Assessment of gender inequality in participation in coffee production and marketing: a case of Kigoma district council

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Sokoine University of Agriculture


Gender inequalities are said to be a stumbling block to development efforts. Conversely inequalities are reported in many agricultural production and marketing. Therefore, understanding of gender participation differences within coffee production and marketing is important in promoting sustainable and equitable opportunities in agriculture. This study was set to assess gender inequalities in participation in coffee production and marketing in Kigoma district council. A cross-sectional research design was adopted and a simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents. The questionnaire and checklist of questions for key informants’ interviews and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) were the main instruments used for data collection. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to compute the characteristics and distribution of respondents. Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data collected from key informants’ interviews and FGD. The study found that gender inequalities exist in coffee production and marketing in Kigoma district council. The differences are attributable to differences in power relations with regard to access to and control over resources between women and men. The most profitable activities such as marketing were dominated by men while women dominated less paying activities such as weeding and harvesting. Ordinal logistic regression was used to establish the determinants of participation in coffee production and marketing. Findings revealed majority (64.8% male and 53.1% female) farmers were categorized in the medium level of participation. Furthermore, it was revealed that coffee farmers’ levels of participation in coffee production and marketing were significant and negatively influenced by land ownership at (P<0.05). Hence the study concludes that there is gender inequality in the participation of coffee production and marketing. On the other hand, the study recommends to the government of Tanzania particularly the ministry of agriculture to ensure gender mainstreaming in the coffee programs.


Masters Thesis


Gender inequality, Gender participation, Coffee production, Marketing, Kigoma district council, Tanzania