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    Adoption of cassava processing and utilization technologies: A case of Mtwara rural and Newala districts, Mtwara region
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture., 2011) Shomari Mgeni Shamte
    The study was conducted on adoption of cassava processing and utilization technologies in Mtwara region. The main objective of the study was to determine the status of cassava processing and utilization technologies in Mtwara region. Structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) were used to collect information from cassava fanners. Random sampling was used to draw respondents for interview. Sample size was 120. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression and gross margin were used for data analysis. Results revealed that, both traditional and improved cassava processing technologies were used by respondents. It was found that 77% of the respondents used traditional cassava processing methods and about 17% were using both traditional and improved processing technologies. Also, the findings showed that, institutional support to farmers was an important factor in adopting improved cassava processing technologies by farmer groups. The coefficient of the institutional support was statistically significant at 0.05 probability level. Age of respondents, occupation and marital status of respondents were not statistically significant. Gross margin analysis showed that improved cassava processing technologies contributed relatively high to households income with a gross margin of Tsh 78 400 per tonne when compared to traditional processing methods with a gross margin of Tsh 11 774 per tonne of fresh roots processed to flour. This study recommends that, the government and other agricultural stakeholders need to promote and educate fanners on the importance of improved cassava processing and utilization technologies to human health, food security and poverty alleviation. In order to improve market of cassava products, the government should promote and encourage food processing industries to use cassava as an ingredient in some of food products to increase the demand for cassava products and accelerate the adoption of improved cassava processing technologies.
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    Adoption of climate-smart crop and livestock production in Africa: are the key pillars included?
    (University of Nairobi, 2023) Mbwambo, Jonathan Stephen
    Studies have shown that climate change has a significant effect on the rural agricultural landscape with the equilibrium of agrarian and forest ecosystems becoming increasingly unstable and agricultural-dependent livelihoods in rural and peri-urban areas weakening very rapidly. To address these and related challenges, many countries have attempted Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA). The approach has been proven to address the intertwined challenge of increasing agricultural productivity while at the same time maintaining sustainable levels of carbon emissions from agriculture. Despite its many benefits, its adoption rate in Africa varies widely across the continent. In some countries, adoption of important CSA practices is as low as 10% and in others over 60%. Using scoping, narrative and descriptive approaches in the analysis of literature, this study has demonstrated that Climate-Smart Agriculture technologies are effective in improving food security and overall land productivity. However, there are still big gaps in quantifying the actual contribution of CSA technologies to climate change mitigation and adaptation. The study further revealed that while various factors such as household characteristics, land ownership and gender were considered in the introduction and adoption of CSA technologies, little attention was given to the key pillars of CSA including indigenous knowledge systems, resource endowment, farmers preferences, among others. The study recommends that, in order to enhance and the adoption of CSA technologies, more knowledge is needed on the inclusion of indigenous knowledge systems and practices in the development of CSA technologies. The study recommends further that, in order to position CSA in policies and programs for agriculture transformation, it is also important to undertake studies on the capacity of CSA to sequester carbon and how this may be included in climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Finally, the study recommends the inclusion of women in the design and dissemination of CSA technologies.
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    Land tenure system and income poverty among female headed households in Tarime district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2014) Advera, M. Gibe
    The study was conducted to examine the land tenure system and its implications on income poverty among female headed households in Tarime District. Specifically the study examined the existing land tenure system in the district, explored women’s perception towards the existing land tenure system and assessed income poverty among female headed households. A cross-sectional survey using structured questionaires was used in collecting quantitative data, while qualitative data were collected through administration of checklist of questions to key informant and focus group discussion participants. A total of 120 FHHs in Gamasara, Kewamamba, Kitcnga and Susuni villages responded to a survey that was conducted. Multiple regression model was used to test the relationship between land tenure system and female headed household's income poverty. Findings from the research indicated that customary land tenure system is practiced whereby land is owned by men. The study shows that most of the FHHs were in a disadvantageous position in terms of control over land and farm size. Women were only taking care of land for the benefit of their sons. Apart from lack of land ownership, all the interviewed respondents (100%) strongly agreed with the statement that; when women have land security, they can grow and earn more, and they usually spend higher proportion on caring for the family. The study concludes that income poverty persisted among FHHs and recommends that awareness raising to the community and women in particular, increased control over land and tenure security are fundamental means towards ensuring household agricultural productivity and hence improve women’s income status.
