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    The functionality of health facility governing committees and their associated factors in selected primary health facilities implementing direct health facility financing in Tanzania: a mixed‐method study
    (Wiley, 2022-03-22) Kesale, Anosisye Mwandulusya; Mahonge, Christopher Paul; Muhanga, Mikidadi
    Background: In Lower and Middle‐Income Countries (LMICs), decentralization has dominated the agenda for reforming the organization of service delivery (LMICs). The fiscal decentralization challenge is a hard one for decentralization. As they strive to make decisions and use health facility funding, primary healthcare facilities encounter the obstacles of fiscal decentralization. LMICs are currently implementing fiscal decentralization reforms to empower health facilities and their Health Facility Governing Committees (HFGCs) to improve service delivery. Given the scarcity of systematic evidence on the impact of fiscal decentralization, this study examined the functionality of HFGCs and their associated factors in primary healthcare facilities in Tanzania that were implementing fiscal decentralization through Direct Health Facility Financing (DHFF). Methods: To collect both qualitative and quantitative data, a cross‐sectional approach was used. The research was carried out in 32 primary healthcare facilities in Tanzania that were implementing the DHFF. A multistage sample approach was utilized to pick 280 respondents, using both probability and nonprobability sampling procedures. A structured questionnaire, in‐depth interviews, and focus group discussions were used to gather data. The functionality of HFGCs was determined using descriptive analysis, and associated factors for the functioning of HFGCs were determined using binary logistic regression. Thematic analysis was used to do qualitative research. Result: HFGC functionality under DHFF has been found to be good by 78.57%. Specifically, HFGCs have been found to have good functionality in mobilizing communities to join Community Health Funds 87.14%, participating in the procurement process 85%, discussing community health challenges 81.43% and planning and budgeting 80%. The functionality of HFGCs has been found to be associated with the planning and budgeting aspects p value of 0.0011, procurement aspects p value 0.0331, availability of information reports p value 0.0007 and Contesting for HFGC position p value 0.0187. Conclusion: The study found that fiscal decentralization via DHFF increases the functionality of HFGCs significantly. As a result, the report proposes that more effort be placed into making financial resources available to health facilities.
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    Gas extraction operations and livelihood diversification in Tanzania: rhetoric and reality
    (Elsevier Ltd, 2023-06-20) Musoma, Beston Musa; Nyanda, Suzana Samson; Muhanga, Mikidadi Idd; Massawe, Fatihiya Ally
    The lives and livelihoods of farming and fishing communities in rural Tanzania are highly sus­ ceptible to extractive investment operations. Livelihood diversification in communities beyond agriculture and fishing can be an effective way to cope with the adverse impacts of extractive investment operations. Gas extraction operations (GEOs) are expected to change and diversify communities’ livelihoods. Tanzania has new GEOs; thus, it is necessary to investigate how they have diversified livelihoods in Mtwara Rural District. This article addresses the associations be­ tween GEOs and diversifying livelihoods. The paper explores (i) livelihood diversification before and during GEOs, (ii) associations between GEOs and villagers’ livelihoods diversification, and (iii) communities’ perspectives on GEOs and livelihood diversification. Proportionate stratified sampling was used to obtain 260 respondents. A questionnaire-based survey, four (4) Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), and fifteen (15) Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were used to collect data. IBM-SPSS version 25 was used to analyse quantitative data. The Chi-square test was employed to analyse livelihood diversification concerning GEOs. Content analysis was used for qualitative data. Near and distant communities saw farming decline by 81.5% and 83.5%, respectively. Also, fishing declined by 85.2% and 83.7%. On the other hand, GEOs enhanced motorbike transport by 160.0% and 300.0%, food vending improved by 166.7% and 236.4%, and seashell collection increased by 816.0% and 462.5%, respectively. GEOs diversified farming (p = 0.001), fishing (p = 0.008), agricultural wage labour (p = 0.000), and crop business (p = 0.036) with moderate strength of association. GEOs have diversified livelihoods in the study area. The study demon­ strates that communities surrounding GEOs are highly socioeconomically vulnerable due to GEOs which caused declining agricultural and fish catches, thus negatively affecting their livelihoods. It is recommended that long-term programmes such as the building of diverse agro-based enter­ prises for job creation, training on income-generating occupations, agribusiness and technical training are required to increase earnings and enhance living standards. Both public and private entities should conduct a targeted and context-specific initiative to increase livelihood diversi­ fication among nearby and distant households, which can improve livelihood resilience.
