Theses and Dissertations Collection

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    Impact of charcoal extraction on the miombo woodlands: The case of Kitulangalo area, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2001) Zahabu, Eliakimu
    1‘liis study was carried out to determine the impact of charcoal extraction to the miombo woodlands of Kitulangalo area, near Morogoro. Tanzania. Both socio­ economic and ecological aspects of charcoal production were studied. While the socio-economic study involved interviewing 50% of charcoal makers in two villages of Gwata-Ujembc and Mascyu. ecological survey was done in Kitulangalo SUA Training Forest Reserve and the adjacent public lands. Systematic sampling design used in an inventory in 1996 was repeated in 1999 in order to determine current stand parameters and the forest change in general, including mean annual volume increment. A total of 46 sample plots were laid out in the forest reserve. In public lands stratified random sampling was applied where a total of 30 plots were laid at an interval of 500 m apart on three and two transects laid perpendicular to the access road and highway respectively at 0 km. 5 km. 10 km and 15 km interval. An average charcoal making household was found to produce 43 bags of charcoal per month. sold at Tshs. 1.000/= (USD 1.25 . 1 USD = Tshs. 800/- in 1999) per bag. The household realizes an income of Tshs. 43.000/= per month which is above the minimum salary rates paid currently to government workers and hence attracts more people to join the business. The kiln efficiencies were observed to range from 17.5% to about 30%. There is therefore a need to explore desirable ways of kiln preparation and carbonization that can improve kiln efficiencies right at the field and not from modern technologies which in most cases are expensive. The mean charcoal kiln efficiency was found to be 23%. Preferred tree species for charcoal making include: Jidhernadia globiflora. Hrachyxteyia boehmii. Tamarindux indica. Acacia nigrexcex. .■I. yerrardii. .1. ndolica. .1. yoetzei xubxp yoelzei. Combretum adenoyonium. C. moHe. C. zeyheri. ('. codinum. IJoxcia xaPtcifolia. Diplorhynchux condylocarpon. Pxeudolachnoxtylix maproiineifolia. Terminalia Dioxpyrox kirkii. Xeroderrix xtuhlmannii. mollix. Pteleopxix myrtifolia. Mimuxopx kummeL Albizia harvey. Lonchocarpux capaxxa and Lannen xchimperi. These species were having standing wood volume of 24.5 nr’ha’1 and 56.5 m’ha'1 in public lands and reserved forest respectively with corresponding basal area of 3.7 irrha’1 and 7.2 irrha’1 suggesting low biomass in public lands compared to reserved forest. Stem numbers were 909 stems ha’1 in public lands and 354 stems ha’1 in forest reserve showing a reversed trend compared to basal area and volume. This indicates more regeneration in public land following disturbance than in the forest reserve. The public lands at roadside are dominated by large trees of Acacia polyacantha. a pioneer tree species which is not preferred for charcoal making due to its hooked thorns and lighter charcoal which breaks easily during transportation. Other un-preferred tree species for charcoal making were Sterculia africana and Adanxonia digitata due to their low density charcoal. The Important Value Index (IVI). indicated that J. globijlora is the most important tree species in both public lands and reserved forest. The species is among the suitable tree species for charcoal making. The Index of Dominance (ID) was 0.092 and 0.065 in public lands and reserved forest respectively, indicating high species richness in forest reserve compared to the public lands. The Shannon-Wiener Index of Divers ity (H) calculated using natural logarithms were 2.9 and 3.13 in public land and reserved forest respectively, also suggesting high species diversity in forest reserve compared to the public lands. Considering a conversion factor of fresh wood volume to wood biomass of 0.85 and kiln efficiency of 23%. the weight of charcoal that can be extracted from the woodland at the roadside is 56 kgs of charcoal, equivalent to only one bag of charcoal per hectare. Similarly 54 bags may be expected al 5 km distance while 125 bags may be extracted from beyond 10 km from the highway. With the established stand growth rate of 2.3 in ’ha‘lyear’1 for the re-growth miombo woodland al Kilulangalo. charcoal production could be sustained al the levels observed at beyond 10 km away from the highway within felling cycles range of 8 to 15 years for degraded forest at 5 km away from the highway and at roadside.
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    The contribution of medicinal and wild food plants to the well-being of rural communities in Lindi rural district. Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2006) Salum, Mandalo Abeid
    A study was undertaken to assess the contribution of medicinal and wild food plants to the well-being of rural communities in Lindi Rural District, Tanzania. Structured and semi structured questionnaires and Participatory Rural Appraisal were used for socio-economic data collection. Systematic sampling design was used for the inventory of medicinal plants. wild food plants and other non-timber forest products. Statistical Package for Social Science Programme (SPSS), pair wise and preference ranking, content and structural methods were used in data analysis. It was found that medicinal and wild food plants contributed about 4% to household food security and 5.5% to household income. The percentage contribution of medicinal and wild food plants to the household food security and income seems to be small probably due to their low monetary value in Lindi. However, the study revealed that 79.7% of people in the study area relied on medicinal plants and SI.7% used wild plant foods. It was concluded that medicinal and wild food plants play a big role to the rural communities in Lindi Rural District but overharvesting of these plants especially the roots could endanger their sustainability in the forests. It is recommended that to ensure their sustainable supply, medicinal and wild food plants be domesticated and restrictions be formulated and enforced to minimize overharvesting of medicinal and wild food plants to enable sustainability of these plants in the forests. It is also recommended that medicinal plants be integrated with the modem health care systems as well as wild plant foods be integrated in the national food security programme. Also efforts should be made to add value to medicinal and wild food plants by developing and disseminating simple appropriate technologies for processing of these products. It was further recommended that more research be carried out on processing, marketing and domestication of these plants.
