate in addressing wood fuels issues in the study area: “one-size-fits-all” approach in addressing wood fuel issues in the study area, whenever feasible, should be discouraged
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    Development of wood fuel consumption predictive model in Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2021) Lusambo, L.P; Mbeyale, G.E
    This study aimed to develop a wood fuel predictive model that could be used to give information which can be used to manage woodfuel supply with a view foster forest resources stewardship. The paper has briefly defined predictive modelling concepts, highlighted the significance of predictive modelling and described the salient steps involved in constructing predictive models. The paper has explicitly described how the predictive model was developed and validated. In light of the validation results, the paper also highlights the adjustment that has been made to the model to make it more plausible. It is concluded that in the current Tanzanian situation where there is no any model that can be used to predict and/or estimate wood fuel consumption, the developed wood fuel consumption predictive model can be useful in sustainable forest management strategies. Prior to its use, however, the constructed model needs to be further validated and adjusted accordingly using newly collected longitudinal data from the study area. Sufficient data should be collected from the strata (locations) commensurate with those used in the present study.
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    Contribution of improved charcoal kilns to the households income in developing Countries: the case of Kilindi district, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2022) Fitwangile, P.; Mombo, F; Mariki, S
    About ninety percent of the country’s energy needs are satisfied through charcoal and firewood. This study was conducted to assess the contribution of improved charcoal kilns to the household income in Kilindi District, Tanzania. Simple random sampling was applied to select two wards from 21 wards, and one village from each ward. A total of 200 charcoal producers were randomly selected. The data collection tools were questionnaires and focus group discussion. The profit analysis was conducted using gross margins technique. The student t-test statistics was conducted to determine if there was statistically significant difference between the two values (improved and traditional kilns). The findings show that charcoal production activities contributed 82% of the total household income. The gross margin from using improved kilns was 52% while using traditional kilns was 26%. The t-test show that the difference in gross margin was statistically significant at p-value of 0.02 inferring that charcoal producers who used improved kilns in the study area generated more income than those who used traditional kilns. The study recommends that local governments should sensitise communities on advantages of using of improved charcoal kilns since it has shown a positive impact on the household income and reduces forest degradation.
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    The potential of riparian forests in anthropogenic stressed river ecosystems
    (TAJAS, 2021) Raphael, A; Lalika, M
    The study was conducted to examine riparian vegetation species, anthropogenic interactions, and the due impact on the Ngerengere River riparian ecosystem in Tanzania in view of riparian forests potentials on river ecosystems. Vegetation data were collected by belt transect and field observation, and socio-economic data by household interview methods. Upon descriptive and content analyses, Pennisetum purpureum, Phragmites mauritianus, Typha domingensis, Phragmites australis, Cyperus rotundus, Sesbania sesban and Ficus sycomorus constituted the riparian zone. Most of them (80%) were grass, affected by cultivation (54%) and sand extraction (34%), causing vegetation extinction (36%), riverbanks collapse and increased sedimentation (31%). Highly vegetated areas had clean water and were ecologically stable. Riparian forests were sought vital for sustainable management of river ecosystem through enhanced carrying capacity, water cleansing and banks stabilization.