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    Prevalence and factors associated with early childbearing in Sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from demographic and health surveys of 31 countries
    (Springer, 2023-08-14) Shasha, Liness; Phiri, Million; Namayawa, Sibongile; Sikaluzwe, Milika; Nakazwe, Chola; Lemba, Musonda; Muhanga, Mikidadi
    Background Early childbearing remains a public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) because it has substantial implications for women’s and children’s health and population control. However, little is known about recent changes in early childbearing in the region following the implementation of the Family Planning 2020 initiative (FP2020) national-level interventions. Thus, this study examined factors associated with early childbearing among women in SSA. Methods The study used data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 31 countries in sub-Saharan Africa between 2010 and 2021. The analysis included a pooled sample of 54,671 parous young women aged 20–24 years. A multivariable binary logistic regression model was used to examine the association between early childbearing and individual and household-level factors. All analyses were weighted to account for complex survey design. Results The study shows that the mean prevalence of early childbearing was high in SSA at 39% (95% CI: 35, 43). Chad had the highest prevalence of early childbearing, 62% (95% CI: 60, 64) while Rwanda had the lowest prevalence of 13% (95% CI: 11, 15). Completing secondary school (aOR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.62) or attaining tertiary level education (aOR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.22, 0.45), first sexual debut in the age range 15–24 years (aOR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.16) and desire for a small family size (aOR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.69) were associated with reduced odds of early childbearing among young women in SSA. Conclusion The study has established that the prevalence of early childbearing is high in SSA. Level of education, age at first sexual debut, household size, and desired family size are associated with early childbearing in SSA. Governments of SSA countries should enhance sexual and reproductive health interventions to change reproductive behaviour, particularly in adolescents and young women.
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    Health information systems utilization: a comparison of extent and magnitude in public and private health facilities in Dar es salaam, Tanzania
    (American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Research (AJHSSR), 2023-03) Haule, Christiana D.; Muhanga, Mikidadi; Ngowi, Edwin
    Health information systems (HISs) are critical tools that have been widely adopted and implemented in healthcare settings around the world, intending to improve the quality of healthcare services (OHSs) delivered. However, it is the extent and magnitude of HISs utilization that seem to guarantee improvement in the quality of health care. The study explored the extent to which HISs have been utilized in selected public and private health facilities (PPHFs) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and the determinants of its utilization. A descriptive cross-sectional design was employed to collect data using the Kobo Collect survey tool from 140 respondents and 12 key informants. Descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages), Inferential statistics (Pearson chi-square tests), and Linear regression analyses were employed to analyse data. The analysis revealed that private ownership has a higher utilization rate of HIS (61.4%) compared to public ownership (38.6%). Moreover, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness were significant predictors of actual use of the system, suggesting that users who found the system easy to use and useful were more likely to use it. In conclusion, the utilization of HIS in Tanzania seems to be influenced by various factors, including ownership type.
