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    Aspects of the morphological, radiographic and ultrasonographic anatomy of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) and ring-tailed lemur (Lemur Catta)
    (University of Pretoria, 2015-07) Makungu, Modesta L. J.
    The red panda and ring-tailed lemur are species, which are commonly kept in zoological gardens. The red panda and ring-tailed lemur are classified as vulnerable and endangered, respectively, by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy, radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy as well as the normal morphology of the pelvis, thoracic and hind limb in captive red pandas and ring-tailed lemurs as a reference for clinical use. Radiography and ultrasonography were performed in adult captive red pandas and ring-tailed lemurs during annual health examinations. Bone specimens of adult red pandas and ring-tailed lemurs were used for gross osteological study. The morphology of the pelvis, thoracic and hind limb of the red panda and ring-tailed lemur supported the presence of strong flexor and supinator muscles and flexibility of limb joints, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. However, the scapula of the ring-tailed lemur is modified for both arboreal and terrestrial quadrupedal locomotion. Additionally, the morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the ring-tailed lemur showed locomotor adaptation for jumping. Normal radiographic and ultrasonographic reference ranges for thoracic structures and abdominal organs were established and ratios were calculated. Knowledge of the normal morphology, radiographic and ultrasonographic anatomy of the red panda and ring-tailed lemur should prove useful in the diagnosis of diseases and for routine health examinations.
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    Prediction of intake of tropical forages in dairy cattle based on studies from fibre digestion kinetics
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2000) Mgheni, Dyness Muze
    Two experiments were conducted simultaneously to estimate the physical fill of tropical forages and the maximum intake capacity of mature non-pregnant crossbred heifers kept under zero grazing system. The experiments were carried out at Magadu Dairy Research Farm, Department of Animal Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture. The objectives were to describe the tropical forages in terms of their rumen degradability characteristics, digestion and passage rates of fibre and their resultant rumen pool sizes in order to estimate the physical fill and potential intake of tropical forages. The study was planned to test the hypothesis that in the tropics where ruminants are fed forages of high fibre content and low digestibility, the physical fill is the major factor in regulation of feed intake. Five forages [Signal grass (Brachiaria brizantha) hay (BH), Maize (Zea mays) silage (MS), Lucerne (Medicago saliva) hay (LH), Lucerne grass hay (LGH) and urea-treated rice (Oiyza saliva) straw (UTRS)] were fed to 10 mature non-pregnant rumen fistulated dairy heifers in two 5x5 Latin square designs. In experiment 1 (Expt.l) the forages were fed as a sole diet with only minerals and vitamins supplementation to form five diets. Diet 1 = BH + minerals and vitamins (BH), Diet 2 = MS + minerals and vitamins (MS), Diet 3 = LH + minerals and vitamins (LH), Diet 4 = LGH + minerals and vitamins (LGH), Diet 5 = UTRS + minerals and vitamins (UTRS). In experiment 2 (Expt.2) the forages were supplemented with urea (20 g d'*/100 kg body weight) and 200 g d’1 fishmeal (FM). Diet 1 = BH + minerals and vitamins (UNBH), Diet 2 = BH + minerals and vitamins + urea + FM (SBH), Diet 3 = MS + minerals and vitamins + urea + FM (SMS), Diet 4 = LH + minerals and vitamins + urea + FM (SLH) and Diet 5 = UTRS + minerals and vitamins + urea + FM (SUTRS). Parameters measured were similar in both experiments. These were voluntary feed intake (VFI) and faecal output by total collection method for seven days, whereas rumen pH and NH3 were measured at an interval of 2 h for 24 h. In situ degradability was carried out in a standardprocedure and in both experiments. Rumen pool sizes were measured by rumen evacuation technique (RET) during the last seven days of the experiments. Fractionation of the NDF into digestible (DNDF) and indigestible (INDF) was done using the in situ long time (30 days) incubation of feeds, rumen content and faeces. The parameters were used together with rumen pool sizes to derive rate of digestion and passage of NDF, DNDF and INDF. Passage rate of NDF was also estimated