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    The role of rural-urban migration on livelihood in Bugesera district, Rwanda
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2008) Gakwandi, Canisius
    In 1994, the genocide had a devastating effect in Rwanda and particularly, for this study, It had worsened in Bugesera District by the exploding number of single-parent families (38% of women and several young orphans now head families). Worse still, the District has had to face prolonged and repeated drought since 1998, the direct consequences of which have been food insecurity and massive population movements. People are pursuing internal migration as a way of survival strategy. The general objective of this study was to determine the role of rural-urban in livelihood; specifically the study discussed the determinants of migration at the household level, the household wealth by migration status and the influence of rural-urban migration in development on the place of origin. The determinants of migration at household level provide a better understanding as to why some families participate in the migration process while others do not. The findings indicate that all the variables included in the analysis; age and the size of household have had significant relative risk on rural out-migration. Migration theories and livelihood approach were adopted to get insights on how poor migrants are making a living and how they have changed the access to assets as compared to the non-migrants’ households. These issues were explained on the basis of Principal Component Analysis, which was developed to construct wealth index by migration status according to the reported level of assets ownership and living conditions. The study found that migrants’ household were better off than non-migrants’ household. In this study, rural-urban migration influences the development of the place of origin through remittances, which contributes simultaneously to the growth processes of the economy and improves the livelihood security of those who remain resident in rural areas. In relation to migration of the poor, government policy should build on knowledge about the transfer mechanisms and uses of remittances to support community-based credit, savings, and transfer and investment initiatives.
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    Socio-cultural constraints to poverty reduction strategies in coast region, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2010) Elias, Livingstone
    Coast Region is among the four poorest Regions in Tanzania with a variety of ethnic groups, habits, customs, and life styles. Though there have been a number of poverty reduction strategies implemented in the Region, poverty has continued to be stubborn. There is inadequate information on how culture impedes the poverty reduction strategies. hence the purpose of this study was to determine socio-cultural constraints towards poverty reduction strategies in Coast Region. It specifically focused on determining communities’ awareness and perceptions of their prevailing poverty, to identify major socio-cultural practices conducted in the study area at different seasons of the year, to examine the extent to which communities are aware of available resources and their accessibility and lastly to determine gender relations in decision-making, division of labour and ownership of resources. A cross-sectional research design was adopted while purposive sampling technique was used to select two Districts. Simple random sampling procedure was used to select wards, villages and heads of households. The quantitative data were analyzed using the SPSS computer software while qualitative data were analyzed by functional content analysis. Binary regression model was used to find relations between variables. The research findings revealed that marriage types, working hours, household size, religion, divorces, early marriages and cultural ceremonies were significant at P<0.05, hence they impact negatively on poverty reduction strategies. The study recommends that good cultural practices need to be maintained while old fashioned cultural practices should be abolished. The study calls for more enforcement of bylaws and involvement of women in decision making organs.
