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    Forest resources perceived importance and dependency in Masida community forest, Zambezi region, Namibia
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2021) Karupu, R.M; Mbeyale, G.E; Lusambo, L.P
    The purpose of the study was to examine the perception of people on forest dependency. Specifically, the study assessed the trend of availability and extraction of forest resources over a period of 10 years, since when the Masida Community Forest was established 2007 until 2017, and determined the level of dependence on identified products. A cross-sectional study was conducted in villages of Masida Community Forest using a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 185 randomly sampled respondents were interviewed. Likert scale questions were used in examining the usefulness, availability and extraction of forest resources, and assessing the level of dependence on forest resources. Results indicate that people depend on the forest for poles, thatch grass, wild fruits, fodder, firewood and medicinal plants. The results on forest usefulness were subjected to the Pearson’s chi-square test which showed that all these four-scaling differed significantly (p < 0.001) across the six villages. On forest products availability 36% of the respondent perceive firewood to be increasing over the past 10 years, 74% decrease of thatch grass while 85% perceive medicinal plants to have remained unchanged over the same span of years. Furthermore 63% of the respondents reported thatch grass and fodder (40%) as decreasing; 55% reported increasing pole and Wild fruits (56%) harvesting; while 79% and 56% of the respondents reported firewood and medicinal plants not to have changed respectively. Study revealed that people’s level of dependence on forest resource for building materials is perceived to be high (82.2%), high on Income (69.7%) and fodder (43.8%), medium on food (46.5%) and medicinal plants (58.4%). It is recommended that Agroforestry, brickmaking and Apiculture be an appropriate conservation intervention to curb the depletion of forest resources in the area.
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    Optimal rotation age of pinus patula in government forest plantations in Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2021) Mugasha, W.A; Laswai, F.F; Malimbwi, R.E; Chamshama, S.A.O.; Abdallah, J.M; Mauya, E.W
    A study to determine the optimal rotation age of Pinus patula was conducted in five forest plantations in Tanzania, i.e., Kawetire, Kiwira, North Kilimanjaro, West Kilimanjaro and Meru. Growth and yield, and mechanical properties data were collected from compartments representing age from 5 to 25 years. In addition, revenues and management costs data were collected for the purpose of determining the economic rotation age. For the purpose of determining the optimal rotation age based on growth and yield, the following basic models were developed: 1) site index curves model, 2) height-D model, 3) Single tree volume model, 4) Basal area growth model 5) stand volume model, 6) mortality model, and 7) simulation of thinning. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was carried out to ascertain whether the wood properties vary across age classes. Economic analysis of rotation age data involved computation of Net Present Value (NPV). Growth and yield data revealed irrespective of site class, P. patula can be harvested at age of 18 years while mechanical wood properties show that harvesting ages range between 16 and 21 years. Based on NPV, the optimal age was 16 years. Therefore, it is recommended P. patula be harvested at age of 18 years irrespective of site class.
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    Impacts of community-based forest management on governance in Selela Village forest reserve, Monduli district, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2021) Mbeyale, G.E; Dugilo, N.M; Lusambo, L.P
    This paper is based on the analysis of the impacts of Community Based Forest Management (CBFM) on forest governance in the western part of Monduli District in Tanzania. The objective was to assess the impacts of CBFM on accountability, transparency, power relations and equitability. Primary data collection involved use of PRA techniques, governance assessment and mapping, multi-stakeholder analysis, checklists, structured questionnaire, and participant observation. Secondary sources such as government reports were used. Microsoft excel and SPSS software were used to analyze quantitative data. Content and Structural-Functional Analytical tools were applied on qualitative data. A logistic regression analysis model was developed to identify socio-economic factors, influencing performance of institutions in Selela Village Forest Reserve. Accountability, transparency, and equitability statistically (p<0.05), increased the odds of good governance by factors of 5.575, 0.325 and 3.036 respectively. The findings revealed poor transparency in revenue collection and administration, which is attributed to an “elite capture”, which is a formation of a new ‘’social class’’ of corrupt and irresponsible elites. Strategic, institutional and structural powers were observed in the study area. The study concluded that CBFM has negative impact on forest governance; and recommended periodic assessment of CBFM activities.
