Articles, Conference and Workshop Papers Collection

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    Characterization and classification of greenbelt soils in Yambio and Nzara counties, Western Equatoria State, South Sudan
    (Academic Journal, 2023-05) Bazugba, Isaac A. J.; Massawe, Boniface H. J.; Shitindi, Mawazo; Deng, Pio K.
    The objectives of this study were to characterize, classify and evaluate the potential and constraints of the soils of Sakure and Nginda Payams in Nzara and Yambio counties in the Greenbelt zone of Western Equatoria State, South Sudan. Ten soil pits were dug, described and sampled based on FAO soil profile description guideline and samples were analysed using standard routine lab analyses for physical and chemical properties. Data generated were analysed statistically using the coefficient of variation (CV) and correlation. Results showed that top and subsoil were dominated by sandy clay loams. The soil reactions were strongly to slightly acidic (pH = 5.4 - 6.7). The most limiting nutrients were P and N. SOC was highest in the top soil and consistently decreased with depth, the CEC was low (4 - 14.4 Cmol kg -1 ). The soils were classified into six major soil types: Ferralsol, retisols, acrisols, umbrisols, fluvisols, and chernozems. The soils have poor inherent soil fertility. It is recommended that further soil survey be carried out in the Greenbelt zone and to conduct more research to determine the type of soil fertility management feasible.
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    Conceptualizing digital leadership characteristics for successful digital transformation: the case of Tanzania
    (Research Gate, 2021-10) Magesa, Mawazo Mwita; Jonathan, Joan
    The objective of this study was to examine the attributes of a compelling leader to lead Digital Transformation in a formal organization. The study conceptualized a digital leader with 26 characteristics grouped into 5 roles. Sample respondents were drawn from some organizations in Tanzania and a self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. Preliminary analysis involved examining inter-correlation among leadership attributes, dropping 3 out of 26. Exploratory factor analysis of 23 items produced 7 factors which were grouped into 5 roles while dropping 2 factors with one item each. Only 4 factors and 13 items qualified for confirmatory factor analysis which provided better fit for the sample data. The validity check showed that the digital leadership construct somehow converges and the four factors were different from one another. It is implied that good digital leader is anticipated to foster economic growth, promote innovation and entrepreneurship, and improve service deliveries.
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    Assessing the role of information literacy in enhancing utilization of internet resources for independent learning among university of Dar es Salaam students: a case of colleges of social sciences and humanities.
    (Academic ed, 2019) Kasuke, Lucy Bakari
    Internet Resources plays a great role or implication in information accessibility, usability, and effective retrieval. This has added more value to students in their performance and endeavors towards career goals achievement. However, effective use of internet resources by students absolutely depends on information literacy and awareness on available internet resources. Thus, the study was conducted to assess the role of information literacy in enhancing utilization of internet resources among university students, specifically the study intended to examine students’ awareness of the information literacy programs and available internet resources, to find out the relationship between awareness, perception, and use of internet resources, and identifying training programs that relate to information literacy at university level. The study was carried out at the University of Dar es Salaam and adopted an exploratory research design. The study used an electronic questionnaire for data collection and probability sampling technique for identifying a sample of respondents at the University. The study indicated most of the students are computer literate and are aware of the availability of electronic information resources. The study also revealed that students who were aware of available internet resources demonstrated high usage of internet resources. It also noted that Information literacy and lifelong learning are the only courses that relate to information literacy at the University. However, the study revealed that most of the respondents agreed that lack of proficiency in information and computer literacy skills are the limiting factors towards efficient utilization of internet resources. It is therefore recommended that information literacy should be offered as a core course during the first semester of the first year to all students across the university so as to enhance effective use of internet resources for excellence in academic and research.
