Theses and Dissertations Collection

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    Women empowerment and gender based violence in Serengeti district, Mara region, Tanzania
    (SUA, 2010) Sikira, Anna Nyakaunda
    This study was conducted in Serengeti District to assess the extent to which women empowerment is linked to Gender Based Violence (GBV). Specifically, the study examined the extent ofGBV in the area, the attitude ofthe communities towards GBV and the responses of women during and after GBV. The study also sought to establish the linkage between socio-economic status and GBV as well as the linkage between women empowerment and GBV. Serengeti District was purposively selected to be the study area because of having a high level of GBV as opposed to other districts of Mara region. Three divisions were purposively selected while four wards and two villages from each ward were randomly selected to make a total of 8 villages for the study. Data were collected between August 2007 and June 2009. A total of 240 women selected randomly were subjected to a questionnaire survey. Other data were collected through focus group discussions and indepth interviews. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics applied. Based on the findings, various forms of GBV were found to be practiced in the attitude, both victims; and perpetrators of GBV had positive perception towards GBV. Furthermore, GBV was influenced by empowerment indicators such as decision making at to all women regardless of socio economic status. However, findings of the study revealed that as economic status of women improves the level of GBV decreases. It is concluded that improving women’s socio-economic status and decision making through awareness creation would reduce GBV in the area. Additionally, increasing the age of girls at first marriage would eventually reduce GBV. It is, therefore, recommended that social and economic empowerment is needed to relieve women from GBV. A revision of various laws such as the Marriage Act of 1971 which allow marriage of young girls of 15 years old is required which would increase the age of women at first marriage and reduce GBV. Enacting of bylaws to fight against some of the outdated cultural norms is recommended as a strategy towards elimination of early pregnancies and marriage of young girls. Awareness creation to both men and women in the area is needed in order to change their perceptions towards some ofthe cultural practices like marriage between two women, paying of bride price and ritual cleansing.
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    Political-administrative interactions towards effective implementation of the construction of health and education infrastructure in Morogoro district council Tanzania
    (SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, 2020) Njunwa, Kelvin Mutatina
    Political-administrative interactions in local governments have gained wide attention among most development practitioners and scholars of public administration. Politicaladministrative relations focus on the interaction and reciprocal relations between the elected and appointed officials in performing local governments’ functions. Through decentralization by devolution “D by D”, local governments have been mandated to provide social services within their jurisdictions such as education, health, and clean and safe water, among others. Implementation of construction of health and infrastructures projects is one of the strategy used by local governments to ensure effective provision of health and education services. Despite the efforts made by the government to construct health and education infrastructures quality and adequacy of physical infrastructures of health and education remain a challenge. The overall objective of this study was to assess the contribution of political-administrative interactions to implementation of construction of health and education infrastructure projects (classrooms, teachers’ houses, latrines, laboratories, dispensaries and health centres) in Morogoro District Council, Morogoro Region in Tanzania. The study specifically: (i) assessed the levels of interaction between elected and appointed officials (ii) examined attitudes between elected and appointed officials in the projects; (iii) analysed adherence to the principles of governance between elected and appointed officials in projects implementation, and (iv) examined the contribution of the interaction between elected and appointed officials in construction of health and education projects in Morogoro District. The study adopted a case study research design, and involved a total of 64 respondents that included elected and appointed officials who were randomly selected. Qualitative data were collected through Focus Group Discussions (FGD), Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) and observation techniques while quantitative data were collected using a questionnaire survey. Qualitative data were analysed through content analysis and categorised based on the research objectives. Quantitative data were analysed using IBM Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Software by computing descriptive statistics employing frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations. An interaction index was also computed. The results from the interaction index revealed that there was moderate interaction (65.6%) between the elected and appointed officials in implementation of public development projects in Morogoro District Council. About one-fifth (20.3%) of the respondents had low interactions while 14.1% had high interaction. On attitude, the results indicated that 56.2% of respondents had negative attitude while 12.6% had indifferent attitude and 31.2% had positive attitude towards their relationship in implementation of the projects. It was, further, found that there was poor transparency at 68.8% and accountability (65.2%) between the elected and appointed officials in implementation of projects, particularly on financial matters. The findings also showed that the elected officials were not adhering to the rule of law compared to the appointed officials; instead they were influenced by their political interests and partisan politics and ignorance on the laws, policies and regulations. The findings indicated that good relationship between elected and appointed officials facilitated mobilization of project resources, increased public participation, improved trust, minimised conflict of interest and ensured transparency and accountability in the projects. However, the study revealed various challenges that affected their relationship in the projects. The challenges included difference in the levels of education, distrust and conflicting interests, partisan and political interference, and poor transparency and accountability. With regard to the results of objectives one and two, it is concluded that inadequate monitoring of relationships between elected and appointed officials in implementation of development projects by local government leads to moderate interaction and increases misunderstandings. From the results that meet objective three, it is concluded that lack of transparency, accountability and adherence to the rule of law among elected and appointed officials jeopardizes compliance with governance principles in implementation of the projects. In regard to the results on contribution to projects, it is concluded that positive relationships between elected and appointed officials contributes much to effective implementation of the said projects in the study area. Based on the conclusion drawn on the interaction between elected and appointed officials, it is recommended that local government should regularly conduct trainings on policies, regulations, and demarcation and monitoring of officials’ interaction in implementation of development projects. In view of the conclusion drawn from objective three, it is recommended that Morogoro District Council should monitor adherence to governance practices among both elected and appointed officials and provide trainings on policies, rule of law, and conducts that govern their relations. It is also recommended that local governments should encourage collaborations and partnerships between elected and appointed officials as advocated by complementary model of political-administrative relations. Moreover, it is recommended that local governments, through their own sources, should establish monthly allowances to village/hamlet chairpersons and other elected officials. This will improve morale and accountability of the elected officials to effectively implement development projects
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    Assessment of gender inequality in participation in coffee production and marketing: a case of Kigoma district council
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2017) Seleman, S. A.