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    Pine resin productivity at Sao hill forest plantation, Southern Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2021) Beleko, S; Malimbwi, R.E; Mugasha, W.A; Balama, C; Mpiri, A
    A study on resin productivity from Pinus patula and P. elliottii was carried out at Sao Hill Forest Plantation. Four and three compartments for Pinus patula and P. elliottii, respectively covering age between 5 and 25 years were selected. In each compartment, three plots (12m × 12m) were systematically established. All trees in each plot were measured for diameter at breast height (Dbh) and three trees (smallest, medium and largest in diameter) measured for total height and crown diameter. All trees in treatment plots were tapped for resin. Weighing and re-wounding of tapped trees was done after every ten days in ten sessions. The findings show that annual resin yield ranged from 0.56kg tree -1 to 1.32kg tree -1 and from 0.47kg tree -1 to 1.98kg tree -1 for P. patula P. elliottii, respectively. The Dbh and crown diameter were important predictors resin production. Over 31% of annual resin production was explained by stand level variables. It was recommended that integration of resin tapping into the current schemes of timber will improve the contribution of the forest sector in economic growth. Further, introduction of resin tapping may be an attractive option for early income generation while waiting trees to attain the rotation age.
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    Assessment of forest cover change under different forest tenure regimes in Ngitili management systems in Meatu district, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2022) Manyanda, B.J; Kashaigili, J.J
    Deforestation and forest degradation are tied to a complex array of socioeconomic and political factors. Quantifying the amount of amount of forest is key to ensure that appropriate management practices and policies are in place to combat deforestation and forest degradation. Despite the fact that forestland tenure changes from private and communal to state ownership occurred in Ngitili management systems in Meatu district Tanzania, little has been done to evaluate its impacts on forest cover. The objective of this study was to assess the forest cover changes under different tenure regimes in Ngitili management system. Landsat imagery of 1986 and 2000 were used in this study and data were analyzed using QGIS software. Results show that open land, grassland, bushland and open forest were the dominant forest classes under private and communal tenure regime while semi closed forest dominated most of the Ngitili area under the state tenure regime. The study concludes by supporting the alternative hypothesis that, forest land tenure changes have significant impacts on forest cover. The study recommends that, a study is needed to assess the impact of devolution which occurred in 2002 on forest cover change.
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    Evaluation of groundwater recharge dynamics using the wetspass model in the Usangu Plains, Tanzania
    (TAJAS, 2022) Sahinkuye, T; Silungwe, F.R; Tarimo, K.P.R.A; Kashaigili, J.J
    A comprehensive understanding of groundwater recharge dynamics is of great importance in enhancing the sustainable management of the groundwater resources and the sound planning of their utilization. This study aimed at evaluating the groundwater recharge dynamics in the Usangu Plains (20,810 km 2 ) by the help of a hydrological GIS-based model named WetSpass. The Water and Energy Transfer between Soil, Plants, and Atmosphere under quasi-Steady State (WetSpass) model used land use/landcover, soil texture, topography, slope, groundwater table and hydrometeorology data to simulate the temporal (yearly and seasonal) averages and spatial differences of groundwater recharge, surface runoff and actual evapotranspiration. The findings of this study showed that 17.8% of the mean annual rainfall contribute to the groundwater storage while 66.1% and 16.1% are lost through evapotranspiration and surface runoff, respectively. The high rates of evapotranspiration occurred in the wet season and in the seasonal/permanent wetlands and water body. Also, the maximum amount of surface runoff took place during the rainy season and in the built-up and in bare land vegetation types given the impervious state of their ground surfaces. About 25% (1.025km 3 /year) of the annual recharge was found to be the groundwater that can be safely extracted for domestic and economic purposes. Compared to the water lost through evapotranspiration and surface runoff, the simulated portion of groundwater recharge is noticeably low. Consequently, it could be wise to initiate the rainwater harvesting technologies and artificial groundwater recharge strategies particularly in the zones with moderate and low recharge rates to boost the groundwater storage as its users cannot cease to increase.
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    GIS application in rangeland management in Tanzania: a systematic review
    (ResearchGate, 2022-04) Nzunda, Emmanuel F.; Yusuph, Amri S.