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    A systematic review on mobile learning in higher education: The African perspective
    (TOJET, 2017-01) Kaliisa, Rogers; Picard, Michelle
    The spread and popularity of mobile devices has led to their increased application in higher education. While studies have reviewed mobile learning initiatives in different contexts, none has explored this subject in Africa. This systematic review collates and compares studies published between 2010 and 2016 on mobile learning in higher education in the African context to explore the application, impact and challenges of mobile technologysupported learning. Findings show that mobile learning within higher education institutions in Africa increased student and lecturer collaboration and, provide dinstant communication, increased student participation and engagement, facilitating authentic learning and reflective practice, as well as fostering learning communities. A change in the lecturers’ approaches to teaching also occurred. The findings also indicate significant challenges in integrating mobile learning in higher education institutions within Africa: poor technological infrastructure, lack of access to modern mobile devices, lack of mobile learning pedagogical skills among lecturers, poor attitudes among students and lecturers, and incompatibility of mobile devices with the university online management systems. Policies to guide the implementation of mobile learning were also lacking. Large-scale studies assessing the effectiveness of mobile learning within African higher education institutions are lacking and existing studies lacked a theoretical framework. The review highlights enabling conditions for successful integration of mobile learning in African institutions addressing access, training, curriculum design, support and technical requirements. The absence of studies reporting on existing mobile learning projects reflects the limited penetration of this technology and associated pedagogies and a need to strengthen research in this emerging field
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    Role of ICTS in accessing and disseminating information for improved urban livestock keeping in Tanzania. A review of related literature.
    (DigitalCommons@UniversityofNebraska-Lincoln, 2017) Angello, Consolata
    This review summarizes relevant research on the relevance of urban agriculture and how best various Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) can be used in accessing and disseminating livestock husbandry information, in order to improve livestock husbandry practices in urban areas. Specifically, it reviews studies that have been conducted in relation to urban agricultural practices, the challenges of keeping livestock in urban areas and the solutions to overcome the challenges of urban livestock keeping. The review also discusses the extent of ICT integration in agriculture from a global perspective and specifically in Africa and Tanzania. The review focuses on the information needs of urban livestock keepers and the challenges encountered in using various ICTs in accessing livestock husbandry information. This review reveals gaps in the literature and recommends on possible ways forward that relevant stakeholders may take to address these gaps.
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    Technological factors influencing vendors’participation in public electronic procurement system in Ilala,Tanzania
    (2021) Siwandeti, M. L; Sanga, C; Panga, F.
    Tanzania is among countries which adopted and implemented an Electronic Procurement System (EPS) in their procurement operations. However, little attention has been given on technological factors that influence vendors’ participation in public electronic procurement system(PEPS). This study examined technological factors influencing vendors’ participation in PEPS. Ilala District was chosen as a study area and research design was cross-sectional. Simple Random sampling technique and purposive sampling technique were used to select300 respondents and three key informants respectively. Qualitative and Quantitative data were collected through Key Informants Interviews (KIIs) guide and structured questionnaire respectively. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) and content analysis were used for quantitative and qualitative data analysis respectively. The study found technological factors like information transparency, creativity and innovation, data quality and management, system integration, data security; computer and IT literacy were significant at p-value<0.001. Therefore the study concluded that, technological factors have influence on the vendors’ participation in PEPS. The Study recommends to Public Procurement Regulatory Authority (PPRA) to consider oversee significant technological factors(like data management, data quality, information transparency and security)for attracting vendors to participate in the system. PPRA should maximise privacy on sensitive data and allow access by levels for operation purpose only.
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    Perceived benefits of participation in public electronic procurement: a comparative analysis of vendors in Ilala district, Tanzania
    (2021) Siwandeti, Meshack; Sanga, Camilius; Panga, Faustine
    Public electronic procurement (PEPS) is an emerging technology in public procurement for efficiency and value assurance. Vendors’ participation has been un-avoidable for true realisation (benefits) of PEPS; however, studies are still inconclusive regarding perceived benefits contributions on participation for participants and non-participants vendors. This study therefore did a comparative analysis on perceived benefits contributions for participants and non-participants vendors’ participation in PEPS. The study adopted across-sectional research design and Ilala District was a study area. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 300 respondents with 73 participants and 227non-participants vendors. A purposive sampling technique used to select three key informants, each one from Public Procurement Regulatory Authority (PPRA), Government Procurement Service Agency (GPSA) and Medical Stores Department (MSD). The structured questionnaire and Key informant Interview guide were used for collecting quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Quantitative data used multiple response analysis and independent samples t-test for analysis while content analysis technique analysed qualitative data. The Findings have revealed a significant difference (p< 0.05) between participants and non-participants on perceived benefits (transparent, paper reduction, cost control and corruption control). The study therefore concludes that, perceived benefits have contribution for vendors’ participation in PEPS. The study recommends to non-participants vendors to consider participating in PEPS in order to gain significant perceived benefits. The study also to PPRA to make sure the PEPS offer the perceived benefits for vendors’ participation. This can be done once the system stakeholders improve impacting benefits knowledge to vendors, hence attracts more vendors to participate in PEPS.