using chromium mordanted fibre (CR-MF). The chemical composition, the degradability characteristics, digestion and passage rates and the obtained rumen pool sizes varied substantially between the tropical forages studied. The crude protein (CP) ranged from 64-151 g kg’1 DM, NDF ranged from 615 - 770 g kg’1 DM and ash content ranged from 93 - 180 g kg’1 DM. There was a marked difference (P<0.0001) between forages in the rate and extent at which these forages were degraded in the standard procedure and in experiments 1 and 2 for DM, N and NDF. The lag times were short (0 - 9 h) and not different (P>0.05). In the standard procedure the NDF had b value of 47, 58, 70, 72 and 76 % DM for LH, LGH, BH, UTRS and MS respectively. The rate constant c for NDF when forages were incubated in the standard diet was 2.9, 2.9, 3.6, 3.7 and 8.8 % h’1 for BH, UTRS, LGH, MS and LH respectively. The rate constant c for NDF when forage were incubated in diets for expt.l was 2.0, 3.2, 3.8, 5.0 and 6.9 % h'1 for MS, UTRS, BH, LGH and LH respectively, whereas that of expt.2 was 2.6, 2.9, 3.0, 3.6, and 9.1 % h’1 SMS, SBH, UNBH, SUTRS and SLH respectively.iv The forage dry matter intake (DMI) were different (P<0.01) and the animals consumed 4.2, 5.1, 6.3. 6.5 and 6.7 kg d'1 of MS, BH, UTRS. LH and LGH respectively in expt.l. Supplemented forage diets in expt.2 were not different (P>0.05) for all other nutrients intake except N and water. Forage DMI in expt.2 was 4.4, 4.8, 4.8, 5.9 and 6.4 kg d'1 for SMS, UNBH, SBH, SLH and SUTRS respectively. Water intake was 10, 22, 23. 30 and 31 / d’1 for MS, BH. UTRS, LH and LGH respectively in expt.l and 14. 21, 23, 26 and 30 / d'1 for SMS. UNBH, SBH, SLH and SUTRS respectively in expt.2. The rumen pool sizes of NDF (kg) in expt.l were different (P<0.01) and were higher in animals fed LGH (5.2) and lowest in MS (3.8) compared to those fed BH (4.8) and UTRS (4.5). In expt.2 the NDF pool sizes (kg) were also different (P<0.002) highest in animals fed SBH (4.9) and lowest in animals fed SMS (3.3) compared to those fed UNBH (4.0) with similar values in SLH and SUTRS (4.3). The passage rates (A>) measured using CR-MF and RET showed high variability between forages and between the two methods in both experiments. The passage rates estimated by RET for NDF differed (P<0.03) between the forage diets and were 1.78, 1.63, 1.54, 1.53 and 1.36 % h’1 for UTRS. LGH, BH, LH and MS respectively in expt.l and 2.02, 1.50, 1.41, 1.38 and 1.32 % h" for SUTRS, UNBH, SBH, SMS and SBH respectively in expt.2 (P < 0.05). The kp measured using CR-MF was higher than kp derived from RET and varied from 2.26 - 3.24 % h’1 in expt.l (P>0.42) and 2.22 - 3.86 % h'1 in expt.2 (P<0.003). There were differences in Fill (day) when calculated using kp obtained from RET - total NDF in expt.l (P<0.045) and expt.2 (P<0.046). In expt.l the Fill (day) values were 1.84, 1.77, 1.55,V 1.41 and 1.35 for MS, LH, BH, LGH and UTRS respectively. Fill (day) values were 1.91, 1.65, 1.64. 1.55 and 1.09 for SBH. UNBH, SLH, SMS and SUTRS respectively in expt.2. Fill values were not different when calculated using kp from CR-MF in both experiments. Fill values calculated using an assumed passage rate of 2 % h’1 as a constant value were also not different in expt.l (P>0.35) and expt.2 (P>0.09). The predicted NDF intake (PNDFI) across forages were over-estimated when fill calculated from passage rate estimated from CR-MF was used and under-estimated when passage rate obtained from RET was used. A similar trend to that obtained in PNDFI was observed for predicted DM intake (PDMI) for forages in expt.l and 2. The accuracy of PDMI from PNDFI from passage rates obtained from other NDF fractions-RET was generally poor for both experiments, except for RET-total NDF. The best prediction was obtained from RET-total NDF (P<0.0001) with /?’= 0.70 (RMSE = 0.83) in expt.l and /?’ = 0.75 (RMSE = 0.71) in expt.2. It was concluded that the most important limitation to tropical forage intake is the physical fill of NDF in the rumen. 'ITie results have demonstrated that intake of tropical forages can adequately be described from physical fill based on degradability characteristics, rumen pool size and passage rate of NDF measured by RET. The use of NDF parameters as predictors of VFI is recommended as a realistic estimate of forage DMI because NDF was found to be distinct from microbial and endogenous materials. It can further be concluded that PDMI of tropical forages fed to cross-bred dairy heifers can be calibrated in the equation DMI (kg d’1) = 1.19 + 1.10 PDMI (RMSE = 0.83) in expt.l and DMI (kg d1) = 0.98 +1.16 PDMI (RMSE = 0.71) in expt.2.