    A good proportion of the aspects of range resource management are amenable to GIS technology because range resource management integrates spatial and non-spatial aspects of data and information for which GIS is best suited. Whether this amenability is exploited was questionable and needed evidence-based research to confirm. The current paper presents the results of a systematic review of the application of GIS in rangeland management in Tanzania. The specific objectives of the study were: (1) to assess the distribution of the publications by year of publication; (2) to examine the distribution of the publications by subject area; (3) to analyse the relationships among key words used in titles and abstracts of the publications; (4) to describe details of a sample of selected publications, and; (5) to evaluation the distribution of publications by institution of the authorship. The study used the PRISMA method in searching, selecting and analysing the publications. Records were retrieved from Google scholar, Scopus, and science direct. We included 80 English language studies done in Tanzania for the first four specific objectives and 136 for the fifth specific objective. There is an increasing trend of application of GIS from 1 study in 1993 and years close by to 11 publications in 2021. About 34%, 31%, 27% and 8% of the publications applied GIS respectively in environmental science, earth and planetary sciences, agricultural and biological sciences and social sciences. The words ‘change’, ‘area’ and ‘Tanzania’ were the most frequently used in titles and abstracts. Furthermore, words in titles and abstracts formed about five clusters representing study area (e.g. Tanzania), method of analysis (e.g. remote sensing, assessment, data), topic of study (e.g. change, land use, land, conservation) and land use (e.g. grassland, woodland, forest). Most words clustered close together forming a meshwork but the word ‘conflict’ was the most distant from the rest of the meshwork. GIS data sets used included land use land use/cover (LULC) layer, landscape features (e.g. rivers, roads, topographic variables) and socioeconomic data. Most publications came from Sokoine University of Agriculture, University of Dar es Salaam and Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology while the fewest came from Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Hohenheim University and the University of British Columbia respectively. It is concluded that GIS is increasingly being applied to rangeland management. However, social sciences apply GIS the least. Tanzanian institutions lead in application of GIS technology, which means it is no longer foreign expertise. It is recommended that all fields apply GIS wherever appropriate. In particular, why GIS is least applied in social sciences aspects of rangeland management needs further investigation.
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    Institutions governing wildlife management areas establishment and their implications to livelihoods of adjacent community
    (Asian Scholars Network, 2022) Mdendemi, Rose Gerald; Nzunda, Emmanuel F.
    Institutions and especially formal institutions determine the way programs, projects and their consequent activities are carried out. This may have negative or positive implications to local population. To analyses the institutions that governed WMA establishment and their implications on livelihoods of adjacent community, content analysis was employed. Identified institutions including policies, acts and regulations were assessed. These included Wildlife Policy, Wildlife Act 2010, Wildlife Management Area Regulation 2012, Land policy 1997, Land Act 1999, Village land Act 1999, Forest Act 2002, and Environment management act 2004. The institutions cover well the issues that should ensure wellbeing of livelihoods of local community. It is up to responsible organizations to implement the stipulated directives. The study recommends means to ensure that the stipulated directives are adhered to including educating local community living adjacent to WMAs on polices, laws, and regulation governing WMA establishment.
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    NAFORMA: National forest resources monitoring and assessment of Tanzania Mainland
    (FAO, 2022) Rajala, Tuomas; Heikkinen, Juha; Gogo, Sophia; Ahimbisibwe, Joyce; Bakanga, Geofrey; Chamuya, Nurdin; Perez, Javier Garcia; Kilawe, Edward; Kiluvia, Shani; Morales, David; Nzunda, Emmanuel; Otieno, Jared; Sawaya, Jonathan; Vesa, Lauri; Zahabu, Eliakimu; Henry, Matieu
    hree options for the sampling design of the field plot clusters of NAFORMA II biophysical survey are compared in this report. Option 1 consists of re-measuring all NAFORMA I field sample plots (3 205 clusters) and Option 2 of re-measuring only those that were established as permanent (848 clusters). The recommended Option 3 is a compromise between these two “extreme” options: Re-measure a subset (1 405 clusters) of NAFORMA I field sample plots including (almost) all permanent clusters and a carefully selected set of other NAFORMA I field plot clusters to obtain a uniform sample within each TFS zone. Design Option 3 has the following features: • • • • Sampling intensity is uniform within each TFS zone. This makes it simple to use the data. For example, mean volumes can be estimated by averages over the plots. The selected clusters are well-spread over the target population. The anticipated precision of land-class area and mean wood volume relative to sample size is nearly as good as that of NAFORMA I. All proposed clusters were measured in NAFORMA I, which enables precise estimation of change based on repeated measurements. The costs and precision were anticipated by utilizing NAFORMA I field data, information about subsequent improvements in the road network, and changes in land-use using satellite imaging derived land-class maps.