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    Smallholder rice farmers’ technical efficiency: implication for competitiveness through agricultural marketing co-operative societies in Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2023) Mauki, C; Jeckoniah, J; Massawe, G.D
    Agricultural Marketing Co-operative Societies (AMCOS) are increasingly being advocated by the government of Tanzania as a way to enhance smallholder farmers’ competitiveness countrywide. Yet, the smallholder rice farmers’ competitiveness is low. This paper analysed the smallholder rice farmers’ competitiveness in terms of Technical Efficiency (TE) in Morogoro and Mbeya regions, Tanzania. Data were collected from 382 smallholder rice farmers. The Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier model was used to establish the frontier line of the farmer’s production potentials by a single-stage Maximum Likelihood Estimates. The findings show that the mean TE indices for Kapunga, Madibira and UWAWAKUDA AMCOS were 84.9%, 87.6% and 79.1% respectively. Across AMCOS, it was found that intermediate costs, labor costs, fixed costs and amount of fertiliser influenced productivity ( P<0.05) while access to training, water distribution, ploughing time, planting systems, and access to credit influenced TE (P<0.05). The mean TE for the whole sample was 83.8% indicating that smallholder rice farms in the study area have been operating below the maximum level of production frontier and given the available technology, farmers can increase their production by 16.2%. The rice production in terms of TE has not reached a plateau, hence there is a potential for improvement. This study recommends that policymakers should prioritize the implementation of targeted training programs and enhance access to agricultural inputs and credit facilities to improve the technical efficiency of smallholder rice farmers. The Local Government Authority and development partners espoused with improving smallholder farmers’ livelihoods should ensure farmers’ access to credit and increase farmers’ linkages to credit providers in the rice farming schemes.
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    Impact of livelihood strategies on household wellbeing in land shortage villages of mvomero district, Tanzania
    (East African Journal of Social and Applied Sciences, 2019) Lyatuu, Patricia M.; Urassa, Justin K.
    This paper examines a household’s wellbeing status (HWBS) and its relationship with Livelihood Strategies (LS) and demographic characteristics (DC) in the land shortage villages of Mvomero District, Tanzania. Through a cross-sectional research design, a structured questionnaire was administered to 267 randomly selected households. The findings show that 95.3% of households were unwell expressly in Mgeta villages; only 6.7% formed a well-off category. Unlike the hypothesis, a combination of on and off-farm LS confirmed to have a positive significant influence (p < 0.05) on the likelihood for a household to be well-off, whilst sole farming demonstrated a negative influence. Likewise, unlike the hypothesis, location of a household and sex of its head verified to have a negative influence (p < 0.05) on the likelihood for a household to be well-off. It is concluded that the majority of households are not well and only a combination of on and off-farm LS enhance wellbeing except for female headed households and those located within shrunken arable land areas. Tanzania’s Development agencies are advised to encourage LS diversification, relocation to land abundant area while paying special attention to female headed households.
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    Access to bank loans and smallholder farmers' paddy productivity; a case of Mvomero district, Tanzania
    (IJASAB International, 2022) Mpeku, Faraja N.; Urassa, Justin K.
    Limited access to credit is one of the main limitations facing smallholders in Africa. Therefore, the study on which this paper is based, aimed at comparing smallholder farmers paddy productivity before and after their access to loans from formal financial institutions. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design whereby data were collected once from 110 smallholder paddy farmers in Mvomero District using a questionnaire. In addition, key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted to enable triangulation. Quantitative data from the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS whereby both descriptive and inferential statistics were determined. Study findings show that the paddy crop continues to play an essential role in the majority of households in the study area. Paddy productivity, on the other hand, was relatively low. The results from the linear regression show that loan size, age of household, farm size, the use of fertilizer and farming experience were significantly associated with paddy productivity. They further show that the major challenges faced by smallholder farmers in their access to bank loans were high-interest rates, loan inadequacy, and high collateral demand. The results of the paired sample t-test show that there is a difference in productivity before and after farmers accessed bank loans. Despite the importance of paddy farming to household livelihoods, it was reported that access to credit has a positive impact on the productivity of paddy farmers.
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    Roles of lead farmers in facilitating uptake of agricultural technologies in collaboration with extension officers: a case of RIPAT approach in Tanzania
    (Mkuki na Nyota, 2023) Ringo, Dominick E.; Mattee, Amon Z.; Urassa, Justin K.