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    Comparative assessment of productive and reproductive performances of Mpwapwa breed cattle and its crosses
    (Sokoine University of Agricurture, 2022) Mabruck, Mercy Maxwell
    Mpwapwa breed, an Indo-African composite dual-purpose cattle, is suitable for production in medium to low input production systems, established in Tanzania in 1960s with the breeding goal of 2,300 kg milk yield per 305-day lactation length and for steers to reach a carcass weight of 230 kg in less than four years. This breed is currently faced with slow country-wide distribution which may be associated with many factors including scarcity comprehensive baseline information on productive and reproductive performances of animals, diseases, management practices and government policy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the productive and reproductive performances of Mpwapwa cattle breed and its crosses reared at the nuclear breeding center, Tanzania Livestock Research Institute (TALIRI), Mpwapwa and under low in-put smallholder farmers around Mpwapwa district. A retrospective study of five consecutive years (2015 - 2019) involving 295 cows reared at TALIRI and a cross sectional study involved 986 cows kept by 100 householders in seven administrative wards of Mpwapwa district were used in this study. In retrospective study, individual animal records including date of birth, calving dates, insemination records, pregnancy rates (PR), lactation length (LL), average milk yield per day (AMYD), and total lactation milk yield (TLMY) were captured. For smallholders, the questionnaire captured socio-demographic characteristics of farmers, animals’ lactation length, average milk yield per day, number of services per conception (NSC), age at first heat, age at first calving, calving interval and major animal reproductive problems. Results from the animals kept at TALIRI revealed an overall mean of AFC, CI, PR, LL, AMYD and TLMY of 38.5±5.9 months, 19.92±5.64 months, 29.1%±14.4%, 237.72±71.20 days, 2.65±1.12 liters and 667.18±397.11 liters, respectively. The results for AFC, CI, LL and TLMY showed significance difference (p < 0.05) between Mpwapwa breed cattle and its crosses. However, PR results did not show significance difference (p > 0.05) between Mpwapwa breed and its crosses. For smallholders, majority of respondent (>94%) were married males, having primary education (66%), had over 15 years of experience of keeping livestock (76%) and keeping more than 20 Mpwapwa cattle breed (76%) for different motives such as economic enterprise, supplementary enterprise, home milk consumption and hobby. Recorded average productive and reproductive performance of animals in low-input production system were; 332 ± 16.7 days of lactation length, 3.08±1.11 liters of average milk yield per day, 17.5±6.6 months of calving interval, 32.3±8.21 months of age at puberty, 44.04±6.49 months of age at first calving,1.23±0.14 of average number of services per conception. Major animal problems reported were calf mortality of (17.0%), retained fetal membrane (24.0%), anestrous (20.0%), abortion (17.0%), endometritis (12.0%), repeat breeding syndrome (9.0%), dystocia (8.0%), pyometra (5.0%), uterine (3.0%) and vaginal prolapse (2.0%). It is concluded that reproductive and productive performance of Mpwapwa breed cattle and its crosses reared at the nuclear breeding center as well as under smallholders were lower as compared to the target goal set in 1960s when the breed was established. Therefore, there is a prudent need for improvement of management practices both at TALIRI as well as at smallholders so as to optimize the reproductive and productive performances of the Mpwapwa cattle; an Indo-Euro-African synthesis.
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    Productive and reproductive performance of Friesian cows at Kitulo livestock multiplication unit, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Veterinary Journal, 2015-02-12) Kashoma, I. P.; Mwingira, S. M.; Werema, C. W.; Kessy, B. M.