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    Grassland loss in Tanzania: causes, consequences and control
    (Asian Scholars Network, 2022) Nzunda, Emmanuel F.
    Grasslands are an important component of rangelands. The work presented in this paper is based on spatial statistical analysis of grassland change between 1995 and 2010 using land use and land cover maps covering the whole of mainland Tanzania and GIS. Further arguments for discussion in the paper are sourced from literature review. Results show that grasslands are lost at an alarming rate of almost 1 million hectares annually. Between 1995 and 2010 Tanzania lost more than 14 million hectares of grassland. Main direct causes of grassland loss are conversion to cultivation and to forest cover, almost at an equal rate of more than 6 million hectares over the 15 year period (about 400,000 ha annually). Bush encroachment is also an important direct driver of grassland loss. Indirect causes of grassland loss include population growth, economic growth, challenges in grassland governance and management and globalization. Consequences of grassland loss include reduced areas for grazing, increased soil erosion, floods, increased land use conflicts and their repercussions including loss of property and life. Control measures include those addressing the direct and indirect drivers of change. However, most of the control measures are ineffective and hence the observed trend of grassland loss. The paper concludes by suggesting some topics for further research into ways to improve the effectiveness of the control measures against grassland loss in terms of potential and possibility of more agricultural intensification, improvements of markets and profits to cultivators, nature of grassland loss to forest cover, ways to apply existing extensive research on bush encroachment and, the role of formal and informal institutions that control grassland loss.
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    Spatio-temporal changes in wildlife habitat quality in the greater serengeti Ecosystem
    (MDPI, 2020) Kija, Hamza K.; Ogutu, Joseph O.; Mangewa, Lazaro J.; Bukombe, John; Verones, Francesca; Graae, Bente J.; Kideghesho, Jafari R.; Said, Mohammed Y.; Nzunda, Emmanuel F.
    Understanding habitat quality and its dynamics is imperative for maintaining healthy wildlife populations and ecosystems. We mapped and evaluated changes in habitat quality (1975–2015) in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem of northern Tanzania using the Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model. This is the first habitat quality assessment of its kind for this ecosystem. We characterized changes in habitat quality in the ecosystem and in a 30 kilometer buffer area. Four habitat quality classes (poor, low, medium and high) were identified and their coverage quantified. Overall (1975–2015), habitat quality declined over time but at rates that were higher for habitats with lower protection level or lower initial quality. As a result, habitat quality deteriorated the most in the unprotected and human-dominated buffer area surrounding the ecosystem, at intermediate rates in the less heavily protected Wildlife Management Areas, Game Controlled Areas, Game Reserves and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and the least in the most heavily protected Serengeti National Park. The deterioration in habitat quality over time was attributed primarily to anthropogenic activities and major land use policy changes. Effective implementation of land use plans, robust and far-sighted institutional arrangements, adaptive legal and policy instruments are essential to sustaining high habitat quality in contexts of rapid human population growth.
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    Differential response to tree fallows in rotational woodlot systems In semi-arid Tanzania: post-fallow maize yield, nutrient uptake, And soil nutrients
    (elservier, 2008) Kimaro, A.A.; Timmer, V.R.; Chamshama, S.A.O.; Mugasha, A.G.; Kimaro, D.A.
    Agroforestry tree species producing high quality litter may enhance post-fallow soil nutrient availability and crop yields through mineralization of soil organic matter and green manure. A split-plot field experiment was used to evaluate maize yield and soil N and P status after fallowing indigenous and exotic tree species of contrasting litter quality. Responses were compared with recommended inorganic fertilizer use. The objective was to assess efficacy of 5-year tree fallows in improving soil productivity to screen species for increased crop yield under rotational woodlot culture, an agroforestry system mainly used for on-farm fuelwood production in semi-arid Tanzania. Post- fallow maize yield and soil nutrients differed significantly among tree fallows. Low C:N and L:N ratios enhanced nutrient release from slash. Acacia polyacantha (indigenous) and Gliricidia sepium fallows doubled maize yield compared to the natural fallow probably due to high soil N and P levels resulting from net release by high quality foliage. First season maize yield was similar to that from combined N and P fertilizers indicating high capacity of the fallows to improve crop yields and reduce fertilizer inputs usually unaffordable to small-scale farmers. Comparatively low maize yield and soil N and P levels after exotic Acacia crassicarpa and Acacia mangium fallows were attributed to net N immobilization by poor quality litter during growing seasons. This study suggests that rotational woodlot systems utilizing tree species with high litter quality can improve both post-fallow maize yield and soil fertility as well as produce sufficient fuelwood. In this aspect, A. polyacantha would be the most appropriate species.