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    Effectiveness of grassroots institutions in governing land management: a case of the uluguru mountains, Morogoro, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2023) Malisa, E.T
    Unsustainable land management practices have been reported in the Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. Literature points to a clear association between land management and institutions; it reveals a problem in terms of effectiveness of conservation by-laws and indicates lack of focus on informal institutions. It is not clear as to how effective are land-related institutions when combined. Often times, formal and informal institutions have been studied in isolation from one another. This paper assessed the effectiveness of formal and informal institutions in governing land management. Data were collected through household survey and semi-structured interviews. Institutional effectiveness, indicated by behavioural change, was measured using Likert scale. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyse the influence of independent variables on institutional effectiveness. Content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. Results showed that institutions are generally effective in governing land management in the Uluguru Mountains. Formal institutions were seen to be legally binding. Informal institutions, though they influenced land management behaviour, were associated with declining credibility among the Luguru people. Land ownership security, awareness of institutions and market access were significantly important conditions for institutional effectiveness and hence ought to be the policy priorities. They provide knowledge on, and incentives for adherence to rules and norms. Ecological concerns motivated compliance with prescriptions on land management. Thus, actions on land management are not guided by individual rationality (the logic of costs and benefits) alone; they are also guided by the social rationality (doing what is appropriate or expected by a given community). While it is important to invest in formulation and/or amendment of formal rules for land management as deemed necessary, it is equally important to promote the good aspects of informal institutions, i.e. practices, norms and beliefs, which enhance land management behaviour
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    Impact of climate variability and change adaptation strategies on technical efficiency of sorghum production in Manyoni district, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2023) Mbwambo, E.P; Kabote, S.J; Kazuzuru, B
    Climate variability and change adaptation strategies are increasingly becoming fundamental for improving efficiency in agricultural production in Tanzania and elsewhere in developing countries. However, empirical evidence on how adaptation strategies improve agricultural technical efficiency on drought resistant varieties like sorghum is inadequate in Tanzania. This study was conducted to address this knowledge lacuna in the literature. With cross-sectional research design, we used a household survey to collect data from 330 randomly selected household heads. A Cobb Douglas stochastic frontier model was used to determine the impact of adaptation strategies on technical efficiency of sorghum production. Farmers adapted a number of strategies including drought tolerant crops, conservation agriculture, drainage system, early maturing crops, use of hired labour, resistant livestock breeds, membership in farmer organizations, access to extension services, and access to credit to cushion climate variability and change impact. Six strategies including use of drought tolerant crops, drainage systems, conservation agriculture, membership in farmer organizations, access to extension services and access to credit showed significant impact on technical efficiency of sorghum production at 5% level of significance. Such strategies were effective in improving technical efficiency of sorghum production. However, about half of the respondents were less efficient. Therefore, farmers’ adaptation strategies were indisputably essential in semi-arid environments like Manyoni district. Nevertheless, a policy to heighten use of the effective farmers’ adaptation strategies to cushion climate variability and change impact should be devised and effectively executed to strengthen farmers’ efficiency.
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    Fish productivity response to water quality variations: A case study of nyumba ya mungu dam, in pangani water basin, Tanzania
    (Hindawi, 2023) Mangi, Halima O.; Onywere, Simon M.; Kitur, Esther C.
    Fish habitat degradation, such as water pollution due to the rapid expansion of incompatible land uses, is one of the noteworthy challenges to freshwater ecosystems. Elevated contents of nutrients and contaminants in water are some of the imperative challenges. Tis research was conducted to investigate the link between water qualities and fsh productivity in the Nyumba ya Mungu Dam, whose fshery potential had decreased by 95% between 1972 and 2018. Physicochemical characteristics, namely, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), turbidity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll a, and the water depth of fshing net location, were assessed following standard procedure. Fish catches per unit efort representing fsh biomass/productivity were monitored for twelve months from January to December 2019. Pearson’s correlation analysis indicated that fsh catch per unit efort was positively and signifcantly correlated with turbidity (r = 0.461, P < 0.01) and TP (r = 0.405, P < 0.01). Stepwise multiple regression model results indicated that turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and the depth of the fshing net location are the statistically signifcant predictors of fsh catch per unit efort which represented fsh biomass. Findings further indicated that the model combining turbidity and dissolved oxygen predicted a 24% change in fsh catch per unit efort, whereas turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and the depth of fshing net location contributed a 28.9% change in fsh catch per unit efort. In conclusion, fsh productivity in the NMD is limited by organic matter availability and nutrient levels that cause algae bloom occurrence. Turbidity is an indicator of organic matter availability and the efect of algae bloom on fsh productivity. Infow of nutrients to the dam nourishes the algae biomass, thus creating vicious cycles on fsh productivity as fsh species in the dam failed to take advantage of high primary production by algae.
