Tanzania Journal of Community Development (TAJOCODE)

Permanent URI for this collectionhttp://10.10.97.169:4000/handle/123456789/3860

This collection contains articles published in the Tanzania Journal of Community Development which is managed by the Department of Agricultural Extension and Community Development in collaboration with CODEPATA.

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    A comparative analysis of levels of vulnerability of livelihood assets to gas extraction operations: evidence from Mtwara rural district, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Community Development, 2023-05-07) Musoma, Beston M.; Nyanda, Suzana S.; Muhanga, Mikidadi I.; Massawe, Fatihiya A.
    Extractive investments adversely affect local communities across the globe. Tanzania experiences new gas extraction operations (GEO) but with scanty information on how they influence the levels of vulnerability of livelihood assets among rural communities. As such, there is a need to empirically understand wplaces are more vulnerable than others so that livelihood enhancement actions can be performed following gas extraction operations. This article examined the levels of vulnerability of livelihood assets among communities residing near and distant villages to gas extractive fields and processing plants. A cross-sectional research design was employed, and 260 respondents were sampled proportionally from village registers. The sample was complemented with 15 key informant Interviews (KII) and four focus group discussions (FGDs). A comparative analysis was performed using Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI). The results revealed that distant villages had the highest level of food accessibility and water accessibility. Also, neighbouring villages have the highest level of vulnerability on land ownership. Likewise, nearby villages had a moderate level of exposure to livelihood strategies and gas extraction activities. To conclude, distant villages had a higher level of vulnerability to food access, water access, and socio-demographic profile components. Whereas nearby villages had the highest level of vulnerability on land ownership and gas extraction operation components. Therefore, to lessen the food vulnerability among households, the government and donors should prioritize income generating and food security programmes among households.
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    A comparative analysis of levels of vulnerability of livelihood assets to gas extraction operations: evidence from Mtwara rural district, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Community Development, 2023-05-07) Musoma, Beston M.; Nyanda, Suzana S.; Muhanga, Mikidadi I.; Massawe, Fatihiya A.
    Extractive investments adversely affect local communities across the globe. Tanzania experiences new gas extraction operations (GEO) but with scanty information on how they influence the levels of vulnerability of livelihood assets among rural communities. As such,there is a need to empirically understand wplaces are more vulnerable than others so that livelihood enhancement actions can be performed following gas extraction operations. This article examined the levels of vulnerability of livelihood assets among communities residing near and distant villages to gas extractive fields and processing plants. A cross-sectional research design was employed, and 260 respondents were sampled proportionally from village registers.The sample was complemented with 15 key informant Interviews (KII) and four focus group discussions (FGDs). A comparative analysis was performed using Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI). The results revealed that distant villages had the highest level of food accessibility and water accessibility. Also, neighbouring villages have the highest level of vulnerability on land ownership. Likewise, nearby villages had a moderate level of exposure to livelihood strategies and gas extraction activities. To conclude, distant villages had a higher level of vulnerability to food access, water access, and socio-demographic profile components. Whereas nearby villages had the highest level of vulnerability on land ownership and gas extraction operation components. Therefore, to lessen the food vulnerability among households, the government and donors should prioritize income generating and food security programmes among households.
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    Persistence of teenage pregnancies in Tanzania: a case of primary schools in Babati municipality
    (Tanzania Journal of Community Development, 2023-11-21) Paul, Diyammi Mark
    The paper employed the Social Ecological Model to comprehensively assess the multifaceted factors contributing to teenage pregnancies in primary schools within Babati Municipality, Tanzania. A sample of 100 participants, including students, teachers, headmasters, community members, and local government officials from the Seventy students from two primary schools participated, with a hundred respondents from the Maisaka and Singe wards. To facilitate a comprehensive examination of the factors influencing teenage pregnancies in primary schools, the research employed a combination of data collection methods, including in-depth interviews, questionnaires, and focus group discussions, enabling both open and closed-response inquiries. primary school. Through meticulous analysis of the data, which included the descriptive analysis, binary logistic regression model analysis and thematic examination of critical themes emerging from the perspectives of the participants concerning "factors contributing to teenage pregnancies in primary schools," the study revealed that primary drivers of teenage pregnancies in Babati Municipality include lack of awareness on contraceptive measures to avoid pregnancy; little information from media, parents, teachers, and friends on pregnancy prevention; sexual intercourse experience at a tender age; level of sexual desire; peer pressure, material gain, and sexual desire. In light of these findings, the research proposes several recommendations. First, the government is advised to consider the construction of hostels for female pupils. Second, it emphasizes the importance of collaborative efforts between parents and teachers to educate pupils and adolescents on sexual and reproductive health matters, advocating for open and comprehensive discussions on these topics. Additionally, primary schools are encouraged to incorporate sex education into their curriculum, taking the subject seriously. Moreover, teenagers are encouraged to delay the initiation of sexual activities and to adopt protective and preventive measures to reduce the incidence of teenage pregnancies.