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    Strategies to enhance adherence to participatory Village land use plans in Ulanga district in Tanzania
    (2021) Naiposha, M. N; Nzunda, E. F
    Land use plans have been considered as a solution to land use problems. Effectiveness of implementation of land use plan relies on a number of factors including strategies that are used to enhance adherence to the land use plan. For the study area, current and potential strategies to enhance adherence to land use plans had previously not been assessed. Thus this study assessed current and potential strategies used to enhance adherence to participatory village land use plans in Ulanga District, Tanzania. Data were collected through household survey of 120 respondents from two villages, key informants interviews, focus group discussions, field observation, review of guidelines for land use planning, village and use plans, district land use framework, books and journals. Information from household survey and village records were descriptively analysed to obtain frequencies and percentages. Information from key informants and focus groups was analysed by content analysis. Current strategies used included by-laws, boundary demarcation,zoning, community action plan, and conflict resolution. The current strategies were ineffectively implemented and enforced due to inadequate awareness, inadequate fines and penalties, funding limitations, weak governance and inefficient coordination and monitoring. Potential strategies that should be implemented include education, awareness raising, capacity building and benefit sharing.
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    Participatory land use planning policy Implementation in Ulanga district, Tanzania: Assessment of zoes sufficiency
    (2021) Naiposha, Margaret N; Nzunda, Emmanuel F; Kashaigili, Japhet J
    Land use plans have been considered as a solution to land use problems and hence enhance ecological, economic and social sustainability of land use. Appropriateness of land use plans and hence its potential for adherence may rely on sufficiency of zones allocated for different land uses. This study was designed to empirically identify land use implementation problems and suggest solutions relevant to the land users, the government, planners and other stakeholders. Specifically, the study assesses: (1) The extent to which the land use zones cover all zones needed by the stakeholders and; (2) Reasons for levels of sufficiency of the allocated land use zones. Data were collected through household survey of 120 respondents from two villages, key informants, focus group discussions and field observation survey while secondary data were collected through review of guidelines for land use planning, village land use plans, district land use framework, books and journals. Information used to assess sufficiency of land use zones used in Village Land Use Plans (VLUP) from household survey and village records were descriptively analysed. The implementation of village land use plans was not done as expected. Land use zones were insufficient in terms of the allocated size and needs within the zones for current and future situation. Overall the insufficiency of the land use zones was reported by 90% of the respondents. For individual land use zones the insufficiency was reported by the following percentages of the respondents: 95.0% for residential zone, 89.2% for agriculture zone, 96.7 for grazing zone, 25.2 for forest zone, 0% for wildlife management area, 0% for wildlife corridor and 0% for wetland. The reasons for insufficiency of the land use zones were increasing population, overstocking, and lack of infrastructure necessary within specific zones. Other factors included inadequate consideration for uncertainties in population projection standard, unclear zoning regulation and discrepancy in population data. Based on the findings and conclusions, this study makes the following recommendations. First, the National Land Use Planning Commission should devise mechanisms to ensure that all the six steps of land use planning are completed towards implementable land use plans. Secondly, the national land use planning commission should review zoning standards to sufficiently allocate the land use zones. The population projections used for future allocation of land had influence on the sufficiency of the zones where the rate of population increase is assumed to be fixed throughout the ten years implementation period without consideration of uncertainties. It is worth incorporating GIS to establish trend of land use and forecast future land use to sufficiently allocate land during the 10 years lifespan of the VLUP. Thirdly, the national land use planning commission need to validate spatial data and population data at village level to avoid discrepancies which affect implementation of the village land use plans.