    Low agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa is caused mainly by the low uptake of agricultural technologies resulting from the declining role of public extension services. For example, the existence of a wide extension-farmers’ ratio in Tanzania has limited access to new agricultural technologies and the capacity to turn the information and knowledge into practices for actual development. To contribute to narrowing the Extension-Farmer ratio, the Rural Initiatives for Participatory Agricultural Transformation (RIPAT) approach has been adopted to bridge agricultural technology gaps through promoting the use of lead farmers (LFs) as the principal agents of change in their communities. This paper assesses the roles played by LFs in the uptake of agricultural technologies and how they fill the gap of inadequate extension staff. The study on which this paper is based, involved 384 LFs and non-LFs who were randomly selected from a population of 1800 farmers in Karatu and Singida districts in 2018. The findings show that the use of LFs has narrowed the extension: farmers’ ratio tenfold at the village level and facilitated the uptake of technologies at reduced costs since they are from within the community and are not necessarily paid for. It is concluded that LFs play an important role in bridging agricultural technology gaps. It is recommended that formalization of the use of LFs should be integrated into Tanzania’s public extension system. In addition, there is a need for further research on the performance of LFs.
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    Socio-economic determinants of farmers’ adaptations to climate change variability in Meatu and Iramba districts, Tanzania
    (International Journal of Applied Research, 2019) Nyangas, James A; Chingonikaya, Emmanuel E; Urassa, Justin K
    The capacity of farmers to adapt to climate shocks and stresses is a critical part of sustainable development. Generally, farmers’ adaptation to climate change variability exploits beneficial opportunities to reduce its vulnerability and minimize the risk associated with the impacts of climate change variability. As such, the aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic determinants of farmers’ adaptation to climate change variability in Meatu and Iramba Districts, Tanzania. Specifically, the study was intended to determine farmers’ adaptation to climate change variability in the study area, to compare households’ adaptations for the two districts and to determine socio-economic factors influencing farmers’ adaptation to climate change variability. A cross sectional research design was used for the study, whereby data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 183 farmers and focus group discussions. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for data analysis. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the analysis of data. Results showed that majority of farmers’ households had very low adaptation to climate change variability. Moreover, it was found that there was a significant difference on levels of farmers’ adaptation between the districts (χ²=77.522, df = 3, p<0.0001), in which farmers from Meatu district had very low adaptation compared to those from Iramba district. It was also found that farmers’ adaptation was significantly determined by sex, type of farming practiced by household’s head, distance from home to the farm, distance from home to the market, distance to the sources of water and possession of entrepreneurial skills. The study concludes that farmers’ adaptation to climate change variability mainly depends on the sex of head of household, distance from home to the farm, distance from home to market, distance to the source of water and possession of entrepreneurial skills. The study recommends increasing households’ adaptation capacity to climate change variability through constructing sources of water and market near the villages; and empowering of farmers with knowledge and entrepreneurial skills which will enable them to create opportunities on non-farm activities.
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    Adoption of recommended maize production practices and productivity among farmers in Morogoro district, Tanzania
    (Springer, 2019) Gahanga, Consolatha J.; Urassa, Justin K.
    The chapter is based on a study that aimed at assessing the adoption of recommended maize production practices and productivity between farmers who were members of Farmer Field Schools (FFSs) and those who were not. The study was conducted in Morogoro District, Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying FFS recommended maize production technologies; determining socio-economic factors influencing farmers’ adoption of the technologies; and comparing maize productivity and income between households involved in FFS and those that are not. Lastly, it determined the contribution of maize sales to the household incomes of the two groups. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design whereby data was collected from 166 individuals through household surveys, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Quantitative data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), whereby descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages were determined. A logistic regression model was used to determine the association of socio-economic factors and the adoption of FFS technologies. Study findings show that age, education, household income and farm size significantly influenced the adoption of recommended FFS practices. Results also show that farmers who participated in the FFS had a higher maize productivity and maize sales were the main source of income in the study area. Thus, extension agents need to do more to encourage more farmers to join FFS so as to get access to improved maize technologies which will enable them to raise their maize productivity and ultimately their income and general living standards.