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    Competition between maize and pigeonpea in semi-arid Tanzania: effect on yields And nutrition of crops
    (Elservier, 2009) Kimaro, A.A; Timmer, V.R.; Chamshama, S.A.O; Ngaga, Y.N; Kimaro, D.A
    Productivity of maize–pigeonpea cropping systems is dependent on facilitative and competitive interactive effects on resource availability. Controlling these interactions may benefit farmers through increased productivity associated with optimized crop yields. Previous research on maize–pigeonpea culture in Sub-Saharan Africa has focused on yield and soil fertility, but provided inadequate information on the mechanisms of possible interspecific competition. We employed a factorial field experiment to examine yield and nutritional responses of maize and pigeonpea to cropping systems (sole maize, intercropping, and improved fallow), N and P fertilizer additions, and cattle manure additions in Dodoma, Tanzania. The study objectives were to assess competition between crops and to determine how manure or fertilizer inputs may mitigate such interactions to improve yields. Intercropping enhanced maize yield over sole maize only when fertilized, reflecting probable nutrient competition. Improved fallows alone or with fertilizers (1.2–1.6 Mg ha 1 ) increased maize yields over sole maize (0.6 Mg ha 1 ). These increases were attributed to pigeonpea facilitation through soil nutrient replenishment, reduced competition associated with sequential cropping arrangements, and added nutrients from fertilization. Combined fertilizer and manure applications also improved maize and pigeonpea yields. Plant nutrient diagnosis indicated primary and secondary P and Ca deficiencies, respectively associated with P-fixation and leaching of cations due to high soil acidity and exchangeable Al. Maize competed strongly in mixture suppressing biomass and grain yields of the unfertilized pigeonpea by 60% and 33%, respectively due to limited soil nutrients and/or moisture. These yield reductions suggest that the intercropped pigeonpea did not recover from competition after maize harvesting that reduced competition. Optimizing yields of both maize and pigeonpea would require the addition of prescribed fertilizer when intercropped, but applications can be reduced by half under the improved fallow system due to alleviating interspecific competition.
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    Tobacco growers at the crossroads: towards a comparison of diversification and ecosystem impacts
    (2009) Geist, Helmut J; tsung Chang, Kang-; Etges, Virginia; Abdallah, Jumanne M
    An international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has been in force since 2005, also aimed at regulating tobacco farming: FCTC article 17 on diversification, and FCTC article 18 on socio-ecological issues. Relating to the FCTC, information was gained and evaluated from tobacco farmers of growing areas sampled from major world regions (Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil, Tabora/Tanzania, Meinung/Taiwan, and Germany/Europe). A local farming survey was carried out in 2007, using a common data protocol, which covered, among others, questions on area and production development, energy used in curing, workforce, economic livelihood situation, and diversification opportunities. In addition to the survey, secondary (national-scale) statistics, public testimonies and other published data were explored. We analyzed these data using a portfolio approach, which combined statistical analysis, meta-analytical study and descriptive narratives. The projected trend of a global shift of tobacco cultivation into the developing world is confirmed, but also refined. Wood is used in Brazil and Tanzania for curing Virginia green leaf, thus contradicting the projected continuous reduction of this energy source. Child labour remains a major component of family farm tobacco operations in Brazil and Tanzania, while the cost and availability of seasonal labour turns into a bottleneck of production in Germany. More diversification opportunities exist than generally claimed, but no efforts are seen to address poor and vulnerable growers, in particular. German and Taiwanese tobacco growers can reasonably be predicted to discontinue farming in the near future, while tobacco cultivation in Brazil and Tanzania is seen to expand, mainly due to the political economy of low-cost production. Conclusions are drawn with respect to the work of the UN Study Group on Economically Sustainable Alternatives to Tobacco Growing (ESATG), effective since 2007.
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    Analysis of staffing and training needs for Effective delivery of extension service in Sustainable land management in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania
    (Scientific Research Publishing, 2014) Kessy, John F
    An assessment of staffing and training needs for effective delivery of extension services in main- streaming sustainable land management (SLM) practices in Kilimanjaro Region was conducted in June/July 2013. Data collection methods included discussions with key informants at the regional and district levels, consultations with village level stakeholders and potential collaborators, re- view of human resources data both at regional, district and ward levels and collection of individu- al staff bio-data including capacity deficiencies. The staffing situation at the regional and district levels was considered to be adequate for effective mainstreaming of SLM interventions in the re- gion. Staffing at ward and village levels was very poor and largely inadequate for sustainable ex- ecution of extension services. It is optimistically estimated that on average the staffing at ward level needs to be increased by at least 50%. In some districts the deficiency of extension staff at ward level was as high as 80%. Training needs exist at all levels from the region down to commu- nity level. At the regional and district levels both long and short term training programs were re- quired. At the community level required training is more practical and purely focused in main- streaming SLM interventions at individual households and community lands. Potential collabora- tors with local government were identified in four main categories namely, NGOs/CBOs, private sector, government departments and faith-based organizations. The study recommends a capacity building program on specific knowledge gaps identified at regional, district, ward and village le- vels. The study further recommends that immediate measures need to be taken by the district au- thorities to address the staffing problem at ward level including recruitment of volunteers and developing collaboration framework with identified potential partners.