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    Forest management plan for implementation of a Pilot redd+ project for masito community forest Reserve, kigoma, tanzania for 2012-2017: review of Previous management plan
    (2021) Nzunda, Emmanuel F
    Motivation/Background: Forest management planning is an important con- dition for ecologically sustainable and economically ef icient forest use. The current paper presents review of previous forest management plan for imple- mentation of a pilot REDD+ project for Masito Community Forest Reserve, Kigoma, Tanzania for the period 2012-2017. Method: The work mainly involved review of relevant documents enriched by discussions with project management. Results: The description of the review is presented under twelve major sec- tions, namely: 1. review of previous forest management plan document; 2. objectives of the previous forest management plan; 3. achievements in imple- menting the previous forest management plan; 4. challenges encountered dur- ing the implementation of the previous plan; 5. factors that affected the imple- mentation of the previous forest management plan; 6. survey of existing for- est resources; 7. forest reserve management activities; 8. human resources for forest reserve management; 9. forest adjacent communities; 10. marketing and initiatives for revenue generation; 11. inter-sectoral linkages and co-operation, and; 12. inancial resources for management of the forest reserve. Conclusions: The review was the basis for the activities planned for the for- est for 2012-2017. Also, the review should be used as baseline information for assessment of achievement of the planned activities.
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    Estimates of volume and carbon stock removals in miombo Woodlands of mainland Tanzania
    (2020) Manyanda, Bernardol John; Nzunda, Emmanuel F; Mugasha, Wilson Ancelm; Malimbwi, Rogers Ernest
    Miombo woodlands are major vegetation type covering about 93% of the forest land of Mainland Tanzania. It forms an integral part of the rural landscape in Tanzania and plays a crucial role in providing a wide range of goods and services including carbon sequestration. However, the sustainability of forest resources is mostly affected by the magnitude of its utilization. There should be a balance between the forest growth and removals. Nevertheless, the magnitude of removed volume and carbon in the country is not known. Quantification of volume, biomass, and carbon stocks removals is vital in developing effective climate change mitigation strategies, decision making, and promoting sustainable forest management. Based on the National Forest Resources Monitoring and Assessment data (NAFORMA) comprising 7,026 stumps collected from 16,803 circular plots of 10 m and 15 m radii established in Miombo woodlands of Mainland Tanzania, volume and carbon stock removals were estimated with the use of models that utilize stump diameter (SD) as the sole predictor. Results indicate that the annual volumes, aboveground biomass removed, and belowground biomass removed were 1.71 ± 0.54 m 3 ha −1 year −1 , 1.23 ± 0.37 t ha −1 year −1 , and 0.43 ± 0.12 t ha −1 year −1 , respectively. In addition, the corresponding aboveground and belowground carbon removed were found to be 0.6 ± 0.18 tC ha −1 year −1 and 0.21 ± 0.05 tC ha −1 year −1 respectively. Since the estimated annual volume removals exceed estimated mean annual increment of 1.6 ± 0.2 m 3 ha −1 year −1 in Miombo woodlands, the removals indicate unsustainability that would end up into forest degradation. The results also show that removals are more prominent in the following categories: shifting cultivation, production forest, grazing land, general land, village land, and Eastern and Southern zones. This paper calls for increased appropriate management strategies to ensure sustainability in these land categories and in the entire Miombo woodlands of Mainland Tanzania.
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    Costs and benefits of establishment of ngarambe-tapika wildlife Management area to livelihoods of adjacent community
    (2021) Mdendemi, Rose Gerald; Nzunda, Emmanuel F
    Establishment of wildlife management areas (WMA) may have costs and benefits depending on the underlying arrangements. This study was carried out to assess costs and benefits of establishment of Ngarambe-Tapika WMA, in Rufiji District, Tanzania. The data were obtained through interviews with key informants, questionnaire survey and focus group discussions and analyzed by content analysis and benefit- cost evaluation. The study revealed that cultivation and firewood collection were the major livelihood activities carried out before establishment of Ngarambe-Tapika WMA and which were not allowed after the establishment. The benefit-cost ratio is less than 1, implying that that the benefits they were receiving is low as compared to the costs they were generated before establish of WMA. Most respondents depends on agriculture activities as a major economic activity and source of income but this activities had been interfered with wild animals that raid their crops hence increases cost of living of adjacent community. The incidences of crop damage increase yearly due to increasing number of wildlife as a result of better conservation afforded by WMA establishment. It is recommended to address problem of resource access within the WMA. The village governments should set aside special days to allow local communities to harvest dead trees and/or medicinal plants under the supervision of village government. A long-term solution is to advocate the establishment of community forests in each village or households to have forest lots around their farms which could save the multi-purpose role of provision of firewood/timber and also act as farm boundaries. The responsible authorities should find a way of compensating those who are affected by wildlife especially when come into issue of crop damage. To minuses some costs of living and increase benefits it is recommended to improved relationship among investors, local communities and WMA staff, the need to involve local communities in major decisions affecting their livelihood, improvement of business contracts, need for investors to follow village rules and regulation, awareness education and empowerment of local communities should be adhered. Furthermore, the study recommends that efforts should be made to ensure that income generating from Ngarambe-Tapika WMA trickle down to household and/or individual level because most who are affected is individuals. And this can be achieved through increased employment of local community and better pay for the employment in activities related to WMA.