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    Introduction of the cassava processing technology adoption scale (CPTA) as a measurement tool for adoption of improved cassava processing technology
    (TIA Repository, 2020) Joshua, Joel Matiku; Massawe, Fatihiya Ally; Mwakalapuka, Amani Angumbwike
    With existence of everyday innovated agricultural technologies, researchers’ curiosity on the adoption of farming technologies in general and on improved cassava processing technology in particular by farmers is increasingly. However, lack of effective instrument of measuring farmers’ adoption of the improved cassava processing technology in particular has been restricting researchers from successfully predicting and describing the potential of farmers’ adoption of technology. With such a restriction in mind, this paper intends to introduce Cassava Processing Technology Adoption scale (CPTA), as a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the adoption of improved cassava-processing technology. The tool was pilot - tested using across – section survey design conducted in Serengeti District in Mara region of Tanzania. The survey aimed at testing validity and reliability of the instrument among 200 participants purposively selected among cassava farmers, of these, 101 were males and 99 were females. The instrument measured three components of the adoption of improved cassava processing technology namely, involvement in the pre - processing tasks, involvement in the processing tasks, and utilization of the processed cassava products. The results indicate that the scale managed to categorize three implementation stages (sub - scale s) of adoption and reached reliability of α = .86. α = .71, and α = .79 for involvement in the pre - processing tasks, involvement in the processing tasks, and utilization of the processed cassava products respectively. The reliability for the total adoption scale was α = .93. There were low to moderate correlations among the three sub- scales indicating that they measured the same trait while at the same time they singly measured one implementation stage of the adoption of improved cassava processing technology. The instrument was further able to categorize participants in their performance by sex, age, and levels of education. The CPTA is, therefore, valid and reliable tool with multidimensional nature, which is relevant in measuring the adoption as a construct. It is, however, recommended that the tool requires further validation studies for more refinement as it is potential for application in other samples within and outside Tanzania. The paper discusses the potential applicability of the tool in the field of agriculture and its theoretical implications.
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    Assessing the status of peasant migration in Kigoma rural district, Tanzania
    (IISTE, 2015) Tegeje, J. A.
    This study was undertaken in Kidea village of Kigoma Rural District, Tanzania. The study intended to assess the status of peasant migration to Kidea village. Household questionnaire, focus group discussion and key informant interviews were employed in data collection. The study shows that all the interviewed respondents emigrated from 30 villages in and outside the district. Of these villages, only 4 contributed more migrants to the study area than the 26 villages all together. Generally, migration to Kidea Village shows a declining trend. Land shortage, loss of soil productivity, high food prices and limited income opportunities in migrants’ places of origin were reported as drivers for peasant migration. To reduce the rate of migration the study recommends provision of farming inputs in migrants’ source areas to maximise food production; controlling fertility rate and establishment of income generating activities. Finally, the study calls for thorough study in the four villages that emerged as leading sources of migrants in order to uncover the severity of the drivers for out-migration.
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    Adoption of climate-smart agriculture in small-scale farming in Africa: are the pillars for CSA accounted for?
    (College of Social Sciences and Humanities, Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), Morogoro-Tanzania, 2022-06-26) Mbwambo, J. S.
    Studies have shown that climate change has a significant effect on the rural landscape and the equilibrium of the agrarian and forest ecosystems resulting in instability disintegration of agricultural-dependent livelihood systems in rural and peri-urban areas. To address these and related challenges, many countries have attempted Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA). CSA has been proven to address the intertwined challenge of increasing agricultural productivity while at the same time maintaining sustainable levels of carbon emissions from agriculture. Despite its proven benefits, the adoption of CSA in Africa varies across the continent. In some countries the adoption of certain practices is as low as 10% and in others above 60%. Using scoping, narrative and descriptive approaches in the analysis of literature, this study has demonstrated that Climate-Smart Agriculture technologies have proved to be effective in delivering food security, climate change mitigation, and adaptation. However, while researchers working in these areas have attempted to work on the biophysical aspects of Climate-Smart Agriculture, there are gaps in the understanding of how the adoption of Climate-Smart Technologies has contributed to climate change mitigation and adaptation. The study further revealed that various factors such as household characteristics, land ownership and gender were considered in the introduction and adoption of CSA technology. The study recommends that more work is needed to enhance knowledge on mitigation and adaptation aspects of CSA technologies. The study recommends further that considerations be made on resources endowment during the recruitment of farmers to adopt CSA technologies.