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    Gender roles in sustainable use and practices of medicinal plants in Urban Districts of Morogoro and Iringa Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture., 2002) Augustino, Suzana
    This study was designed to assess the role played by gender in sustainable use and practices of medicinal plants, in urban districts of Morogoro and Iringa, Tanzania. Data were collected through social survey methods through interviews with herbalists (traditional healers and medicinal plant sellers) and key informants such as Forest extension officers and botanists. A list of medicinal plants given by each informant was compiled. The information gathered included local plant names, type of disease treated, parts of plant used, preparation methods, dosage and other aspects of medicinal plants including practices. The Statistical Package for Social Science Programme (SPSS) including content analysis, chi-square and logistic regression were used in data analysis. The results indicated that out of 246 and 177 medicinal plants recorded in Morogoro and Iringa urban districts respectively, only 108 and 88 were botanically identified. The recorded medicinal plants cure about 72 and 57 diseases and other complications in Morogoro and Iringa urban districts respectively. Male herbalists from the two districts prefer to use roots while female herbalists prefer to use barks. Most male and female herbalists usually harvest parts of medicinal plants outside their districts and traditionally prepare plant medicine using variety of methods like mixture of boiling and grinding. Dosages were not specific for most male and female herbalists and side effects were unknown. Significant differences were observed in the roles played by gender in sustainable use of medicinal plants. Most female than male supported much the idea of training in domestication of medicinal plants or establishment of community based woodlots and involvement in different research on medicinal plants. The medicinal plant practices were found to be gender dependent. While in Morogoro urban District men dominated the practice, in Iringa urban District women were dominant.iii dependent. While in Morogoro urban District men dominated the practice, in Iringa urban District women were dominant. From the results it is concluded that male and female herbalists arc very important people in providing primary health care to the urban societies. However, medicinal plant practices do not always depend on gender but are rather influenced much by social-economic and cultural factors that discourage women to participate fully. In order to integrate medicinal plants practices with the health care system in Tanzania it is recommended to; organize public awareness programmes to all herbalists to improve their understanding in aspects connected with medicinal plants and ensure sustainable use of the resources, sensitize most herbalists to change their altitude, start cooperating and pass their knowledge to young generations to sustain their traditional knowledge. Further studies arc recommended to domesticate the potential medicinal plants in home gardens, determine their efficacy and safe ways of administering medicinal plant.
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    Methods for estimating volume, biomass and tree species diversity using field inventory and airborne laser scanning in the tropical forests of Tanzania.
    (Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 2015) Mauya, Ernest William
    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropical countries have reduced the extent of forest and woodlands, which conserve biodiversity, provide essential resources to people and help in mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration. Forest conservation projects need methods for estimating tree species diversity to effectively generate information necessary for implementing biodiversity management plans, while greenhouse gas reduction programmes such REDD* (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) require robust methods to estimate volume and aboveground biomass (AGB). Such methods are also needed in the context of general forest management planning. The four papers included in this thesis are aimed to test and evaluate methods for estimating volume. AGB. and tree species diversity using field and remotely sensed data in the tropical forests and woodlands of Tanzania. In paper 1. tree models for estimating total, merchantable stem, and branch volume applicable for the entire miombo woodlands of Tanzania were developed. In Paper II. Ill. and IV the potential of airborne laser scanning (AI.S) data for predicting AGB and measures of tree species diversity was tested and evaluated. The results have shown that ALS data can be used for predicting AGB with reasonable accuracy by using both parametric and nonparametric approaches. Effects of plot size on the AGB estimates were investigated and the results indicated that the prediction accuracy of AGB in ALS-assisted inventories improved as the plot size increased. Finally, the results showed that measures of tree species diversity and particularly tree species richness and Shannon diversity index, can potentially be predicted by using ALS data.
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    The Eastern arc mountain forests of Tanzania: Their role in biodiversity, wateresource conservation, and net contribution to atmospheric carbon.
    (North Carolina State University, 2001) Pantaleo, Munishi K. T.