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    Pathways for addressing gender-based constraints for effective participation in profitable crop value chains in Tanzania
    (Climate change management, 2019) Mnimbo, T. S; Lyimo-Macha, Joyce; Urassa, J. K; Mutabazi, K. D
    Gender-based constraints in crop value chains are important considerations for equitable and sustainable participation of men, women and the youth. Women and youth make vital contributions to the agricultural sector despite the many gender-based constraints (GBCs) they face in accessing resources. The study on which the chapter is based aimed at analysing constraints that men, women and youth face, which hinder their participation in the profitable crop value chains (CVCs). Specifically, it analysed intra-household decision-making, assets associated with gender-based constraints and socio-economic factors influencing participation in profitable CVC and determined the pathways for addressing GBC. The study adopted a cross-sectional design whereby data was collected from 594, i.e. 295 and 299, from Chamwino and Kilosa Districts, respectively. Study results show that women use more time in performing agricultural activities such as planting, harvesting and post-harvesting activities, except for post-harvesting in Chamwino. Results further show that lack of wage labour, gender norms and household responsibilities negatively and significantly (p ≤ 0.05) influence one’s participation in the CVC. Generally, an increase in income was associated with participation in the profitable nodes of the value chain. The chapter concludes that the current gender inequalities and stereo types perpetuate an ‘exploitative status quo’ which is depriving women and youth of opportunities to properly engage in the more profitable nodes of the CVC. To address the above, the study recommends the adoption of gender-transformative strategies.
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    Determinants of smallholder farmers’ adoption and willingness to pay for improved legume technologies in Tanzania
    (TAJAS, 2021) Lugamara, C. B; Urassa, J. K; Dontsop Nguezet, P. M; Masso, C.
    Generally, legumes are critical in improving nutritional status, enhancement of ecosystem resilience and reduction of poverty for rural households. However, limited information is available concerning smallholder farmers’ adoption and their willingness to pay for improved legume technologies in Tanzania. Therefore, this paper assesses the determinants of smallholder farmers’ adoption of improved common bean seeds (Uyole Njano, Lyamungo 90 and Rose-coco/Red bean) and willingness to pay for improved common bean seeds, Basal fertilizers (NPK; DAP), Boosting fertilizers (UREA), Pesticides, Herbicides and Anti-fungal). The study adopted a cross-sectional research design whereby data from 400 respondents were collected once from Gairo and Mvomero districts, Tanzania through a questionnaire, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. A third of the respondents were from the non-intervention area. Data were analysed using SPSS and STATA whereby descriptive and inferential statistics were determined. The results show that there were statistically significant associations between the adoption of improved common bean seeds and availability of legume technology intervention (p<0.05), the total area cultivated (p<0.01) and size of the household (p<0.05). In addition, being a member of a farmers’ association (p<0.05) and visits by extension officers (p<0.01) were statistically and significantly associated with willingness to pay for improved legume technologies available in the study area. It can be concluded that, availability of legume technology intervention, the total area cultivated and size of the household determines adoption of improved legume technology, being a member of a farmers’ association and visits by extension officers determines willingness to pay for improved legume technologies. Therefore, the government and other stakeholders need to further promote improved legume technologies’ intervention, formation of farmers association as well as extension services to enhance adoption and willingness to pay for improved legume technologies.
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    Increasing impact of international development study experiences
    (University of Antwerp, 2022-02-26) Casten, Wanda; Dewachter, Sara; Holvoet, Nathalie; Makundi, Hezron; Yahaya, Nawanda
    Key message: International master’s programmes continue to be effective tools contributing to development impact around the world. Recommendation 1: The change agent pathway was the most frequent pathway of change observed, yet reality shows a combination of different and hybrid pathways, which suggests a need for further research and reconceptualization. Recommendation 2: Learning gains on knowledge, skills and attitudes were highly prominent among graduates of the international master’s programmes. There is a need to understand the role of networks better in facilitating professional development to help host institutions design targeted interventions. Results emphasise the importance of exchange of ideas, perspectives and the profound effect on attitudes of an international study experience, which is too often seen as a positive externality, rather than a key outcome of the programme. Recommendation 3: Graduates strengthen the organisations where they work, building on all learning gains, mostly through new ideas, perspectives, deepened knowledge and skills, increasing the organisational performance. Investing in methods to stimulate more active sharing of the learning gains throughout the organisation could increase the impact. Recommendation 4:The majority of graduates contributed to the Sustainable Development Goals and engaged in several impact arenas. Particularly, contributions to development outside the professional arena (e.g. role model or voluntary contributions in one’s community) are too often overlooked. Recommendation 5: Engaging in a collaborative process with a multi-perspective international alumni team throughout the entire research process increased the quality of the study and thus facilitates uptake and dissemination of the findings.