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    Analysis of drivers and agents of deforestation and forest Degradation in masito forests, Kigoma, Tanzania
    (2016) Kessy, John Francis; Nsokko, Edwin; Kaswamila, Abiud; Kimaro, Freddy
    A study to assess the direct and indirect drivers and agents of deforestation and forest degradation was carried out in Masito forests in Kigoma Region. Several methodologies were deployed including review of key literature, focused group discussions, household level interviews and review of “smart phones” database of disturbance incidences in the forests. Results revealed that despite forest protection measures taken by the government and other actors for purposes of REDD+ carbon trade, deforestation and forest degradation are problems that are being experienced in the study area. Evidence of deforestation and degradation were provided through change detection data, forest disturbance incidences and community perception on the drivers of deforestation and degradation. The main drivers of deforestation and degradation were characterized to fall into direct drivers and indirect drivers. The demand for land and forests resources was responsible for a number of direct drivers. Indirect drivers were perceived to entail underlying causes of deforestation and degradation forming a complex interaction of socio- economic, political, cultural and technological variables that cause deforestation and degradation. Characterization of the main agents of deforestation and degradation revealed that human actors in various capacities and functions have served as agents. The assessment of leakage risks revealed that the risk of shifting destructive activities to non-REDD+ project villages was mitigated. In order to address the drivers and sustaining the REDD+, the study recommends the need to address forest tenure; provision of alternatives to the agents of deforestation and degradation, extension support to non-REDD+ villages for capacity building in forest protection; and ensuring that the process of REDD+ piloting is finalized to the level that communities finally sell carbon to get tangible benefits.
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    Complex socio-ecological systems: translating narratives into Future land use and land cover scenarios in the Kilombero Catchment, Tanzania
    (MDPI, 2021) Proswitz, Katharina; Edward, Mamkwe Claudia; Evers, Mariele; Mombo, Felister; Mpwaga, Alexander; Näschen, Kristian; Sesabo, Jennifer; Höllermann, Britta
    The Kilombero wetland in Tanzania is affected by advancing land use and land cover changes (LULCC), where we observe a conflict between development interests and the necessity of conservation measures to maintain the functionalities of the ecosystem. Thus, assessing patterns of LULCC is crucial to foresee potential future developments and to develop sustainable future management strategies. In this study, we use a multi-method scenario approach to assess the spatial implications and underlying driving forces of potential change by (1) developing a System Dynamics Causal Loop Diagram (CLD) to disentangle the underlying socio-economic and ecologic driving forces, (2) deriving a qualitative business-as-usual (BAU) and a conservation scenario from participatory narratives elaborated during a stakeholder workshop, and (3) quantifying the spatial implications of these scenarios with the Land Change Modeler (LCM). Results indicate that under the BAU assumption only 37% of the natural vegetation is expected to persist until 2030 in the wetland. In contrast, strict enforcement of protected areas (conservation scenario) halts further conversion of the wetland. However, both scenarios pinpoint considerable expansions of cropland in the western highlands with potentially serious impacts on catchment-wide hydrological processes. The produced qualitative and quantitative outputs reveal hotspots of possible future change and starting points for advisable further research and management interventions.