    Mountain forests play major ecological and environmental roles. This study evaluated the roles of the Eastern Arc Mountain forests of Tanzania in conservation of biodiversity, water resources, and net contribution to atmospheric carbon. The major objectives were three-fold: (1) the classification and description of plant community composition, diversity patterns, and their environmental correlates, (2) assessment of biomass and carbon pool in the phytomass and soils, (3) assessment of rainfall interception throughfall, stemflow, streamflow, and their correlation with rainfall. Data on vegetation, topography, soils, and hydrology were collected from the Usambara and Uluguru ranges. Using cluster analyses, Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMS) ordination, and indicator species analyses, five different plant communities were identified on each range. These communities were associated with two topographic and fourteen edaphic factors. Elevation was the strongest correlate of community composition in individual ranges, followed by several edaphic factors. Landform index and soil sodium concentration [Na] play major roles in separating plant communities between different mountain ranges. The proportions of rare species were high raising a conservation concern as to whether this is evidence of species’ declines or a biological characteristic. The forests have tremendous capacity for C storage both in the phytomass (517 ± 17 t ha’1 in the Usambaras and 384 ± 10 t ha’1 in the Ulugurus), and in the soil (420 ± 100 t ha’1 in the Usambaras and 290 ± 53 t ha’1 in the Ulugurus). Phytomass C was higher in mid elevation communities while high elevation communities had higher soil carbon, and total carbon. Rainfall interception was 23% in the Usambaras and 20% in the Ulugurus. Throughfall was more than 76% in both forests and stemflow was less than 2%. Streamflow was best modeled using three or more months running mean rainfall. The results suggest that plant community patterns in the Eastern Arc are associated with a complex of topographic and edaphic factors. This complex of factors is an important consideration in restoration and conservation programs. Attention to rare species is especially important. The forests havesubstantial capacity for carbon emission mitigation. The slow response in streamflow to rainfall events shows the efficiency of the forests to store water, mitigate storm water impacts by reducing runoff, delaying onset of peak flows, and ensuring constant water supplies.
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    Management tools and potential of dry Miombo woodland in carbon cycling: the case of Gangalamtumba village land forest reserve in Iringa, Tanzania
    (University of Copenhagen, 2014-09-15) Mwakalukwa, Ezekiel Edward
    Tools to support sustainable management of dry Miombo woodlands and precise assessment of carbon storage and sequestration potential are in most cases lacking in Tanzania. Accordingly, using Gangalamtumba Village Land Forest Reserve as a case study area located in Iringa region, this thesis aims to develop management tools and generate information that will enhance our understanding of the actual and potential contribution of dry Miombo woodlands in carbon cycling. This is done through a detailed assessment of floristic composition, structure, species associations and through development of models for wood basic density, volume, biomass and growth. The overall research objective was thus to enhance the basis for good woodland management planning including exploring the extent to which dry Miombo woodlands in Tanzania store and sequester C from the atmosphere. Correct identification of 88 plant woody species belonging to 29 families assisted the selection of a total of 44 important species of trees (28) and shrubs (16). These species were harvested for the determination of basic wood density values and to develop wood basic density models for specific species and for groups of species, namely trees, shrubs and combined. Aboveground volume and biomass models for specific species and species groups were also developed. Growth models of the important species, Brachystegia spiciformis Benth. as influenced by three external factors; rainfall, soil fertility, and competition were also developed to assist planning of sustainable harvesting levels. Finally, an application of data on forest structure, wood basic densities for trees and shrubs, and the developed models describing aboveground biomass and growth were used in assessing C stocks and sequestration potential of the woodland based on selected scenarios. Generally, the models appear robust and can thus be used in planning sustainable management of the woodlands. The developed models estimate that the dry Miombo woodland of Gangalamtumba Village Land Forest Reserve stores substantial amounts of C; 68.64 Mg C ha'1 both in above- and below-ground soil carbon pools. Assuming that other species’ production are equal to B. spiciformis, which is the most dominant species in the study area, the estimated C sequestration potential of the dry Miombo woodlands was found to vary from 0.42 ± 0.03 Mg C ha" ’year'1 to 1.39 ± 0.08 Mg C ha^year'1, depending on scenario. Considering the vast areas covered by dry Miombo woodlands, sustainable management of this vegetation type clearly holds potential in preventing emissions of large amounts of C currently locked up in this ecosystem.
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    Basic density and some strength properties of pinus caribaea, pinus kesiya and pinus oocarpa grown in Katugo, Uganda
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture., 1998) Odokonyero, Geoffrey
    Basic density variations in and six 25-y-old properties strength three Pinus and their grown species in Katugo, Uganda were investigated. Six trees in each of Pinus caribaea and Pinus oocarpa and three in Pinus kesiya were selected, felled, billeted and test samples prepared according to standard methods. 3 diameter classes, each of the three species, 3 In axial positions and 4 radial positions (3 for basic density) were sampled. Basic density was determined by water displacement method. Tests of various strength properties were done in accordance with standard procedures. The data were analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) software. Results showed: The overall mean wood properties values were as follows: Basic density was 424.33, 431.37 and 444.37 kg/m3; Modulus of rupture was 54.51, 55.31 and 60.69 M/mm2; elasticity was Modulus of 3590.51, maximum load was M/mm2; 3752.240.033, and 3325.37 0.099 and 0.101 mmM/mm3; Maximum compression strength. was 33.33, 33.33 and 34.66 1'1/mm2; Maximum surencrtc. was 9-30 and 10.37 M/mm- and Cleavage was 11.79, 12.1c and 12.43 M/mm in camoasa.,- arciii Wood strength properties values determined were within range with properties of Pines grown in Kenya and Tanzania. Research findings suggest the possibilities for expanding investigated.the use the of three species The inner wood can be used for non- structural applications and the outer for structural purposes. There were no significant differences in all wood properties between the three species. Between trees statistically variation significant in wood in properties all the were species, indicating the potential of improving wood quality through selection. Growth rate had no significant difference on wood properties. Wood properties studied decreased significantly from stump upwards the stem and increased from pith outwards in the three species studied. Strength properties of the three Pinus species were strongly correlated to basic density
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    Fungal diseases of trees in Tanzania with emphasis on the stem decay of the East African camphor tree, Ocotea usambarensis Engl.