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    Behavioural and environmental diagnostics of adherence to a sex education program in schools according to the PRECEDE - PROCEED model in the city of Ouagadougou, Burkina-Faso in 2021
    (Tanzania Journal of Community Development, 2023-12-08) Konaté, Blahima; Kabore, Ahmed; Ogah, Ambran Bernardine; Tognon, Akossito Hermine; Meda, Nicolas
    Introduction: In school, pupils learn about sexuality from friends and social networking sites such as Facebook. This situation creates problems such as early and unwanted pregnancies. In this study, we investigated the behavioural and environmental factors of adherence to a school-based sex education programme in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso. Methodology: We carried out a qualitative cross-sectional study with a descriptive aim in which pupils, teachers, and parents of pupils participated. The face to face individual interviews, and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted September 2020 to September 2021, to identify predisposing, facilitating, and reinforcing factors for school adherence to a sex education programme. Results: First, the acquisition of skills and of cultural norms were the main predisposing factors. Second, the promotion of sex education and the financial inaccessibility of parents were the main facilitating factors. Finally, the reduction of unwanted pregnancies and criticisms of sex education were the most important reinforcing factors. Conclusion: These results can help policymakers achieve good planning and effective implementation of a sex education programme in schools.
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    The role of women special seats councilors in implementing community development interventions in Kahama municipality, Shinyanga, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Community Development, 2023-11-05) Muhoha, Mary
    The participation of women in politics, development activities, and decision-making is crucial for increased investments in education, health, and infrastructure, as well as higher economic growth and poverty reduction. This paper examines the contribution of Women Special Seats Councillors (WSSCs) in implementing community development interventions in Kahama Municipality, Shinyanga, Tanzania. The study used qualitative research methods, including Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), Key Informant Interviews (KIIs), and document reviews. The findings show that WSSCs collaborate with ward councillors to develop comprehensive development plans that address specific needs. It is recommended that the government, WSSCs, and community members strengthen their participation in community development initiatives through the establishment of a Community-Oriented Stakeholders Model (COSTAM). This model promotes joint involvement throughout the project life cycle and empowers stakeholders, particularly women, through capacity building opportunities. These processes ensure that projects are relevant, sustainable, and responsive to community needs in Tanzania.
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    The influence of council leaders on the use of health data in improving health service delivery in Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Community Development, 2023-10-24) Matimo, Constantine; Anase, Mackfallen; Mollel, Henry
    Little is known on the extent to which council political leaders influence the use of health data for improving health service delivery. This paper aimed to examine factors that influence councillors to use health data to improve health service delivery in selected council hospitals. A cross-sectional study design was conducted in six regions that involved twelve wards where council hospitals located. Interview guide was used to obtain information from 12 ward councillors. Thematic manual data analysis was done to extract essential information. The study revealed that only minority of councillors were irregularly invited to participate in the council hospital plans and approval of budget allocation. Some of them occasionally attend quarterly hospital governing committee meetings. Moreover, some of them conducted the promotion of health data use without recommended communication tools. Besides, they hardly requested health statistics from council hospital to assist them with decision making. It is concluded that health service is relative poor because councillors hardly use health data to informed planning and decision making. The study recommends that the Ministry of President Office Regional Administrative and Local Government Authority should restructure the composition of council Hospital Governing Committees to include councillors to deliberate matters of health service delivery issues.