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    Mobile phone use in accessing rice information for adaptation to climate change in kilosa and kilomberodistricts, Morogoro, Tanzania
    (2020) Mwalukasa, N.
    The study aimed at determining the use of mobile phones in accessing rice information for adaptation to climate change in Kilosa and Kilombero Districts in Morogoro Region. The study involved 400 rain fed-rice farmers owning mobile phones. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design to collect data using a semi-structured questionnaire, focus group discussions and key informants interview. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in the data analysis. Quantitative data were analysed using frequency, percentages, chi-square, binary logistic regression and poisson count regression. Qualitative data were analysed through content analysis. The study found that sociodemographic factors influenced respondents’ use of mobile phone for accessing rice information for adaptation to climate change were sex, age, education level, marital status, farm size, farming experience, radio ownership and off-farm incomes. In addition, access to market location was statistically significantly influenced use of mobile phones for accessing rice information for adaptation to climate change at p< 0.02. Moreover, few, 99 (24.8%)of the respondents used mobile phone to access strategic rice information while 105 (26.3%) of the respondents used mobile phone to access tactical rice information for adaptation to climate change. Furthermore, use of mobile phones for accessing rice information for adaption to climate change among study districts was low and did not differ at p< 0.08. Voice calling was most used application compared to other application. Moreover, type of rice variety, type of herbicides and weather forecast information was the major rice information for adaptation to climate change accessed by respondents through mobile phone. The study concludes that socio-demographic and institutional factors influence use of mobile phones for accessing rice information for adaptation to climate change. It can also be concluded the respondents’ use of mobile phones to access rice information for adaptation to climate change in study areas was low.The study recommends that Kilosa and Kilombero Districts council through DAICO’s should train farmers in using mobile phones in accessing rice information for adaptation to climate change through campaigns, workshop and seminars
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    A decision support system for enhancing crop productivity of smallholder farmers in semi-arid agricultureA decision support system for enhancing crop productivity of smallholder farmers in semi-arid agriculture
    (2013) Churi, A. J.; Mlozi, M. R. S; Tumbo, S. D.; Casmir, R.; Mahoo, M. R. S
    This study aimed at investigative decision support systems for assisting strategic and tactical decision making of smallholder farmers to reduce climate risks and increase crop productivity of semi-arid areas. Specifically, the study assessed farm-level decisions used by the farmers for reducing climate risks; examined information communication and knowledge sharing strategies for enhancing decision making and designed a system for assisting the farmers in selecting appropriate options for improving crop productivity. Development of DSS was governed by design science where prototyping approach was used to allow complete participation of end-users. The proposed architecture allows difference agricultural actors participate in communicating agricultural information and sharing of knowledge with smallholder farmers. The DSS was implemented and assessed by farmers as a useful tool for accessing information and advisories in agricultural systems. More research is recommended to enable simple and affordable mobile phones be used by farmers to access wealth of agricultural knowledge and policies from research centres and government resources.
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    Silent adoption of bring-your-own-device in Tanzania higher learning institutions - adoption policies
    (IST-Africa Institute and IIMC, 2020) Magesa, M.; Sanga, C.
    Tanzania Higher Learning institutions (HLIs) have not fully deployed the ICT infrastructure to facilitate smooth performance of their business functions. They have inadequate computers, insufficient network infrastructure, low bandwidth; their computers are ageing and have limited ICT investment. The research examined usage of employees’ personal ICT devices for performing office work and the policies, guidelines and practices that can be implemented by HLIs while adopting usage of employees’ personal devices in the work environment. As an interpretive research, data were collected through interviews and observations during the survey at HLI, Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA). Results confirmed inadequate computers, low bandwidth at HLIs and revealed usage of employees’ personal ICT devices for office work and for communicating issues related to employers’ work. Further, HLIs are not concerned if employees use their ICT devices for office work. It is like HLIs have silently adopted the Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) concept and thus allowed employees to use personal devices to perform office work. The BYOD phenomenon helps to improve the availability of ICT devices at the institution while improving communications and work efficiency and productivity. The research has explored the BYOD concept in Tanzania HLIs and contributed by proposing policies and procedures that can guide in its adoption. Due to its potential benefits, the study recommends HLIs explore how best they can adopt and practise the concept. Further research can explore on the organizational and user characteristics that can facilitate adoption of BYOD.