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    Geospatial characterization of climate-smart agroforestry in two contrasting physiographic zones of Rwanda
    (Research square, 2023-05-10) Ntawuruhunga, Donatien; Ngowi, Edwin Estomii; Mangi, Halima Omari; Salanga, Raymond John; Shikuku, Kelvin Mashisia
    The unmatched world population growth with production has increased human demand causing starvation consequent to food shortage. Climate-smart agroforestry (CSAF) among other options can enhance productivity, improve income and food security, and stabilize the environment. This study investigates the land suitability for CSAF in the Bugesera and Rulindo regions of Rwanda. After searching the literature and the local expert knowledge and opinions, nine variables were considered for investigation in the study viz. elevation, slope, soil type, rainfall, temperature, LU/LC, distance from roads and trade centers, and landslide risks. The analysis used two commonly known techniques (AHP and GIS) integrated to classify and sort out the suitable land for CSAF practices and development. Results identified three CSAF suitability zones, ranging from 1,662.82ha (1.60%) as most suitable and 90,123.78ha (86.62%) suitable to 12,262.50ha (11.78%) unsuitable zones in Bugesera. In Rulindo, suitability zones range from 709.92ha (9.69%) as most suitable and 6,514.56ha (88.92%) suitable to 102.24ha (1.39%) unsuitable land for CSAF. Results further showed that the available means suitable land for CSAF are 34,683.03ha in Bugesera (34,683.03 ± 48,304.71) and 2,442.24ha in Rulindo (2,442.24 ± 3,539.79). Land suitability scores for CSAF largely varied across sites (F = 1.33, p = 0.31). Cross-validation using ground-truthing information (field visit and collection of GPS-based ground coordinates of random locations of actual CSAF) and evidence from literature about existing CSAF mostly supported the generated CSAF suitability maps (nearly 91% of ground-based locations supported the model output). These results reveal the extent of implementation of CSAF practices in the targeted areas. In areas such as Bugesera and Rulindo where investigations on CSAF are scanty, suitability maps in this study would allow identifying sites with high potential for CSAF. The cross-site suitability mapping and analysis for CSAF would provide an opportunity to policy-makers for location-specific land use planning for expanding and implementing CSAF-based models. Those would assist in addressing ecosystem restoration, optimum farm production, increased income, and enhanced food security. This study will pave the way for further studies on the potential CSAF and possibly required interventions for the assessed areas.
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    Conservation of urban forest in Tanzania: community attitudes towards Njiro forest, Arusha
    (East African Journal of Forestry & Agroforestry, 2019-08-26) Massawe, Goodluck Peter; Marealle, Wilfred Njama; Liseki, Stephen David; Camerini, Giuseppe
    Understanding community attitudes towards urban forests is of great importance since these attitudes are inherently linked to the long-term sustainability of urban forests management and conservation. We analysed the attitudes of the local community towards the Njiro forest (Arusha, Tanzania) which is managed and used as an experimental beekeeping area by TAWIRI (Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute). Data collection was done between September-October 2018 involving a sample of 163 randomly selected respondents. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Quantitative data were analysed through Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS). Chi-square tests and contingency tables were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the expected frequencies and the observed frequencies in one or more categories. Possible influences coming from sociological and demographic factors such as age, gender, education level, occupation were assessed. The majority of the respondents declared to gain ecological benefits from the forest. A significantly larger group of older respondents in comparison with the younger ones (p<0.05) declared to face problems coming from the forest (stray dogs, robbers, illegal waste disposal). Males showed to be more interested in practising beekeeping than females (p<0.05). Respondents with a primary education level were more prone to express agreement with the adopted management strategies in comparison with respondents with higher education (p<0.001). In conclusion, the great majority of respondents declared to support the conservation of Njiro forest, however, employed respondents and females were more positive regarding the hypothesis of abolishing the forest (p<0.05). In order to improve management strategies and support the long-term conservation of the forest, respondents recommended strengthening the protection of the forest by fencing it, providing environmental education to the surrounding community, reinforcing the cooperation with the local community and planting new trees to improve the health of the forest ecosystem.