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    Does microcredit make any difference on borrowers’ businesses? evidences from a survey of women owned microenterprises in Tanzania
    (International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship, 2014) Salia, Paul J.; Mbwambo, Jonathan S.
    The objective of this paper is to examine whether participation in microcredit has any effect on the performance of women owned microenterprises in Tanzania. To that end, the article utilized survey data collected by use of questionnaire from a total 217 borrowers and 183 non-borrowers in three major cities in Tanzania including Arusha, Dar es Salaam and Mwanza. The study found out that businesses of borrowers were performing significantly better than those of non-borrowers on total sales revenue and business net worth. Although mean net profit for borrowers was higher than non-borrowers, the difference was not statistically significant. The paper concludes that microcredit is a useful tool to alleviate poverty among women through income generation resulting from their involvement in microenterprise activities. It further calls for consorted efforts by responsible government agencies and commercial banks to scale up outreach of microcredit services to women through, among other initiatives, provision of financial and technical support to member- based savings and credit associations.
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    Attitudes of local communities towards REDD+ Initiatives in Tanzania. a case of selected communities in Kilwa District
    (IJPSS, 2014-04) Rebecca, J. Jeremiah; Jonathan, S. Mbwambo; Dos Santos, A. Silayo
    Climate change has turned to be a global issue which is no longer a concern of the environmental sector alone, but a cross- cutting and a multidisciplinary issue due to its economic, social, and ecological impacts to the global community, including smallholder farmers in low-income countries. While industrial development is acknowledged to have significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse emissions, 25% of all anthropogenic GHG emissions responsible for climate change come from deforestation and forest degradation. Thus reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+ ) is important intervention that is necessary for sustainable reduction of emission and enhancement sink capacity using efforts manned by local communities. However, the extent to which local communities are aware of climate change and its impacts have not been studies in REDD+ project areas in Tanzania. A study was therefore conducted in Kilwa District to assess the community awareness and attitude towards REDD+ initiatives, with a particular focus on their willingness to participate in the implementation of REDD+ . Data collection was done using both
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    Studies on the influence of tree tenure on the adoption of agroforestry practices in Uluguru mountains, Tanzania
    (Research Gate, 2012) Ruheza, Sosthenes; Tryphone, George Muhamba; Mbwambo, Jonathan Stephen; Khamis, Zuena K.; Swella, George; Mushobozy, Deus K.
    On-farm tree retention formed the basis for the present day agroforestry systems in many traditions. In the present study, we assessed the influence of tree tenure on the adoption of agroforestry practices in Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. Results showed that most of the farmers (92%) were involved in activities related to tree planting and/or tree retaining with the number of trees planted in existing farmlands ranging between 150 to more than 300. Young respondents planted more trees compared to middle and old age groups. Household labour unit level had an influence on the number and species of plant trees planted. The study revealed that men were significantly more involved in tree planting than women. It was also found by this study that most of the respondents (82.2%) were planting trees in their farms mainly for economic gains through timber production, while 13.3% and only 4.5% of the respondents were planting trees for soil conservation and for moisture conservation respectively. Therefore, more efforts need to be directed to planting tree species that have economic benefits to farmers in order to speed up the rate of agroforestry adoption. Perceived benefits of agroforestry practices in the study areas were for its easiness in the management of trees with other crops (59%), conservation of moisture (28%) and (13%) of the respondents said see no benefit of agroforestry system.