    (Agricultural University of Norway, 1996) Nsolomo, Vincent R.
    This study presents the current situation and gives a background on forest disease research and knowledge in Tanzania. Some important disease epidemics are discussed and known fungi causing diseases to indigenous and exotic tree species have been tabulated to show the hosts, the pathogens and the pans of the host affected. The review on the disease situation also provides some information on the stem decay of Ocotea usambarensis, which is reported in detail under the current study. The stem decay of O. usambarensis has been studied in the Usambara and Kilimanjaro mountain rain forests and causative fungi isolated from standing trees and identified. The decay, characterized by butt rot and main stem decay, and which may attack both the heart wood and sapwood, has been diagnosed basing on the Koch’s postulates. The symptoms, signs, infection courts and the ways by which the decay is transmitted from mother trees to young regeneration are also reported. Trees of all age classes and size are susceptible to the stem decay regardless of whether they have developed heartwood or not. Also, sporophores of 14 larger fungi from the families Hymenochaetaceae, Polyporaceae, Ganodermataceae, Schizophylaceae, Corticiaceae and Xylariaceae were collected from various wood material of the tree species. 72 species of fungi were isolated from decay of standing trees, 12 of which were basidiomycetes and 60 were non-basidiomycctes. It was found that the decay is attributed to a number of fungi which infect and colonize the tree through a series of succession stages defined by the niches available in the decaying stems and by the roles of the fungi in such niches. Pioneering fungi of living sapwood were dominated by parasitic and facultative species which include Ophiostoma spp, Ceratocystis spp, Botryosphaeria ribis, Cylindrocarpon destructions, Cylindrodendrum album, Pestalotiopsis sp, Nodulisporium sp, Leptodontidium sp, some basidiomycetes and other fungi which could not be properly grouped because they had sterile mycelium among which was an important pathogenic fungus known here as ‘Sterile mycelium sp 3’. Possible pioneering fungi of the heartwood were the Alternaria sp, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Phoma sp (Coniothyriuni insigne), Penicillium spp and other unidentified conidial species. The secondary and climax fungi were dominated by basidiomycetes including Phellinus senex, and other conidial and sterile mycelium species. Phellinus senex, which has been widely reported earlier as a primary decay fungus of O. usambarensis, participates in the decay and becomes part of the decay-climax flora of the tree. However, it is not a primary decayer because it can not infect sapwood or heartwood which is un colonized by other fungi. Some selected fungi were used in pathogenicity tests and inoculated in sapwood and heartwood of healthy trees. The rate of infection of some fungi was variably affected by the moisture content and pH of the sapwood. Determination of the decay ability of some fungi was also conducted in vitro using wood blocks of O.usambarensis, and the fungi were also tested for the possession of phenoloxidase enzymes that can degrade gallic acid, tannic acid or lignin. Basidiomycetes were the most aggressive in terms of the rate and magnitude of decay but some non- basidiomycetes were also able to degrade the wood significantly. About 70% of the fungi tested possessed enzymes capable of degrading lignin which means they are white rot fungi. As most of these fungi have pH optima similar to that in the trees, this shows they function optimally in the stems and hence explains the formation of hollow stems in decay-affected trees. Factors which may affect fungal growth and their ability to cause decay in standing trees, such as temperature, pH and oxygen stress were evaluated in culture. It was found that environmental temperature and the pH in trees favour the growth of tire fungi, while oxygen stress seems to act as a factor imposing a selection pressure on fungi during succession by favouring tolerant species. Most fungi are mesophilic and the optimum temperature for most of them was within the average found in the forest environment, while their optimum pH was similar to that found in trees. It was also argued that the ability of Phellinus senex to tolerate anaerobic conditions was a major factor making it the main climax species of the decay and which later fruitify on standing trees with heartrot or butt rot. Comparing the flora of fungi attacking trees in the Usambara and Kilimanjaro forests, trees in the Usambara are infected by relatively more fungi. This is likely due to the climatic and edaphic conditions which are less optimal in the Usambara and hence predispose the trees to infection.
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    Bark-stripping and food habits of blue monkeys in a forest plantation on mount Meru, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 1989-04) Maganga, Samwel L.S.