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    Factors affecting competitive advantage of sido supported Small scale furniture industries in Dar es salaam and Arusha Regions, Tanzania
    (2019) Kumburu, Neema P; Kessy, John Francis; Mbwambo, Steven Jonathan
    This study was designed to assess the factors affecting competitive advantage of SIDO supported small- scale furniture industries in Dar es Salaam and Arusha cities of Tanzania. Primary and secondary data for the study were collected from furniture manufacturers and importers in the study area. A total of 127 manufacturers were surveyed, of which 79 were from Dar es Salaam and 48 from Arusha. Data were collected using questionnaires, focus group discussions and documentary reviews. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in the analysis of the data. The findings of the regression analysis tested at p<0.05 showed that age of the firm, initial capital, number of employees, price, location, diversification and networking significantly affected competitiveness of the SIDO supported small scale furniture industries. The recommendations emanating from the study are that the industries should allocate sufficient start-up capital, hire adequate number of employees and ensure effective utilization of employees for improved operational performance of the enterprises as well as ensure effective utilization of networking potentials for resource sharing and market access.
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    Institutional rhetoric versus local Reality: a case study of burunge Wildlife management area, Tanzania
    (SAGE, 2018) Kicheleri, Rose P; Treue, Thorsten; Nielsen, Martin R; Kajembe, George C; Mombo, Felister M
    Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) are establishments that promote wildlife conservation and rural development in Tanzania. However, through focus group discussions, key informant interviews, a questionnaire survey, and literature review, we found that the participation of local people in both the establishment and management of the WMA was limited and rife with conflict. While benefits have materialized at the communal level, local people saw neither value nor benefit of the WMA to their livelihoods. Specifically, local people’s access to natural resources got worse while private eco-tourism investors and the central government have gained financially. Contrary to the livelihood enhancing WMA rhetoric, top-down institutional choices have sidelined democratically elected Village Governments and successive legislative adjustments disenfranchised and dispossessed them and their constituencies. We conclude that village governments should consistently demand for their legal rights to the resources on their land until the WMA approach to conservation and development is democratized.
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    Modelling environmental attitudes of the users of Kilombero valley wetlands, Tanzania
    (Scientific Research Publishing, 2016) Mombo, Felister; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Vandermeulen, Valerie
    Development policies have for a long time made it more profitable for people to de- grade than to conserve environment. The adoption of these economic wide policies by Africa especially during colonial time and after independence has resulted into erosion of its communities’ conservation behaviour and attitude. Although many studies assess environmental attitudes, those focussing on African regions or coun- tries using New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) scale are very limited. Such studies in the African context using NEP scale are very important, simply because many peo- ple depend on the environment for their livelihood, and in the process they destroy the world’s valued ecosystems including wetlands. This study is meant to fill in the gap using Kilombero valley wetlands in Tanzania as a case. The study used Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to predict the behaviour of the users based on attitudes, environmental knowledge and awareness. The findings indicate that users of the Kilombero wetlands have a generally positive attitude towards the environment, de- spite a great degree of variability among the study participants. The study shows also that a certain level of environmental awareness is needed in order to increase peo- ple’s knowledge about environmental issues and change their environmental atti- tudes. The NEP scale does not fully fit into the Tanzanian context, thus suggesting that further research into the adaptation of the scale is needed.
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    Effects of income and price on household’s charcoal Consumption in three cities of Tanzania
    (Hindawi, 2021) Nyamoga, G. Z; Sjølie, H. K; Latta, G.; Ngaga, Y. M; Malimbwi, R; Solberg, B
    More than 80% of the urban and periurban population in Tanzania depend on charcoal as their main source of energy for cooking. This charcoal is supplied from natural forests, mainly Miombo woodlands, and the high charcoal consumption is a main trigger for deforestation, forest degradation, and climate gas emissions. The country’s urban population is increasing at an annual rate of 5-6%, and better understanding of the urban demand for charcoal is of high interest regarding the country’s energy development, climate mitigation, and land use. We surveyed 360 households situated in the Tanzanian cities Dodoma, Morogoro, and Mtwara and analyzed statistically the impacts of household income, charcoal prices, and household size on the per capita charcoal consumption. For the total sample, statistically significant elasticities were found to be 0.03, −0.13, and −0.62 for per capita income, charcoal price, and household size, respectively. In the low-income group, the elasticities of charcoal price and household size were found to be statistically significant with the values of −0.44 and −0.59, respectively, whereas in the middle-income group, the household size was the only statistically significant variable, with elasticity −0.81. In the high-income group, we got statistically significant elasticities of 0.17 for per capita income and −0.44 for household size. These results are based on small samples and should be followed up by larger surveys.