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    The role of formal and informal institutions in land management in the Uluguru Mountains, Morogoro, Tanzania
    (Springer, 2023) Malisa, Emmanuel Timothy; Mattee, Amon Z.; Mahonge, Christopher P.
    Land degradation has remained a challenge in the Uluguru Mountains in spite of efforts by various actors to address the problem. Cognizant of the role institutions can play in land management, the paper analysed formal and informal institu- tions for land management with a focus on their role in governing land management in the Uluguru Mountains. Data were collected through participatory rural appraisal, focus group discussions and structured interviews. Content analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the qualitative and quantitative data, respectively. The primary education system, village environmental management committees and village extension system, as well as knowledge transfer from elders to the younger generation, labour pooling (ubava), traditional dances and farmer groups’ networks enhance land manage- ment. Blood sucking belief (umachinja) and a tendency to envy a person making good progress (katsopata) constrained land management. Land tenure system, belief in supernatural powers and religious institutions played both enhancing and constraining roles. The study affirms that institutions influence perceptions, preferences, behaviours and action. It contrasts with the rational choice thinking, which sees behaviour as only following an individualistic rational calculus independent of institutional setting. Through designed and spontaneous change, some institutions have become more relevant for land management. It is crucial that land management interventions take into consideration the existing institutional landscape.
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    Socio-economic determinants of smallholder farmers sisal productivity and profitability: a case of Korogwe District, Tanzania
    (AJOL, 2021) Beleko, A.H.; Urassa, J.K.
    Tanzania’s sisal industry employs about 100 000 individuals with its current total production estimated at 40 000 tons per year. This follows efforts by the Tanzania’s Sisal Board (TSB) to promote smallholder farmers participation in the sisal industry. However, there is a lack of enough information on socio-economic determinants associated with smallholder farmers’ sisal productivity and profitability. Therefore, the study was conducted to address the above. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying determinants of the smallholder farmers’ sisal productivity and profitability in the study area. A cross-sectional research design was used in the research whereby data were collected from 150 randomly selected smallholder sisal producing households based on registers availed by estate managers in Ngombezi and Mwelya Wards. Primary data were collected through questionnaire with close and open ended questions. In addition, focus group discussions and key informant interviews were used to gather complementary data. Quantitative data from the questionnaires were analyzed using the IBM-SPSS software whereby descriptive (ie. frequencies and percentages) and inferential statistics(through the use of simple linear regression) were determined. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic content analysis whereby collected information were summarized based on themes and objectives of the study. Generally, study findings show that factors significantly associated with the smallholder sisal farmers’ productivity were amount of land allocated to sisal production and amount of sisal harvested (P≤0.001) and amount of land owned by household (P≤0.05). On the other hand, factors associated with the sisal farmers profitability included sex of the household head (P≤0.1), farm size (P≤0.05) and amount of sisal harvested (P≤0.001). Therefore, the study recommends that agricultural and investment banks should consider financing smallholder sisal farmers so as to enable them raise their incomes and capital needed for sisal production in order to increase sisal productivity and profitability.