    Bark-stripping of Cupressus lusitanica (cypress) and Pinus patula (pine) by blue monkeys (Cercopethicus mitis kibonotensis) in Meru Forest Plantations has been a problem since they were established in the early 1950s. This study was conducted in 1987 in the Sokoine University of Agriculture Training Forest, a portion of the Meru Forest Plantations, to determine the magnitude of bark-stripping in relation to the food habits of blue monkeys. The extent, intensity and effects of bark damage were assessed in compartments with trees 3 to 14 years old, and the pattern of debarking was monitored throughout the year. On the average, 79.5 % cypress and 88.7% pine trees were debarked. Blue monkeys preferred dominant cypress trees to intermediate trees. In contrast, intermediate pine trees were more damaged than dominant trees. trees were least damaged. In both species, suppressed In all types of trees, the most severe bark damage occurred at the middle and top of the tree trunks. Twisted bole was the most common defect developed by damaged trees; 34% cypress and 38% pine trees were twisted at the middle and top sections. Bark-stripping was low in the rain season and increased in the dry season peaking at 22% of trees damaged in June and July. • The food habits data were collected from the indigenous forest at two sites within the plantation. plant species were eaten by blue monkeys. A total of 38 Fruits were theiv most frequently consumed food item and averaged 76% of the monthly feeding records. Leaves were the next important food item but they were inversely related to the feeding on fruits. The other food items (flowers, shoots, petioles and bark) were similarly inversely related to the feeding on fruits. Bark­ stripping was negatively correlated to the feeding on fruits, and thus increased when the feeding on fruits declined. Fruits of Ficus thonninqii were the prime item in the diet of blue monkeys contributing 50 to 60% of the monthly feeding records. The amount of fruit on these trees in the area was also inversely related to extent of bark damage in the plantation. The water and carbohydrate in the bark of cypress and pine trees was determined to examine if they influenced the bark-stripping. These were poorly correlated to the monthly debarking of both tree species.
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    Assessment of productivity and costs of three wheeled loader: case study of Sao Hill forest plantation - Mufindi Iringa, Tanzania.
    (Sokoine University of agriculture, 2021) Kaniki, Edson Dennis
    In recent years logging operations are either semi-mechanized or full mechanized. This has emerged due to shortage of labour in logging operations and the presence of new technology which simplifies work and increases productivity. Loading equipment such as three-wheel loaders have been used in logging operations in Tanzania but their productivity and costs are not documented. This study was done at Sao Hill Forest Plantations to determine productivity and costs of three wheel loaders used in loading operations. The study focused on determination of total time taken for the whole operation of the loader, the production rates of the loader, fuel consumption rate and unit costs of the three wheeled loader. Purposive sampling technique was used in making 244 observations. Primary data were collected by the use of snap-back time study. Secondary data were collected through interviews, office records and reading published journals and articles. The findings indicated that total average time taken for the loading operation was 1.56 minutes while total average productive time was 1.33 minutes. Production rate of the three wheeled loader was estimated to 59.71 m 3 /h when only necessary delays were considered and 43.03 m 3 /h when all delays were considered. This showed that the loader had high production rates but omission of unnecessary delays increases productivity. Fuel consumption rate was estimated to be 0.0027 litres/min which was very economical in comparisons to other loading equipment. Total cost of using the three wheeled loader was estimated to 21 153 000.00 TZS/year hence the unit cost of production was 10 922.01 TZS/m 3 when all delays were considered and 7 872.30 TZS/m 3 when only necessary delays were considered. This illustrated that unit costs of production reduces when unnecessary delays were omitted. It was concluded that the three wheeled loader has high loading production rates and reasonable unit costs of production.iii DECLARATION I, Edson Dennis Kaniki, do hereby declare to SENATE of Soko
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    Tropical rainforest deforestation, biodiversity benefits and sustainable landuse: analysis of economic and ecological aspects related to the Nguru mountains, Tanzania.
    (Agricultural University of Norway, 1995) Monela, Gerald C.