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    Forest management plan for implementation of a Pilot redd+ project for masito community forest Reserve, Kigoma, Tanzania for 2012-2017
    (2021) Nzunda, Emmanuel F
    A forest management plan is a document that guides management of a formally managed forest. The general description is a component of a forest management plan, which describes the target forest and the focal landscape in socioeconomic and ecological terms. This paper gives a general description as part of a forest management plan for implementation of a pilot REDD+ project for Masito Community Forest Reserve, Kigoma, Tanzania for 2012-2017. The methodology used to obtain the data and information for the description was literature review. The general description is given under six main sections, namely: (1) legal status, ownership and administration; (2) location, size and boundaries; (3) physical features; (4) biological aspects; (5) buffer zones and corridors, and; (6) socio-economic aspects of adjacent communities. The forest was not yet gazetted. The vegetation type was predominantly miombo woodlands. The main land use of the forest adjacent communities was agriculture. The general description formed the basis for development of the other components of the management plan.
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    Conservation policy, type of protected area and deforestation in mainland Tanzania
    (Science Publishing Group, 2021) Nzunda, Emmanuel Fred
    Protected areas are an important means of controlling deforestation. However, the effectiveness of protected areas in controlling deforestation depends on type of protected area which determines conservation policy pursued and thus how the protected area is managed. This paper reports on analysis of the relationship between deforestation and type of protected area, namely forest reserve, game reserve and national park in mainland Tanzania. The analysis used maps covering the whole of mainland Tanzania for 1995 and 2010 and applied GIS analytical techniques. Both forest reserves and game reserves had lower deforestation than areas that were not protected whereas national parks had higher deforestation than areas that were not protected. However, forest reserves had higher rate of deforestation than game reserves. These results raise questions with regards to ecological processes and policy options relevant for the three types of protected areas and their effects on deforestation. First, are the differences in deforestation due to varying levels of effectiveness of measures used to control deforestation among the three types of protected areas? Second, what is the role of natural processes such as elephants that kill trees? Third, why should national parks be associated with the highest rate of deforestation? Are forests so bad for wild animals in national parks? These questions form the basis of the discussion of the results.
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    Effects of drivers and their variations on the number of stems and aboveground carbon removals in miombo woodlands of mainland Tanzania
    (BMC, 2021) Manyanda, Bernardol John; Nzunda, Emmanuel F; Mugasha, Wilson Ancelm; Malimbwi, Rogers Ernest
    Background: Removals caused by both natural and anthropogenic drivers such as logging and fire in miombo woodlands causes substantial carbon emissions. Here we present drivers and their effects on the variations on the number of stems and aboveground carbon (AGC) removals based on an analysis of Tanzania’s national forest inven- tory (NFI) data extracted from the National Forest Resources Assessment and Monitoring (NAFORMA) database using allometric models that utilize stump diameter as the sole predictor. Results: Drivers of AGC removals in miombo woodlands of mainland Tanzania in order of importance were timber, fire, shifting cultivation, charcoal, natural death, firewood collection, poles, grazing by wildlife animals, carvings, graz- ing by domestic animals, and mining. The average number of stems and AGC removals by driver ranged from 0.006 to 16.587 stems ­ha −1 ­year −1 and 0.0–1.273 ­tCha −1 ­year −1 respectively. Furthermore, charcoal, shifting cultivation and fuelwood caused higher tree removals as opposed to timber, natural death and fire that accounted for higher AGC removals. Conclusions: Drivers caused substantial effects on the number of stems and carbon removals. Increased mitigation efforts in addressing removals by timber, fires, shifting cultivation, charcoal and natural death would be effective in mitigating degradation in miombo woodlands of Tanzania. Additionally, site-specific studies need to be conducted to bring information that would be used for managing woodlands at local levels. This kind of study need to be con- ducted in other vegetation types like montane and Mangrove forest at national scale in Tanzania.