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    Influence of social capital on adaptation to climate variability and vulnerability in farming households in Chamwino district, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2022) Tumaini, A.T; Urassa, J.K; Moshi, J.A
    Adaptation to climate variability results from an interplay of livelihood capitals. These capitals (social, financial, physical, human and natural) prevail within climatic and non-climatic conditions. Vulnerability to climate variability intensifies when people are socially disadvantaged. The study assessed the influence of social capital on farming households’ adaptation to climate variability and vulnerability using two villages in Chamwino District, Dodoma Region. A cross-sectional research design was employed, whereby data was collected from 160 randomly selected households using a questionnaire. In addition, data was collected from 32 focus group participants and 5 key informants. Findings show that a farmer's adaptation strategy can influence the accumulation or depletion of capital to adapt to climate variability. In addition, poor farming households (23.12%) have limited livelihood capitals thus, creating adaptation failure and reliance on less paid agricultural adaptation-based contracts to adapt to climate variability. A chi-square test results show no association between poor households’ adaptation strategies and their income (p>0.05). Therefore, it is concluded that adaptation is not one size fits all; availability of livelihood capital within the household defines the context of adaptation. Therefore, it is recommended that to absorb the vulnerability in adaptation to climate variability, there should be an active and sustained engagement of public and private stakeholders with the local community in prioritizing the adaptation needs of all socio-economic groups to enable them adapt to climate variability.
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    Influence of exogenous variables on interaction of small scale farmers with other actors in agricultural projects: a case of RIPAT-SUA project in Morogoro region, Tanzania
    (TAJAS, 2021) Ringo, G.P; Malisa, E.T
    Exogenous variables have the potential to influence interactions but have received little attention in the literature. Guided by Ostrom’s Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework and social exchange theory (SET), the study described the patterns of farmers-other actors’ interactions, and determined exogenous factors influencing interactions using RIPAT-SUA project as a case study. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through questionnaire survey and Focus Group Discussion (FGD)/key informant interview respectively. Multiple regression and content analysis were used to analyse quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Farmers-other actors’ interactions in agricultural projects increase with a decrease in distance from the market. Diversity of crops/livestock produced and the number of resources shared by actors had statistically significant influence on interactions. The RIPAT approach plays a crucial role in shaping the interactions; it influences the type of actors the farmers interact with and the pattern of interactions. The findings support the IAD and the SET, which, respectively, postulate that biophysical conditions (in this case proximity to market), and cost and rewards (in this case resources shared) are driving forces for farmers’ interactions. Rather than referring to it just as cost and rewards as the SET does, it should be explicit that both material and social benefits are important in shaping interactions. The study recommends ensuring that agricultural interventions are rewarding to farmers. Designing and implementation of agricultural projects ought to employ the RIPAT approach to spur fruitful interactions.
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    The role of conservation agriculture in bridging gender gaps in Tanzania: the case of sustainable agriculture Tanzania
    (TAJAS, 2021) Msuya, E; Mhanga, M; Massawe, F.A
    Despite agriculture’s great potential to Tanzania agricultural development, the sector faces diverse challenges. For example, existence of gender gaps in accessing agricultural production resources and benefits obtained from the same impede the sector’s growth. Therefore, adoption of conservation agriculture (CA) has been seen as one of the measures to address the sector limited productivity. Nonetheless, there is limited knowledge on how CA has managed to reduce gender inequalities in accessing both reproductive resources and benefits accrued from agriculture. This paper examines gender gaps in conservation agriculture programme implemented by Sustainable Agriculture in Tanzania (SAT), by specifically analyzing gender participation and relations in CA in Morogoro municipality and Morogoro district. This study adopted a mixed method approach whereby both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from four sites where SAT implements its activities. Findings show that CA has significantly reduced gander gaps in accessing production resources and services as well as raising women’s participation in decision making with regards to production and use of income obtained from sales of produce. Farmers regardless of the gender can access extension services, and credit, and are involved in various initiatives collectively. Despite the economic benefits, findings show that CA is laborious and takes much of farmers’ time, women being more affected. Therefore, it is recommended that the central and local governments and various stakeholders should promote the spread of conservation agriculture technologies since it reduces the biasness in agriculture and empowering women. Ensuring access to advanced cheap technologies to farmers. Nonetheless, there is need to ensure that female farmers are not overburdened in the process.