    Gender inequalities are said to be a stumbling block to development efforts. Conversely inequalities are reported in many agricultural production and marketing. Therefore, understanding of gender participation differences within coffee production and marketing is important in promoting sustainable and equitable opportunities in agriculture. This study was set to assess gender inequalities in participation in coffee production and marketing in Kigoma district council. A cross-sectional research design was adopted and a simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents. The questionnaire and checklist of questions for key informants’ interviews and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) were the main instruments used for data collection. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to compute the characteristics and distribution of respondents. Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data collected from key informants’ interviews and FGD. The study found that gender inequalities exist in coffee production and marketing in Kigoma district council. The differences are attributable to differences in power relations with regard to access to and control over resources between women and men. The most profitable activities such as marketing were dominated by men while women dominated less paying activities such as weeding and harvesting. Ordinal logistic regression was used to establish the determinants of participation in coffee production and marketing. Findings revealed majority (64.8% male and 53.1% female) farmers were categorized in the medium level of participation. Furthermore, it was revealed that coffee farmers’ levels of participation in coffee production and marketing were significant and negatively influenced by land ownership at (P<0.05). Hence the study concludes that there is gender inequality in the participation of coffee production and marketing. On the other hand, the study recommends to the government of Tanzania particularly the ministry of agriculture to ensure gender mainstreaming in the coffee programs.
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    Gender mainstreaming strategies for gender equality by local government authorities in Dodoma municipality and Mpwapwa district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2017) Mujwahuzi, L. S.
    Gender Mainstreaming Strategies (GMSs) have the potentiality for reducing gender gaps and hence enhancing gender equality in Local Government Authorities (LGAs). However, studies have not reached consensus on whether the internationally and nationally planned GMSs have significant effect on the intended achieved gender equality among LGA officials. This study was conducted in Dodoma Municipality and Mpwapwa District by capturing urban and rural settings respectively in Tanzania, so as to make an epistemological contribution to gender studies and development. Specifically, the study: (i) analyzed GMSs applied by LGAs, (ii) examined attitude of Local Government officials towards Gender Mainstreaming, (iii) determined men and women involvement in decision making among LGA officials and leaders and (iv) assessed gender equality levels among LGAs officials. A cross-sectional research design was used. Fifty eight officials were randomly selected from municipal and district departments. In the first place, among 67 wards, twenty wards were randomly selected. In the next stage ten villages and ten hamlets were randomly selected from the 20 wards. Fifteen officials were randomly selected from each of 10 Village Development Committees (VDCs) while 15 officials were randomly selected from each of the 10 Hamlet Development Committees (HDCs). The combination of 15 officials from the 10 VDCs and 15 officials from 10 HDCs, made a total of 300 officials. Quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) in which descriptive and inferential analyses were done, while qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. The results showed that most of GMSs were not well implemented; the overall gender equality level was found to be low (34.7% and 24.6% for male and female respondents respectively); hence more gender mainstreaming strategies have to be implemented at the LGA level so as to spearhead sustainable development. Since the equality level was generally found to be the same for both male and female, urban and rural officials, then, policy planners and LGAs gender sensitising bodies such as NGOs, media and CBOs should provide GM measures targeting both Mpwapwa District and Dodoma Municipality so as to make intervention in both rural and urban areas equally. Since large number of men reported high level of gender equality while the overall level of gender equality was low, then men should be used by policy makers as agents for change towards gender equality as they occupy many positions in LGAs compared to women. Generally the attitude of implementers towards GMs was negative. It was further concluded that there was no significant difference between urban and rural population with respect to attitude of LGA officials towards GMs. It is therefore recommended that, policy makers should consider changing implementers’ attitude when planning for GMSs; officials with high levels of GM knowledge should transmit this knowledge to others; the GMSs should aim at changing one’s attitude by targeting both urban and rural areas. Decision making level in the study areas was high; however, the significant difference in decision making between men and women, urban and rural was noticed. Hence, different interventions should be employed by policy makers and other actors to increase involvement in decision making by men and women as well as urban and rural population