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    The effectiveness of village councils in land conflicts management in Tanzania: a reflection of Kondoa district council
    (Tanzania Journal of Community Development, 2023-09-29) Lugumiliza, Philemon Sengati
    This Paper assessed the effectiveness of village councils on land conflict management in Tanzania. A cross-sectional design and mixed research approach were employed for the study. Yamane's 1967 Formula helped get respondents, where 127 respondents were randomly selected and gathered information. The reason for using Yamane is that the population was known and fixed in a selected study area (Yamen, 1967). The main inference is; village councils are someway efficient in land conflict management. Such status is associated with the challenges the respective organ encounters, including corrupt behaviour of village leaders, low knowledge of land laws, poor land use plans, and poor community involvement in land resource allocation. The Paper has practical, theoretical and policy necessities as it makes a new guide, provides policy inputs and enhanced foundations in land conflict management. To mitigate land conflicts, the Paper recommends that district authority, particularly the management, institute capacity-building strategies to implant knowledge on Land regulations and the law of inheritance to the village council and the community. Land management activities should be fully funded by the central government rather than financed by the lower level of local government, whose financial capacity is scrawny. Lastly, communities need extensive engagement to own the process and conceptualize the constraints associated with the land. In contrast, land laws should be enforced to help people have discipline and respect for the land.
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    Influence of public private partnership framework on improving the quality of education: a case of primary schools in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Community Development, 2023-09-12) Paul, Paulin
    The extent to which Public Private Partnership (PPP) model has improved the quality of primary education in Tanzania is not empirically known. Specifically, this paper aimed atidentifyingroles played by private educational partners and examine the extent towhich the PPP framework has improved the quality of education in Kilimanjaro Region. Thirty primary schools were randomly selected from two strata (16 with PPP and 14 without PPP schools).A total of 60 teachers and 240 pupils were randomly selected and data were collected through structured questionnaires, key informant interviews and observation. Difference-in-difference (DiD) and t-test were run to examine the influence of PPP roles in improving the quality of education. Renovation and construction of classrooms and connection of water sources within school compounds had significant influence of improving quality of primary education at p ≤ 0.05. Schools with PPP were found to have better academic performance with mean score of 14.6 points compared to non-PPP schools (8.9 points). It is concluded that PPP schools stand a better chance to improving the quality of primary education than non-PPP schools. It is recommended that; local governments and schools’ administration should collaborate adopt the PPP model to improve the quality of educatio
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    Income linkage as an aspect of power relations among chain actors in the groundnuts seed value chain in Kongwa and Kiteto districts, Tanzania
    (TAJOCODE, 2023-06-09) Mulokozi, Gibson G.; Massawe, Goodluck D.; Mwololo, James
    This study aims at addressing limited knowledge on income linkages and power dynamics within the groundnuts seed value chain. The study population comprised members from three clusters: research institutes, village and district authority level, including innovation platform members in Kiteto and Kongwa Districts. Primary data was collected through focus group discussions and interviews, while secondary data was obtained from records relating to the groundnut crop and its value chain. Four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) (two in Mlali Village-Kongwa District and two in Kiteto District) with a total of 48 purposively selected respondents participated in the discussions. Key informants were also selected using a purposive sampling technique to obtain a range of cases with relevant knowledge of the groundnut seed value chain. Social network data on income linkages among actors was analysed using the UCINET statistical software package integrated with the NETDRAW program to determine centrality measures and the level of influence and importance among chain actors. Qualitative data from semi-structured interviews were also analysed through content analysis involving breaking, comparing, and categorizing to complement the social network data. The study revealed that farmers and middlemen had the highest relative normalized betweenness compared to other actors in both district and village levels, indicating that they are powerful due to their importance in the value chain setup. The study concluded that there is a need to ensure inclusive and improved income linkages both vertically and horizontally with other actors for stable and functional groundnuts seed value chain
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    Perception and attitude of community members on psychotic disorders in Temeke district, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Community Development, 2023-06-09) Paul, Diyammi Mark
    The present research project aimed at examining the discernment of the public regarding psychotic illnesses in the Temeke area, Tanzania. The following questions were answered by the findings of the study. What are the community members‟ perceptions of psychotic disorders? What are the community members‟ attitudes to people suffering from psychotic disorders? Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used simultaneously. It was a descriptive study that collected information from neighbors of the selected people with psychotic disorders in this area for the investigation. In the course of the research undertaking, eighty mentally ill people were purposively designated from the psychiatric clinic of the Temeke Hospital in 2020. Two neighbors emanating from all experimented patients were purposively selected from distinct households to take part in the study as main informers. Hence, the study had 160 respondents. Through data obtained via questionnaires and interviews, the study noted that community members had negative perceptions and attitudes towards psychotic disorders. Generally, they could see psychosis as a humiliating sickness, a sign of failure in life. They believed psychosis was caused by witchcraft and therefore, they could not maintain close relations with the patients. There is a need to educating community members on facts about psychotic disorders to increase their awareness and improve their perception and attitude towards people with psychotic challenges.