    Retrospective data were collected to assess reproductive and productive performance of Friesian dairy cows reared at Kitulo Livestock Multiplication Unit, Tanzania. Records of 314 cows within consecutive five productive periods; 2009 - 2014 were analyzed using Statistical Package for SocialScience (SPSS). The overall mean age at first calving (AFC), calving interval (CI), days open (DO), number of services per conception (NSPC), lactation length (LL) and total lactation milk yield (TLMY) were 1151.72±9.63 days, 404.57±1.54 days, 121.82±1.24 days,1.83±0.24, 306.54±5.53 days and 5,042.12±23.73 kg, respectively. CI differed significantly (P < 0.05) as it decreased with increasing parity but did not affect the TLMY. Number of services per conception positively correlated with DO and CI but negatively correlated with parity. Total lactation milk yield was significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by parity and lactation length, but TLMY had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on the average number of services per conception. It is concluded that reproductive and productive performance of Friesian dairy cows in the present study were low to moderate so it is required to improve management practices at the farm for better reproductive and productive performance.
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    Cryopreservation of dog semen as an alternative method to improved fertility in bitches: A review article
    (Tanzania Veterinary Association, 2018-02-01) Bunyaga, A. S.; Kashoma, I. P.
    Cryopreservation of dog semen facilitates the exchange of genes between populations and makes it possible to preserve genes from valuable males for an extended time. Although AI in dogs can help avert sexually transmitted diseases and reducing the chances of inbreeding, the technique is not routinely practised in most developing countries including Tanzania. Among the reasons are problems associated with cryopreservation. Cryopreservation of semen has a number of problems limiting its success and thus, affecting fertility in dogs as a whole. The common assisted reproductive technologies like AI in dogs are constrained by challenges in semen cryopreservation which partly is caused by freezing temperature, cryoprotectants and lifespan of spermatozoa. The purpose of this review is to study the possible ways which can improve cryopreservation of semen in dogs. Improving semen cryopreservation is not a one process; it involves a combination of factors with the ultimate goal of improving the outcome of semen cryopreservation in terms of conception rates in bitches, and thus, fertility in general. Cryopreservation parameters to improve include: type of ejaculate, insemination technique, storage, post thawing procedures, extenders, cryoprotectants, collection method and antioxidants. Several approaches have been recommended, including cryopreservation protocols, for instance freezing rates should be slow enough to allow the cells to minimize chemical potential and osmolality gradients across the plasma membrane, but fast enough to dehydrate the cell without exposing it to lethal salt concentrations. Moreover, the first ejaculates and the ejaculates from old dogs are to be discouraged if we need to improve fertility output under cryopreservation method. Thawing temperature of 70°C and above within a few seconds, have shown promising results. Possibly, this temperature is helpful to reduce the toxic nature of cryoprotectants. However, this review suggests the use of intrauterine method, and possibly innovation of new modification and training expertise would help to improve fertility in bitches. Nevertheless, more work is needed to accurately predict fertility of cryopreserved canine semen.
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    Surgical sterilization of the African Giant Pouched Rats
    (Tanzania Veterinary Journal, 2015-08-25) Werema, C. W.; Samson, R.; Ndossi, D. G.; Kashoma, I. P.; Mwakijungu, E.
    Surgical sterilization of rodents is increasing as a result of increased biomedical research centers which employ rodents. In order for them to perform their duties effectively, the rodents have to be sterile to avoid interference from estrus, pregnancy and lactation. Other reasons include control of breeding, treatment of diseases or conditions such as tumors cysts, pyometra, pyometritis, and endometritis. In this study three surgical procedures were performed to African Giant Pouched Rats; 6 females were ovariectomized, 6 females were ovariohysterectomized, and 6 males were Orchidectomized. All eighteen (18) animals in the study recovered well and have returned to APOPO to continue with the training on smelling and detecting landmines and tuberculosis in human sputum samples without any difficulties. Complications from these surgical procedures are rare but comprise anesthetic overdose, dehydration, hypothermia, pulmonary hypostatic congestion, hemorrhage, eviscerations, wound dehiscence, and infections. However, many of these complications can be prevented by careful physical examination and selection of health animals fit for the intended surgical procedure, as well as adherence to all principles of surgery. This study has demonstrated the three surgical procedures for African Giant pouched rats as being useful to veterinarians in public/private practice and/or in biomedical research facilities.
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    Reproductive and productive performance of crossbred dairy cows kept in different production systems in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Veterinary Journal, 2015-08-25) Ngou, A. A.; Kashoma, I. P.