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    A gendered analysis of climate variability and change impacts and adaptations in semi arid area farming systems and natural resources management
    (Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation (CCIAM) Programme, 2013) Ombol, C.; Urassa, J. K.; Mbwambo, J. J. S.; Mattee, A. Z.; Mamiro, D. P.; Kabotc, S. J.; Matata, L. M.; Synneag, G.
    Climate change and climate variability is increasingly threatening the livelihoods of many Tanzanians especially those living in semi-arid rural areas. The most affected are those; with low incomes, less food, poor access to health services, unstable energy supplies, and living in fragile natural ecosystems. Generally, women and men contribute differently to climate change; likewise, they are affected differently and react differently to its impact. The overall objective of the study was to assess the impact of climate change on rural livelihoods' and how households in semi-arid areas of Tanzania adapt based on gender. The study was conducted in Iramba and Meatu Districts. The study adopted a Sustainable livelihood Approach (SLA) developed by DFID (1992) in the analysis of climate change impacts and households' adaptation. Data was collected using qualitative methods such as focus group discussions and key informant interviews, informal interviews and observations. Findings from the study show that, climate change impacts affect almost everybody in the studied communities; however, differences by gender exist. These findings thus suggest that adaptation to climate change impacts vary across genders due to differences in roles and responsibilities, power relations and access to and control over resources.
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    The contribution of irrigation systems to household food security in Rufiji District, Tanzania
    (East African Journal of Social and Applied Sciences (EAJ-SAS), 2023-06-30) Jesse, Angela M.
    Irrigation is considered a major means of increasing productivity to ensure food security all over the world due to rainfall variability caused by climate change. Different countries, including Tanzania, have been advised to engage in irrigation systems, and various regulatory frameworks have been developed to support this. However, different studies reveal both positive and negative results regarding the contribution of irrigation systems to food security, which has raised concerns and prompted the need for further investigation. This study aimed to determine the awareness on the contribution of irrigation systems to food security, types of crops cultivated through irrigation systems, the number of meals consumed by households practicing irrigation, and the challenges facing smallholder farmers in adopting irrigation systems. The Entitlement to Food Theory guided the conduct of this study, which employed a cross-sectional research design involving surveys, interviews, and documentary reviews. A total of 60 households were selected for the study, and the data were analysed descriptively using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and content analysis. The study revealed that farmers had an understanding of the contribution of irrigation systems to food security, although they encountered some challenges including lack of inputs and funds for extensive farming. It was further found that 80% of farmers preferred planting maize over other food crops due to its cost-effectiveness in terms of the required inputs. Additionally, majority of the community members had an understanding of food security in terms of access and availability, rather than utilisation. The study recommends that farmers be educated on the importance of planting other nutrient-rich crops. Furthermore, they should be informed about alternative means of obtaining funds, such as entrepreneurial activities, and using their farms as collateral to access the required agricultural inputs.
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    Factors influencing implementation of strategic plans in local government authorities of Tanzania: evidence from Kishapu and Shinyanga district councils
    (SARC Publisher, 2023) Mbundu, Boaz. M; Malisa, Emmanuel T.