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    Towards food security in semi-arid regions: the role of small-scale food processing industries in Dodoma city, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Community Development, 2022-10-05) Mtenga, Deodata V.; Ripanda, Asha S.
    The power of small-scale food processing industries is based on their ability to improve food security by ensuring availability throughout the year. This study used primary and secondary data to obtain information on small-scale food processing industries in semi-arid regions of Tanzania and associated implications for improving food security. About 30 food processors and 6 key informants were available to answer interview questions. It was revealed that men dominated food-processing industries by 93.3%. In addition, food processors comprised medium, small and micro-scale food processors by 20%, 29.23% and 50.7%, respectively. However, the food processing industry faces many challenges such as inadequate funding, stringent government rules and rigid bureaucratic procedures, shortage of raw materials, poor technology and unreliable electric power supply. Supporting the improvement of food processing industries in Dodoma will aid in decreasing post-harvest losses by increasing the shelf life of the agricultural product. In turn, the support will help in overcoming food insecurity in the area. Therefore, it is recommended that the government should provide more support to the food processors to enable them to overcome the challenges for improved livelihood.
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    Designing disaster risk reduction strategies in Zimbabwe: perceptions of Mhondoro-Ngezi rural communities
    (Tanzania Journal of Community Development, 2022-11-09) Ngwaru, Farai
    This paper highlights the opinions of Mhondoro-Ngezi rural communities regarding designing disaster risk reduction strategies. The study was conducted in a rural community of Zimbabwe. A random sample of 192 participants from a district population of 102, 342 took part in the study. A purposive sample of 6 key informants was selected for interviews. Three focus group discussions from 24 respondents were purposively selected. Results showed that there are important factors and procedures that should be considered when designing disaster risk reduction strategies. Benefits of the strategies to the people and its feasibility were considered important. The study recommends that the government should invest in resources mainly for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) activities to build community resilience for current and frequent risks. Communities should be assisted by government in their effort to use homegrown approaches to disaster risk reduction. The study would help rural disaster risk reduction stakeholders, planners and decision makers to make informed decisions and policies in designing disaster risk reduction strategies to improve community well-being. More importantly, it will add more on the existing body of knowledge regarding issues to do with disaster risk reduction strategies.
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    Factors influencing smallholder farmers to participate in farmer-led research of agro-ecological practices in selected areas, Tanzania
    (Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, 2021-09-23) Kihoma, Luambano; Churi, Ayubu J.; Sanga, Camilius A.; Tisselli, Eugenio
    Declining crop productivity is a great challenge facing smallholder farmers in Tanzania. Agro-ecological practices can improve crop productivity in a sustainable way and produce healthy food among smallholder farmers. Initiation of “Farmer-Led Research of Agro-Ecological Practices” (FLRAG) may enhance farmers’ capacities for innovation and co-develop suitable agro-ecological practices. This study aimed at identifying factors influencing smallholder farmers to participate in FLRAG. A cross- sectional survey was used to collect qualitative and quantitative data from 90 smallholder farmers in Mvomero, Bagamoyo and Masasi districts in Tanzania. Data were also collected from key informants who were extension officers. The study identified that experience in farming, easiness in accessing agro-ecological inputs, interest in doing experiments and farm size ownership are the factors that substantially influence smallholder farmers to participate in FLRAG. Therefore, researchers are advised to select participants of FLRAG by considering the mentioned factors. Furthermore, farmers selected to participate in FLRAG are advised to the use of ugunduzi app” that was developed purposefully to enhance agro-ecological research in order to test and understand its potential on smoothing agro- ecological research activities.