    The purpose of this report is to identify the main landuse and landuse problems with reference to agriculture and forestry in the Nguru mountains, and the main factors causing these problems, and analyze ways to reduce them in order to prevent forest degradation and deforestation. Based on data collected in villages in the Nguru mountains using interviews, field observations, and secondary sources it seems that ecological and socio-economic factors have played an important role in shaping the existing landuse practices, landuse problems and factors causing landuse problems in the Nguru mountains. The major landuses are agriculture and forestry. The agriculture is dependent on rainfall, growing mainly subsistence food crops using traditional farming practices. Forestry is for water conservation but also supplies local communities with both timber and nontimber forest products. Relative to other landuses such as settlements and grazing, agriculture and forestry have contributed most to the prevailing landuse conflicts in the Nguru mountains. The main landuse problems in the Nguru mountains are: deforestation pressure through encroachment for agriculture and settlements, forest degradation through excessive forest product exploitation, frequent and uncontrolled bush fires, land degradation and soil erosion, declining crop harvests, squatters inside the Forest Reserve, farming in the buffer zone around the rainforest and non-adherence to forest control measures. The impact of these landuse problems on the rainforest have been more severe on lowland rainforests where high rates of rainforest conversion to agriculture and other landuses were observed. These landuse problems are a consequence of many interrelated factors acting as local agents or beyond local boundaries. These factors are caused by complex processes resulting from human social dynamics. From survey results in the area these factors range from social, economic, cultural and political forces which are related to each other in multilineal causal chains. The main ones are: growing population, land scarcity, search for market goods, increased domestic demand for food and forest products, poverty, lack of knowledge, lack of an effective extension service, market failures such as breakdown of traditional management systems due to commercialization of demand for resources, government failures such as inefficient government policies, risks and uncertainty in farming (pests, diseases and vagaries of climate) insecure land rights under customary land tenure system, traditional or cultural barriers, conflicting objectives between land users, failure to control protected areas such as Forest Reserves and decline in forest product supply and lack of income from outside agriculture and forestry. It seems the government has not been able to control landuse problems through policy measures or coercion. Also the market has not been able to do so, due to its failure to provide negative feedback loops to check landuse problems. Widespread market and government failures largely account for this situation since, they provide incentive for poor landuse practices. Rural poverty and efforts to adapt to economic hardships at the local level have a significant influence on landuse problems. Vaguely defined, unequitable and uncertain land tenure conditions, lack of knowledge and traditional barriers have added a complicating dimension to landuse problems. The poor local people, the direct agents of degradation and deforestation pressure, have been made to rely on unreliable access to credit markets due to the absence of guarantees (collateral), caused by lack or uncertainty of tenure. The effect has been to increase landuse problems. Since the welfare and survival of the local people in the Nguru mountains, are inextricably linked with agriculture and the environment, they must improve current landuse practices, in order to come to terms with the reality of resource limitation and carrying capacity of their ecosystem. Wise management of land and forest resources requires appropriate landuse practices, to alleviate landuse problems in order to improve the standard of living and preserve the biological systems, especially the tropical rainforest upon which they depend. The strategy recommended requires landuse planning for efficient use of resources and integrated planning to harmonize conflict between land uses. Other measures include family planning to control population growth, education to enhance change of attitude on resource use, by overcoming communication breakdown between resources users and protectors through direct dialogue and community involvement, giving some specific rights to property in reserved forests, and benefits to villagers to meet their needs while protecting the resources, improving traditional landuse systems and traditional knowledge, incorporating agroforestry in farming systems, removal of institutional barriers to wise landuse by government through appropriate policy changes, and improvement of rainforest management methods to enhance forest protection.
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    Growth performance, water use and wood properties of Eucalypt clones in Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2015) Pima, Nancy Eliud
    This study was conducted to determine growth performance, water use and wood properties of Eucalypt clones in Tanzania. Eucalypt clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. camaldulensis (GC), E. grandis x E. urophylla (GU), E. grandis x E. tereticornis (GT) growing in Lushoto, Kwamarukanga, Kibaha and Tabora sites were studied. Growth performance, water use and wood properties data were collected at the age of 8 to 10 years. Data on growth performance were analysed using SAS Software and subjected to ANOVA using treatment means. Water use data were analysed using sap flow tool software. Wood properties data were analysed using SAS Software and subjected to ANOVA using treatment means. Significant clones’ means were separated using Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Results revealed significant (p<0.05) difference in survival, Dbh, height, basal area, volume and biomass between clones. Significant (p<0.05) difference in water use was observed between clones. Results revealed that GC167, GC15 and GC940 had average water uses of 14, 7 and 5 L day -1 respectively in wet season and 11, 9 and 8 L day -1 respectively in dry season. Significant (p<0.05) differences in fibre length, modulus of elasticity and shear strength were observed between clones from all sites. No significant differences between clones were observed in wood density, modulus of rupture, compression and cleavage strength. The study concludes that some Eucalypt clones showed good survival, growth, basal area, volume and biomass in respective sites. Wood properties for the studied clones meet the minimum requirements needed for pulp and paper production, fuel wood and for structural applications. This study recommended the following clones, GC 581, GC 584 and GU 608 for Lushoto, GC 15, GC 167 and GC 940 for Kibaha, GC 514, GT 529 and GC 940 for Kwamarukanga and GC 15, GC 584 and GC 940 for Tabora site to be considered for planting in areas with climatic conditions similar to the sites where they were tested. The clones should be considered as sources of raw material for pulp and paper production, charcoal, timber for furniture and for structural applications.