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    Economic assessment of ecosystem goods and services delivered by Pangani basin, Tanzania.
    (2006) Lalika, Makarius C.S; Deckere, Eric; Ngaga, Yonika M
    Ecosystem services are increasingly promoted as a means for documenting the values humans place on ecosystems and evaluating benefits derived from natural resources. However, one of the main reasons that scientists and decision-makers are worried about the current trend of ecosystem degradation is that ecosystems provide valuable services and there are strong indications that these services have been degraded considerably. This draft paper on economic assessment of goods and services delivered by Pangani Basin is part of a PhD study that focuses on Potential for Payment for Water Services in Pangani Basin Tanzania. Field surveys, structured questionnaires, interviews with key informants and literature reviews were the main tools for data collection. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was the main software for data analysis. Microsoft excel was used to produce figures and tables. Although the analysis is still going on, preliminary findings indicated that goods and services include water for power production, domestic uses, irrigation; aquaculture and small scale fishing nutrient regulation; commercial crops irrigation; enjoyment of scenic beauty and eco-tourism; just to name a few a just some of the ecosystem goods and services delivered by Pangani Basin. Commercial flower growers (mainly companies from Holland) are the water user stakeholders in Pangani Basin. These include: Dekker Tanzania-Arusha, Tanzania Flowers, Dekker Moshi, Kilflora Fower Cuttings, etc. The average value of water in Basin and Pangani Basin was Tanzania shilling 36, 769 and 52, 960 millions respectively where as the upper bound was 45, 962 and 66, 200 respectively. Also the average prices of water in villages were Tsh1.50/lt in the highlands, 1.25/lt in the Kirua Swamps area and Tsh1.20/lt at the coast. These prices, equivalent to Tsh 1500, Tsh 1250 and Tsh 1200 per m3 respectively. It can be concluded that, a thoroughly economic assessment of water values should be undertaken in Pangani Basin. The way forward is to finish data analysis for the data collected so far and collect more information for the study.
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    Linking ecohydrology and integrated water resources management: institutional challenges for water management in the Pangani Basin, Tanzania
    (Elsevier Sp. z o.o., 2018) Msuya, T. S.; Lalika, M. C. S.
    Linking integrated water resources management (IWRM) and Ecohydrology for the sustainance of watersheds and environmentally friendly economic activities is vital for ensuring continued water flow and a steady supply of watershed services for societal needs, and the integrity of aquatic vegetation and animal species. However, regardless of the reforms in water policy and the Water Resources Development Programme and Water Resources Management Act to include provisions for IWRM, Tanzania is still facing several institutional challenges in the practical implementation of IWRM. This study aimed at exploring the potentials and constraints for integrating Ecohydrology and IWRM to develop an integrated institutional framework for providing a sustainable flow of ecosystem services for societal needs along the Pangani River Basin (PRB) in Tanzania. The data was collected through socio-economic methods including questionnaires, surveys, structured and semi-structured interviews and a documentary review of secondary information. Logistic regression models were performed to analyse factors influencing watershed management integration. Logistic regression results showed that watershed management integration was significantly (p < 0.001) constrained by poor inter-sectoral coordination at field level, diverging interests of watershed stakeholders, incompatibility between formal and informal institutions, poor highland-lowland integration, develop- ment interventions, population pressure, inadequate political support and migration. This, together with power imbalances and the uncoordinated interests of multi-stakeholders, predispose the PRB’s watersheds to unsustainable management. This state of affairs will continue to hamper national aspirations to effectively implement IWRM along the PRB. Successful IWRM implementation would allow the country to meet its obligations towards sustainable watershed management. It is recommended that an integrated institutional framework capable of integrating upstream and downstream communities be developed.