    This paper assessed the effectiveness of implementation of strategic plans in Tanzania’s local government authorities. Specifically, the study was guided by the following specific objectives; to identify factors influencing implementation of strategic plans in LGAs, to find out the perception of employees on the factors influencing implementation of strategic plans in LGAs and to establish the ranking of factors influencing implementation of strategic plans in LGAs. Audit reports for four consecutive years from the Controller and Auditor General (CAG) for financial years 2014/15; 2015/16; 2016/17 and 2017/18 revealed that, implementation of strategic plans in LGAs of Tanzania was ineffective with indications of poor linkage of budgets and strategic plans, lack of clarity, poor communication of strategies, unbudgeted expenditures, misuse of resources and inadequate monitoring and evaluations and hence established the gap of this study. The study employed a descriptive multiple embedded case study design. The sample size of this study was 138 respondents. Descriptive statistics were used to describe both dependent and independent variables while binary logistic regression regression analysis tested whether individually and collectively independent variables have any influence on implementation of strategic plans in Tanzania’s local government authorities also t-test and Kendal coefficient of concordance employed to reveal the attitude of respondents in the study area. Study results reveal that leadership, culture, community engagement and motivation influence the implementation and respondent have positive attitude on implementation of strategics plans in local government. This concluded that the joint effect of independent variables can influence implementation of strategic plan in local government authorities. The findings of the study are expected to be useful to the management and decision makers to form a basis for improving implementation of strategies. Also, it is recommended that studies to be conducted to other variables which influence implementation of strategic plans especially in different population in Tanzania’s local government authorities and the public sector at large
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    Nature and Magnitude of Land Acquisitions in Tanzania: Analyzing Role of Different Actors Key Trends and Drivers in Land Acquisitions
    (Africa portal, 2014) Katundu, Mangasini A.; Makungu, Innocent M.A.; Mteti, Shakila H.; Kabote, Samwel J.; Niboye, Elliott P.; Ringo, Justin J.
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    Performance in Mathematics and Science Subjects: A Gender Perspective for Selected Primary Schools in Rural and Urban Tanzania
    (American Research Institute for Policy Development, 2014) S.A, Mgoba,; Kabote, Samwel J.; Niboye, Elliott P.; Nombo, Carolyne I.
    Since the 2000, Tanzania is striving to eliminate gender inequality in the education system. As such, the gender gap in enrolment is closing in primary education. Yet, gendered performance remains a challenge. Using data from Primary School Leaving Examination results for the period between 2007 and 2011, and from qualitative methods, this paper examined trends and factors for poor performance in Mathematics and Science subjects with a gender perspective. Two schools from rural and two from urban areas were involved in the study. The results did not show a clear trend in Mathematics performance in rural relative to urban schools, which showed a clear decreasing trend. On the other hand, performance in science was decreasing in rural schools and in one of the urban schools. There was also lower girls’ performance in both subjects with some few unique cases. Secondly, the gender inequality was more prominent in rural relative to urban schools because of a number of overlapping factors including lack of female teachers role models and lack of an appropriate school environment for girls. Therefore, to tackle gender inequality in performance, rigorous efforts need to consider multiple, but interlocking factors with a gender lens, while considering rural-urban differences.
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    Trends in HIV/AIDS voluntary testing in Tanzania: a case of Njombe urban, Njombe region
    (IISTE, 2012) Kabote, Samwel J.; Niboye, Elliott P.
    This article presents and analyzes status and trends for people who were voluntarily tested for HIV/AIDS infections in Njombe Town Council in Njombe region. The analysis covers five year period between 2007 and 2011. This period was specifically chosen because it was in July 2007 that the government of Tanzania inaugurated a campaign for HIV/AIDS voluntary counselling and testing. Nevertheless, trends for the people who are using Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) centres and the associated results regarding HIV/AIDS infections are not clearly established. The article utilizes data collected from three Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) centres in Njombe Urban. Percentages of people infected with HIV/AIDS were computed using a calculator. Findings demonstrate that the number and percentages of people who were voluntarily tested for HIV/AIDS was increasing suggesting that over time more and more people were using voluntary testing and counselling centres (VCT). Interestingly, while the number of people visiting VCT centres revealed increasing trend, HIV/AIDS infections showed decreasing trend over the years for all of the VCT centres under consideration. Notwithstanding decreasing trend for HIV/AIDS infections, many people were living with HIV/AIDS particularly women. Overall, infections accounted for 6.5% at Njombe Health Centre higher than at Njombe Lutheran VCT centre and at Kibena Hospital, where both recorded 5.1% of people infected with HIV/AIDS. Controlling new cases for HIV/AIDS infections will help to re-direct resources to development initiatives at all levels. Therefore, concerted efforts are needed to curb further HIV/AIDS infections in Njombe urban and in Tanzania more generally.