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    Selected wood properties of two lesser known and lesser utilized indigenous agro forestry species from Kilosa district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2015) Kayumba, Isaac
    This study was conducted to determine basic density, fibre length and some strength properties of Lonchocarpus capassa and Combretum zeyheri suitable for growing under agroforestry systems in Kilosa district. A total of three 13 year old trees from each species were sampled in Rudewa Gongoni village for the study. Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) and height of each tree were measured. The trees were then felled and cut into logs. Each log was cross cut into three 1.5 m billets representing the butt, middle and the top. The billets were sawn into small scantlings from which small specimens for determination of selected properties were taken. Standard methods were employed in determining the selected properties of the two species. Basic density was determined using water displacement method while fibre length was measured using a microprojector. Strength properties were determined using a Monsanto Tensiometer wood-testing machine. Results showed that basic density of L. capassa and C. zeyheri was 569.3 and 580 kgm-3 respectively. The basic density of the two species did not differ significantly (p<0.05). The mean fibre length of L. capassa was 1.38 mm and was significantly (p<0.0001) longer than that of C. zeyheri which was 1.2 mm. Results further showed that there was highly significant (p<0.0001) difference in modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus rupture (MOR), shear, compressive and cleavage strength between the two species. MOE, MOR, compression and cleavage strength values of L. capassa are similar to those of Pterocarpus angolensis and Juniperus procera. Hence, L. capassa can be used in furniture especially in the place of the well known species whereas basing on its density, MOE and MOR, C. zeyheri can be used for construction purposes. Further research on hardness, impact bending strength, natural durability and treatability with preservatives, finishing and working properties of these two species is recommended.
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    Role of non-timber forest products in climate change adaptation by forest dependent communities in Kilolo district, Iringa, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2013) Msalilwa, Upendo
    A study to assess the role of Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was conducted to forest dependent communities around New Dabaga -Ulongambi Forest Reserve (NDUFR) in Kilolo District as a strategy to cope with the impacts of climate change. Data were collected through household questionnaires, PRA techniques, transect walk and direct field observations. Climatic data mainly rainfall and temperature for the last 30 years were obtained from Nduli Airport weather station. Data collected through PRA tools were analysed with the help of communities and the results communicated back to local communities for rectification. The CRiSTAL 3.0 was used to synthesize information from focus group discussion on the link between climate change, NTFPs and livelihoods. Household interviews data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Logistic regression model was used to ascertain the relationships existing between the local peoples’ perception on the impacts of climate change and socio-economic factors. A total of 107 plant species were identified to be harvested by residents around NDUFR as NTFPs. The majority of the respondents (81%) perceived that there has been a change in the climate pattern due to increased temperatures and unpredictable rainfalls. The local peoples’ perceptions on temperature and rainfall patterns were in line with the available climatic data records. Agriculture was found to be the most affected livelihood activity by climate change around NDUFR. Communities living around NDUFR were found to use more than one strategy to cope with the adverse effects of climate change. About 43% of the respondents admitted to use NTFPs for subsistence and source of income as a climate change coping strategy. The study concluded that NTFPs still play a safety net role to assist communities in adverse situation such as crop failure under the current change in climate. The need to emphasis sustainable harvesting, improve processing and access to NTFPs markets is crucial.
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    DIssemination and adoption status of agroforestry practices in Mufindi district, Iringa region, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2008) Mgeni, Habib Wallace
    The current study was carried out during September 2006 to March 2007 in six villages namely Sawala, Kisada, Ikongosi, Sao-Hill, Ihowanza and Igomaa in Mufindi District, Iringa Region, Tanzania. The objective of the study was to determine the extent of dissemination and adoption of Agroforestry by the local communities and indicate the mechanism of scaling up its performance. Specifically it checked on the current status of dissemination and adoption of agroforestry practices, identified Agroforestry systems, technologies, and woody perennials preferred by farmers, determined factors influencing adoption of Agroforestry systems, technologies and find out corrective measures required for improving their adoption by the local communities. The methods used include reconnaissance, social surveys using questionnaires on the household heads and checklists of probe questions on Government and NGOs officials at the various levels from village to the Regional. Data collected was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel Program (MEP). The results showed that the adoption status of Agroforestry in the district was 65%, although most of the people adopted during the latter 16 years. The main agents that spearheaded the dissemination process included CONCERN, HIMA and various government extension agents. The most adopted agroforestry systems are Agrosilviculture and Agrosilvopasture, with Taungya, Mixed intercropping, and Homegarden being the most widely adopted technologies. Woody perennials species that people currently have shown to prefer are Eucalyptus and Pines. Insufficiend provision of germplasm, land scarcity and limited knowledge indicated to be the main factors limiting dissemination and adoption of Agroforestry in Mufindi District. Based on the results and subsequent discussion it clear that although encouraging the adoption rate of Agroforestry in the district is still low. The study therefore recommends that the Government should continue with a stepped up provisioniii of the needed germplasm and propagation materials, farmers need encouragement in establishing their own nurseries, awareness creation especially in relation to inclusion of fertility improving and food producing trees and shrubs be stepped up, further research on the currently unclarified issues and dissemination of available knowledge should be scaled up by both the government and non governmental organisations.