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    Analysis of geospatial data of Morogoro Urban: lessons for educationists and researchers
    (ResearchGate, 2019-05) Kira, E. S.; Sumari, N. S.
    There has been a growing need of scientists to utilize geospatial data in a variety of fields of study due to the advancement of ICT as a tool for both gathering and analyzing geospatial data. As Geographic Information System (GIS) gains momentum, the use of geospatial data becomes prominent in education especially in subjects that deal with place and space processes such as geography. Unfortunately in developing countries propagation of GIS in education is of low pace partly because of less utilization of ICT and ICT based technologies in teaching and learning. In order to address the problem of underutilization of geospatial data in education teachers‘ knowledge, skills and motivation for using GIS data needs to be reinforced. This paper shows why the use of geospatial data in geography is necessary. It shows how teachers and students in schools can be both supported and motivated to use geospatial data with reference to analysis of information based on satellite images of Morogoro urban district. The paper shows the way these geospatial data can be used to address various questions raised for each topic in geography at advanced level secondary school. The discussion part shades light on the path that needs to be followed by policy makers to mobilize efforts of educationists and other experts in geography, mathematics, statistics and ICT based disciplines. The efforts should focus on gathering and analyzing more of GIS data and also simplify their accessibility by classroom teachers so that they can improve their classroom practice and outdoor learning avenues. The foreseen challenges and the role of individual stakeholders to advance the uses of GIS data in education are also highlighted.
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    Human sensor web crowd sourcing security incidents management in Tanzania context
    (Scientific Research Publishing, 2018) Mshangi, M.; Nfuka, E. N.; Sanga, C.
    Security incidents affecting information systems in cyberspace keep on rising. Researchers have raised interest in finding out how to manage security incidents. Various solutions proposed do not effectively address the problematic situation of security incidents. The study proposes a human sensor web Crowd sourcing platform for reporting, searching, querying, analyzing, visualizing and responding to security incidents as they arise in real time. Human sensor web Crowd sourcing security incidents is an innovative approach for addressing security incidents affecting information systems in cyberspace. It employs outsourcing collaborative efforts initiatives outside the boundaries of the given organization in solving a problematic situation such as how to improve the security of information systems. It was managed by soft systems methodology. Moreover, security maturity level assessment was carried out to determine security requirements for managing security incidents using ISO/IEC 21827: Systems security engineering capability maturity model with a rating scale of 0 - 5. It employed descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistical method to determine the significance of each variable based on a research problem. It used Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test ( X 2) to determine the statistical significance of result findings. The findings revealed that security controls and security measures are implemented in ad-hoc. For managing security incidents, organizations should use human sensor web Crowd sourcing platform. The study contributes to knowledge base management learning integration: practical implementation of Crowd sourcing in information systems security.
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    Real-Time 3-D Measurement of Cotton Boll Positions using Machine Vision Under Field Conditions
    (The Cotton Foundation, 2018-01-05) Kadeghe, F.; Glen, R.; Wesley, P.
    Cotton harvesting is performed by expensive combine harvesters that hinder small to medium-size cotton farmers Advances in robotics provide an opportunity to harvest cotton using small and robust autonomous rovers that can be deployed in the field as an “army” of harvesters. This paradigm shift in cotton harvesting requires high accuracy 3D measurement of the cotton boll position under field conditions. This in-field high throughput phenotyping of cotton boll position includes real-time image acquisition, depth processing, color segmentation, features extraction and determination of cotton boll position. In this study, a 3D camera system was mounted on a research rover at 82° below the horizontal and took 720p images at the rate of 15 frames per second while the rover was moving over 2-rows of potted defoliated cotton plants. The software development kit provided by the camera manufacturer was installed and used to process and provide a disparity map of cotton bolls. The system was installed with the Robot Operating System (ROS) to provide live image frames to client computers wirelessly and in real time. Cotton boll distances from the ground were determined using a 4-step machine vision algorithm (depth processing, color segmentation, feature extraction and frame matching for position determination). The 3D camera used provided distance of the boll from the left lens and algorithms were developed to provide vertical distance from the ground and horizontal distance from the rover. Comparing the cotton boll distance above the ground with manual measurements, the system achieved an average R2 value of 99% with 9 mm RMSE when stationary and 95% with 34 mm RMSE when moving at approximately 0.64 km/h. This level of accuracy is favourable for proceeding to the next step of simultaneous localization and mapping of cotton bolls and robotic harvesting.