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    The effects of socio-demographic factors on agricultural production and marketing in Ludewa district, Njombe - Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Community Development, 2021-11-04) Mbise, Mirau
    Crops’ production and marketing in Tanzania are affected by socio- demographic factors. However, such factors have been given little attention. Thus, this study assesses the relationship between socio- demographic factors and maize production and marketing in Ludewa district. The Solow growth model, which guides the study, indicates that among other economic growth determinants, socio-demographic factors are important. A two-stage sampling mechanism was employed to obtain a sample of 427 farmers. In the first stage, study area was purposively selected and in the second stage, farmers were selected through simple random sampling procedures. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the sampled farmers. Checklists were used to collect information from focus group discussions and key respondents. Findings from descriptive analysis reveals that age, sex, and education level significantly influence the size of land grown with maize, while the farming experience influences maize output. Furthermore, the results reveal that age, sex, marital status, and education level significantly influenced marketing participation. The study recommends enhancement of socio- demographic factors for high quality human capital resources.
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    Determinants of choices of the Income Generating Activities among Youths beneficiaries of Youth Development Fund in Morogoro Municipality and Mvomero District in Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Community Development, 2021-08-25) John, Regina; Mattee, Amon Z.; Nyamba, Siwel Y.
    Being guided by the theory of reasoned action, this study sought to investigate factors that determined the choices of income- generating activities among youth beneficiaries of Youth Development Fund in Morogoro Municipality and Mvomero District Councils. The study employed cross-section designs where 200 respondents were involved. Multistage sampling techniques and simple random techniques were used to select the respondents involved in the study. Data were collected through questionnaires and interview schedules, and they were analysed through descriptive statistics and the Multinomial regression model. The findings show that factors that have influenced the choice of youth income generating activities among the youth include: attitudes, family, and friends support, customers and market availability, availability of skilled labour, low competition from a similar business, skills possession, and cooperation from others. However, these findings show that the factors did not influence all categories of choices and therefore the study recommends that the ministry responsible for youth should ensure that there is enough awareness created for youth on how the Community Development Department can make their business perform better. This should include training on how youth can have a proper choice by considering factors such as attitude, significant others, and skills possession.
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    The determinants of the performance of health facility governing committees (HFGC) in selected primary health facilities in Tanzania
    (TAJOCODE and CODEPATA, 2021) Kesale, Anosisye; Mahonge, Christopher; Mikidadi, Muhanga
    Lower and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) implement fiscal decentralization through Direct Health Facility Financing (DHFF) to empower Health Facility Governing Committees (HFGCs). The measure is designed to enable HFGCs to effectively participate in the planning, implementing and controlling health service delivery at primary health facilities. However, it is not empirically known what HFGCs members perceive to be determinants of the performance of these HFGCs under DHFF context. Drawing from community participation and decentralization literature, this study was conducted to assess the determinants of the HFGCs performance under DHFF as perceived by the HFGC members in four selected regions in Tanzania. A cross-sectional research design was employed to collect both qualitative and quantitative data from the four regions. The study has found that availability of finance to the health facility has RII 0.8964 score is ranked 1st important determinant of HFGC performance, followed by clarity of powers and functions with RII 0.8928 score (2nd) and communication between the HFGCs and community has RII 0.8792 score ranked third (3rd). This study concludes that contextual factors significantly influence the performance of HFGCs than HFGC members' characteristics in carrying out their devolved functions. The study recommends working environment for HFGCs to be improved for strengthening HFGCs performance.
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    Communication Management and Stakeholder Satisfaction in Project-Based Organisations: the Case of Research, Community and Organizational Development Associates (RECODA)
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture and Community Development Professionals Association of Tanzania (CODEPATA), 2021-10) Machange, Sia Willy; Fujo, Mwapashua Hamis
    Communication is an important aspect in projects‟ operations. There is still a need for further studies on communications especially in developing countries to reduce number of project failure triggered by poor communication. Using RECODA‟s project as a case study the study aimed at assessing communication management in achieving stakeholder satisfaction in project-based organizations. Randomly selected 120 project stakeholders participated in the study. There was an addition of a5 Key-Informants who participated in the study. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The findings envisage that traditional channels are still highly used in rural-oriented projects. Of the four communication channels used, face-to-face and meetings were rated the most effective modes of communication channels. Physical factors and poor accessibility to mobile gadgets were some of the highly rated barriers to effective communication. Conclusively, the adoption of modern communication channels remains poor in rural-based projects. Ultimately it is recommended that project planners should invest in the communication process for better performance of the project.