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    Comparison of productivity, cost and energy expenditure when sawing on pitsawing and portable platforms In agroforestry farms in Kilimanjaro
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2011) Rurangwa, Felix Anvers
    Although future increase in timber supply in many countries is expected to come from agroforestry, the problem of on farm timber sawing, physical strain on sawyers caused by “Pitsawing” has to be addressed, to increase timber sawing productivity. This study was aimed at analyzing the productivity and energy expenditure by sawyers when using Traditional Pitsawing Platforms (PSP) and Portable Steel Log Sawing Platforms (PLSP) in agroforestry farms in Kiruweni and Nduweni villages in South Kilimanjaro. Pitsawing productivity data was obtained using time studies of the pitsawing operations on the respective platforms and data on energy expenditure was obtained through heart rate measurements using heart rate monitor. Results indicated that the site preparation production rate, using PSP, was 0.1m 3 /h and the structure assembling production rate, using PLSP, was 2.9m 3 /h. The skidding production rate, using PSP, was 3.5m 3 /h and the production rate, using PLSP, was 11.9m 3 /h. Loading productivity improved from 4.97m 3 /h, using PSP, to 7.27m 3 /h, using PLSP. Productivity of sawing work element improved from 0.055m 3 /h, using PSP, to 0.057m 3 /h, using PLSP. In sawing, Energy Expenditure (EE) was 12.69kJ/min and 12.4 kJ/min using PSP and PLSP respectively. During pit excavation/structure assembling, EE was 14.05kJ/min, using PSP, and 2.61kJ/min using PLSP. The physical workload was classified as unduly heavy for PSP and light for PLSP. For the skidding work element, the EE decreased from 5.88kJ/min, using PLSP to 4.48kJ/min, using PSP. For the loading work element, the EE was decreased from 5.20kJ/min, using PSP to 3.55kJ/min, using PLSP. The sawing cost was TAS 205 320/m 3 , using PSP and TAS165 350/m 3 , using PLSP. In conclusion, PLSP is a technically more appropriate technology for reducing EE and sawing costs as well as increasing productivity during timber harvesting in agroforestry farms.
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    Forest resource use conflicts as a consequence of pseudo- devolution of power: a case study of Pugu and Kazimzumbwi forest reserves, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2009) Shabani, Zainabu
    The Pugu and Kazimzumbwi forest reserves are among the 83 lowland coastal forests in Tanzania. The decentralization of these reserves can be called pseudo-devolution, because system does not allow for full participation of local government and villagers. This study intended to asses the devolution of power in historical perspective and the factors underlying it; identify types of forest resource use conflicts exist and factors underlying them; and asses existing and potential conflict resolution mechanisms. Qualitative data were analyzed using content and structural-functional analyses while quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. For inferential statistical analysis, factors underlying forest resource use conflicts between users and regulators were quantified. The study found two types of forest resource use conflicts: between users and regulators and among users. Users and regulators conflict was reported as the major one and pseudo-devolution of power was among the major underlying factors. Perception on pseudo-devolution of power was found to have positive regression coefficient of 2.696 and significant (P=0.013) and high odd ratio of 14.813. Distance from resource base to market was also positive and significant (P=0.027). Ethnicity, education level, household size, and farm size had positive regression coefficient but not significant. The factors found to reduce forest resource use conflicts included distance from homestead to reserves which was negative and significant (P=0.017) and duration of residence which was negative but not significant (P=0.316). Furthermore the study found formal existing conflict resolution mechanisms include primary and district courts and potential formal conflict resolution mechanisms including JFMA. Informal potential conflicts resolution mechanisms include elders and religious groups. The study concludes that, forest resource use conflicts are largely a consequence of pseudo-devolution of power. Lastly, the study recommends, the need for full devolution of power, creating alternative income sources, operationalizing potential conflicts resolution mechanisms and institutional mix in management of natural resources.
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    Timber potential value in the eastern-arc mountains, Tanzania: Nyanganje forest reserve
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2009) Makero, Joseph Sitima
    The study was conducted to determine the quantity of timber and extent of illegal timber harvesting in Eastern Arc Mountains. Data were collected using three techniques: desktop review which was used to collect information on timber stocks from two studies in EAMs while socio-economic and ecological surveys were employed to collect information on timber disturbances and timber stocks harvested illegally in NFR. Data analysis involved use of Microsoft excel and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). A t-test analysis showed that, the EAMs have high potential in terms of timber tree stocks (p (t) = 0.047 d.f = 39) for stems per ha and (p (t) = 0.001 d.f = 39) for volume per ha). Also linear regression analysis showed that, extraction of timber trees in NFR mostly occurs illegally at the roadside (R 2 = 0.19, p = 0.015). A total of 135 600 000 stems and 74 400 000 m 3 (an equivalent of 0.6 m 3 per tree) composed of 180 different timber species were identified in EAMs. The major timber species contributed 47 000 000 m 3 (63%) of total wood volume. Taking the royalty and volume of each timber classes for indigenous and exotic species, the value of timber in EAMs was USD 5576 million. The harvestable timber was about USD 4461 million for trees sizes of greater than 40 cm DBH. The mean annual quantity of wood harvested illegally was estimated to be 6.2 m 3 per ha, of which 2.7 m 3 per ha was due to timber harvesting. If extraction is done in every hectare in NFR, each year the government could lose USD 0.36 million. Though the EAMs have high potential of timber species, this potentiality will be depleted if effective measures are not taken due to the fact that currently these forests are under pressure for timber extraction. The timber trees species thus need to be well managed and conserved, to ensure sustainability.