    Crossbred cows are the main type of cattle used for milk production on smallholder and medium farms in urban and peri-urban areas of Morogoro Municipality. A study was undertaken on four medium-scale and forty five smallholder farms to investigate the reproductive and productive performance of crossbred maintained under farmer’s management. Retrospective data on age at first calving (AFC), calving interval (CI), days open (DO), number of service per conception (NSC), lactation length (LL) and total lactation milk yield (TLMY) obtained from 311 cows for lactations (1-6) during seven years (2009-2015) were analyzed. Overall mean of AFC, CI, NSC, DO, LL and TLMY were 30.9 ± 0.8 months, 405±15.4 days, 2.5 ± 0.6 numbers, 119 ± 15.9 days, 333 ± 26.7 days and 4026 ± 1158 liters, respectively. The results of all traits showed variation between the two production systems (medium-scale versus smallholder farms). However, AFC, CI and TLMY parameters only differed among the medium-scale farms. It is concluded that reproductive and productive performance of crossbred cows in the present study were low to moderate so, it is required to improve management practices atall the farms under the study for better reproductive and productive performance.
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    Foetal wastage and incidence of ovarian disorders in goats slaughtered at Dodoma municipal abattoir, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Veterinary Association, 2017-04-01) Kashoma, I. P.; Melkiory, G. U.
    Livestock husbandry and slaughter have become millenary traditions in every part of the world. In request for meat, numerous viable embryos and foetuses are wasted due to lack of effective pregnancy detection system and thus pregnant animals are not spared in the slaughtering process. In Tanzania, limited data are available on the level of foetal wastage in small ruminants slaughtered daily. This study was carried out to establish the level of foetal wastage and prevalence of ovarian disorders in does slaughtered at Dodoma municipal abattoir for a period of seven days (September 14 – 20, 2015). Foetal age was estimated using Crown Rump Length (CRL) method. Gross ovarian lesions were observed and sampled for histopathology. The total number of goats slaughtered during the study period were 2869 representing 72.3% males and 27.7% females. Up to 412 out of 795 (51.8%) of slaughtered does were pregnant including 34.7% carrying singletons and 17.1% having twins (p < 0.05). Of the recovered foetuses, 60% (n= 247) were males whereas 40% (n=165) were females. Gestation length estimated from CRL ranged from 37 to 103 days (CRL 5-35cm). Majority (80%) of foetuses were in second trimester, 12.8% first trimester and minority (7.2%) being in third trimester. The net economic value (NEV) daily forgone as a result of loss of potential offsprings at Dodoma abattoir was estimated to be between 8,610 and 14,350 US $. The incidence of ovarian disorders was recorded in 9.6% (37/383) of non-pregnant does. Follicular and luteal cysts were seen in 7.8% (n= 30) and 1.8% (n=7), respectively. Most of follicular cysts (65%) occurred as multiples, of which 52.9% (n=16) were on the right ovary and 47.1% (n=14) were on the left ovary. Luteal cysts were observed singly in either of the ovaries. Based on these findings, foetal wastage due to slaughtering of pregnant does is quite alarming at Dodoma municipal abattoir. Effective pregnancy screening before slaughter is recommended to avert the economic loss and human nutrient wastage.
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    Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-2 alpha participates in axial skeletogenesis during mouse embryo development
    (Tanzania Veterinary Journal, 2015-02-12) Luziga, C. D.; Bui, T. N.; Kashoma, I. P.; Aligawesa, E.; Yamamoto, Y.
    Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-2 alpha (CTLA-2α) has been discovered and expressed in mouse activated T-cells and mast cells. Structurally, it is homologous to the proregion of mouse cathepsin L, a lysosomal cystein proteinase. Expressed recombinant CTLA-2α is shown to exhibit selective inhibition to cathepsin L and is localized in the uterus during pregnancy where it is implicated in embryo plantation and development. CTLA-2α has also been demonstrated in the maternal side of the placenta in the deciduas basalis, metrial gland and myometrium layers in mouse but its vivo targets in the embryo are yet to be identified. We carried out studies to investigate the specific cell types synthesizing CTLA-2α protein in mouse embryo and examine its cellular localization. Immunofluorescence labeling showed intense localization of CTLA-2α in the cranium, vertebrae of cervical and thoracic region and the sternabrae. In the visceral organs, staining level was strong in the pancreas. Moderate staining was visible within the brain and remnants of the notochord. The rest of the organs including the spleen, small intestine and lungs were delineated by CTLA-2α. These findings suggest that CTLA-2α participates in an important role from the potential commitment of mesenchymal cells lineages to the ossification of axial skeleton early in embryogenesis.