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    Health Literacy, Health Behaviour and Healthcare Seeking Behaviour in Rural Settings in Tanzania: Towards a Conceptual Framework
    (ELSEVIER, 2021) Muhanga, Mikidadi I.
    Conceptual framework can serve very useful purposes when it comes to formulating research questions and developing hypotheses. This article presents a conceptual framework from a study conducted in rural settings in Mvomero district in Morogoro, Tanzania. The study assessed health literacy (HL) and its influence on health Behaviour (HB) and health care seeking behaviour (HCSB) as well as attitudes of people under One Health Approach (OHA). This article shares with readers who intend to conduct similar studies focusing on the connection between HL, HB and HCSB on the framework to be employed in studies of those nature. The intention of this article is not to present the whole study, but to share a detailed account of a conceptual framework. This framework is on the connection between HL, HB and HCSB. The framework informs health education and HL interventions; particularly, on ways the interventions can effectively lead to health behavioural change in the context of One Health Approach (OHA). Other studies can be conducted to assess HL in other areas of Tanzania and beyond using this conceptual framework. This analytical framework is vital at this particular moment when the need for educating people to become more health literate is pertinent. It is recommended that the conceptual framework should contextualize to attain additional context specific variables
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    An exploration of rural communities’ response towards joining the Improved community health fund (iCHF): A case of Monduli Juu ward, Tanzania.
    (CODEPATA, 2021) Madodi, Mussa I.; Eliamini, Elifuraha P.; Madaha, Rasel M.
    There are a number of efforts by the Tanzanian Government to promote accessible and equitable health services to deprived rural communities throughout the country. The government, among other things, has been mobilizing various stakeholders to contribute to the provision of health services to poor rural communities through community based health insurance schemes. However, the provision of health services, through health insurance schemes, continues to face poor response from the intended beneficiaries. Using a case of Monduli Juu Ward, this study explored rural communities‟ response towards Joining the improved Community Health Fund (iCHF). The study adopted a mixture of cross- sectional research design and Participatory Action Research (PAR). The collected data were analyzed by using SPSS and content analysis. Overall, the findings show that there are several issues that affect the extent of rural communities‟ response to joining the schemes. Lack of awareness and the prevalence of poverty among households have been proven to gravely block a number of households from joining the scheme. It is recommended that the government and other stakeholders should work closely with poor rural communities to create economic empowerment programs and massive awareness campaigns. The measures will enable the local communities to improve their socio - economic wellbeing as well as to awake them on the benefits they would have obtained by joining the iCHF. Finally, PAR is instrumental in the mobilization of communities for them to own the process.
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    Community based development and the igbo olodumare tourist centre, Okeigbo, ondo state, Nigeria
    (CODEPATA, 2021) YOADE, Adewale Olufunlola; OLADIPUPO, Abiola Stephen; OLAJIDE, Tosin Paul
    The beauty of every tourist centre lies in its embedded facilities that will make the visitors or tourists feel satisfied and comfortable and which may make them in return term such tourist centre “a home away from home”. The study utilized both primary and secondary data. Primary data was sourced using personal observation, oral interview which was directed at the curator of Igbo Olodumare and structured questionnaires which were administered to tourists using purposive sampling. A total number of 85 questionnaires were administered to the tourists and all were retrieved. Majority (57.7%) of the respondents was students, 28.2% of the tourists are civil servants, 9.4% are researchers while the remaining 4.7% are self- employed. Findings suggest that investment in Igbo Olodumare will not only develop Igbo Olodumare village or Okeigbo town but Ondo State at large thereby boosting the economy and providing job opportunities for the unemployed. The main argument of the paper is that if the tourist centre is well developed and properly managed, it will attract tourists and investors from all over the world.
Department of Agricultural Extension and Community Development