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    e-Agriculture promising practice UshuariKilimo information system web and mobile phones for extension services in Tanzania
    (FAO, 2018-05) Sanga, C.
    ‘UshauriKilimo’ is a Swahili word from ‘Ushauri’ and ‘Kilimo’ which means ‘advisory’ and ‘agriculture’ respectively. ‘UshauriKilimo’ is a system for agricultural advisory services. It is an agro advisory and extension service system that allows any actor in the agricultural sector to ask for advisory services to an agriculture extension officer using either the web or a mobile phone. The mobile and web based advisory information system for farmers was developed in collaboration with the Kilosa Community Radio, using participatory action research to ensure the improved extension services would correspond to the needs of the end users. The Web based Farmers Advisory Information System (MFAIS) and Mobile based Farmers Advisory Information Systems (WFAIS) were released for public use in January 2015, after an awareness raising campaign conducted in Kilosa District of Tanzania.
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    ECAWsoft: A web based climate and weather data visualization for big data analysis
    (Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology: H Information & Technology, 2017-03) Tumbo, Siza D.; Kadeghe, Fue G.; Sanga, Camilius A.
    In Tanzania, data for climate and weather are normally analyzed by Meteorological Agency and then are published through TV, website and radio. Different stakeholders normally obtain the weather and climate data / information in a generalized way. This calls for a need of a system which allows data to be shared openly to different stakeholders so that they can analyze those data as per their specific needs. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the overview of the developed system, ECAWsoft. Also, it gives some few interfaces showing different outputs from the system. Findings: The goal of this paper has been attained by developing a working data visualization tool for climate and weather called ECAWsoft. The system is current operational and is providing open data for different stakeholders.
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    Analyzing usage of crowdsourcing platform Ushaurikilimo' by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Tanzania
    (International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 2016-12) Fue, Kadeghe; Geoffrey, Anna; Mlozi, M.R.S.; Tumbo, Siza, D.; Haug, Ruth; Sanga, Camilius, A.
    Earlier studies report that agricultural extension service for livestock keepers in Tanzania is not effectively offered. ‘Ushaurikilimo’ which is a crowdsourcing platform consisting of a Web and Mobile based agro-advisory system. It is a system which complements the traditional agricultural extension provided to pastoralists and agro-pastoralists. Mobile crowdsourcing for agricultural extension service is an emerging approach to address some of the problems experiencing in traditional agricultural extension service. This study explored the information seeking pattern of livestock keepers who are using ‘Ushaurikilimo’. In total 1739 questions are in ‘Ushaurikilimo’. Out of 1739 questions and answers, the study concentrated on 1312 questions since 427 questions related to forestry. Out of 1312 questions submitted to ‘Ushaurikilimo’ via livestock keepers’ mobile phones, 605 (47%) questions relate to livestock and 53% relate to crops. Most livestock keepers asked questions with keywords related to chicken, pigs and milk from ‘Ushaurikilimo’ knowledge base. Further data mining analysis showed that the following keywords are the most queried information by livestock keepers: poultry management, poultry equipment and accessories, hatching equipment, feed equipment, feed storage, feed manufacturing machinery, product handling/transport equipment, quality testing equipment and energy saving equipment, milk processing, housing and environment, building materials and equipment, feeds and feeding, food preservation, feed additives and dairy products. In this study, the pattern of information seeking behavior of livestock keepers matched the pattern which has been reported earlier by other researchers who explored the information seeking behavior of livestock keepers who are using other sources of information such as newspapers, television, radio, farmers’ friends and extension agents. One peculiar result from this study is that the average response time after the question had been assigned to an expert to answer was 32.49 hours. Thus, the crowdsourcing platform, web and mobile based agro-advisory system proved to be effective compared to conventional agricultural extension methods. This calls for a need to scale up ‘Ushaurikilimo’ to complement the traditional agricultural extension service in Tanzania.