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    Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter from different stages of the chicken meat supply chain in Morogoro, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Veterinary Journal, 2015-01-12) Kashoma, I. P.; Mkomba, F. D.; Bunyaga, A. S.
    Poultry are recognized as a main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, longitudinal studies investigating the persistence of Campylobacter on broilers and retail chciekn meat in Tanzania are rare. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. isolated from broiler farms and retail chicken meat. Eight hundred samples were collected from broilers aged 1 week to slaughter and retail chicken carcasses, consisting of 600 fecal droppings and 200 carcass rinses. The overall Campylobacter prevalence was 43.3% (381/880). The isolation rate of Campylobacter from chicken faeces was 41.5%, from carcasses at the farm was 51.0% and from carcasses from retail stores was 37.5%. Biochemical testing by hippurate hydrolysis identified 72.4% of all isolates as C. jejuni, 20.5% as C. coli, and 7.1% as other Campylobacter spp. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction confirmed 75.1% of all isolates as C. jejuni, 17.8% as C. coli, 4.2% as both, and 2.9% as other Campylobacter spp. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using disk diffusion assay and broth micro-dilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (41% and 44%, respectively), ciprofloxacin (56 and 59%), erythromycin (17 and 18%), gentamicin (6% and 12%), streptomycin (20 and 23%), and tetracycline (62 and 63%). Resistance to azithromycin (9%), chloramphenicol (7%) and nalidixic acid (72%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only. Up to 5% and 4% of all isolate tested were pan-susceptible, while, 67% and 40% showed multidrug resistance using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method, respectively. These results reinforce the need of efficient strategy implementation to control and reduce Campylobacter in chickens at production and slaughter levels, and the necessity to reduce the use of antimicrobials in poultry sector.
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    Characterization of giraffe ear disease in Mikumi Selous Ecosystem
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2010) Lyaruu, V. H.
    A study on GED was conducted in the Mikumi - Selous ecosystem with an overall objective of finding the cause and predisposing factors. Giraffes were examined for change in conformation, discharges, and lesions on the pinna. Samples were collected from immobilized giraffes. Water and browsing materials in giraffe habitat were collected for micro-organisms isolation. Tick and oxpecker surveys were conducted. GED overall magnitude was 11.7% (dry) and 11.1% (wet) seasons (1999 to 2006).3.1% (dry) and 8.1% (wet) seasons (2007 to March 2010). Matambwe in Selous Game Reserve 1.2% (dry) 2.4% (wet), MINAPA 0.8% (dry) and 1.2% (wet) seasons (2007 to March 2010). The difference mean sick giraffe examined in each ecozone seasonally was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Immobilized giraffes revealed thickening of the ridges of antihelix, and distal part of the scapha, superficial erosion, pus, and foul smelling of the pinna concave surface. GED harboured environmental bacteria Pseudomonas auregenosa and Bacillus firmus. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Amblyoma variegutum were common ticks associated with giraffes. Ticks and oxpeckers played no role on GED occurrence. Histologically GED biopsies had epidermal nematode larvae and interepidennal necrosis. Molecular investigation concluded the nematode was a Spirurid. GED is dermatitis caused by Spirurid nematode. The DNA sequence lies between Onchocerca and Dirofilaria species which are parasitic to human and animals. It is therefore a species that is new and specific to this ecosystem. Furthermore, possibly it is a species that have evolved from older, non pathogenic and common environmental agent. It is concluded that for the first time this work has been able to demonstrate and isolate a Spirurid nematode which is the primary cause for GED with bacteria and fungi working together. The mechanism by which the nematodes and bacteria cause the damage to the pinna is of interest. Also the trend of the disease magnitude was downwards. It is recommended GED be known as Giraffe Pinna Dermatitis. Mechanisms by which the nematodes cause lesions and role of vectors need further study. Establishment of national nematode bank, reference archive with identification keys, micro weather stations, electronic geomaps, and monitoring programme.