Theses and Dissertations Collection

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    Influence of personal attributes and selected business support services on growth of micro enterprises in Kigoma District, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2015) Kizanye, Lucy
    This study examined the influence of personal attributes (i.e self-motivation and innovation) and selected business supportive services (i.e financial services and enterprise networking) on micro enterprises growth in Kigoma District. The study also sought to identify the best predictor of micro enterprises growth among personal attributes and business support services. To attain these objectives a cross sectional research design was used in which 110 micro enterprise owners in two sectors of the economy (i.e retail and services) in the District were interviewed. Both purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used in the study in which descriptive and multiple linear regression model were used to analyze data. The findings confirmed positive influence of self motivation on the growth of micro enterprises implying that self motivated owners are more likely to open more enterprises, spend more hours in managing their enterprises and desire to generate profits for further business expansion. However, innovation of micro enterprises was found to have no influence on growth of micro enterprises. Networking recorded negative influence on growth of micro enterprises suggesting that the more time owners spend in enterprise networking activities the less the enterprise growth is realized. This is due to the fact that enterprise partners build a relationship on non enterprise activities which could not create network capability for enterprise advantage. Financial services of micro enterprises has no influence on growth of micro enterprise suggesting that financial services do not influence growth of enterprises in the study area. Financial services in the study area were not accessible to enterprise owners due to tough collaterals, high interest rates and short payback period. The best predictor that explains variance of growth of micro enterprises is self motivation due to its high p values compared to business support services.
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    Contribution of tourism to the reduction of youth income poverty: a case of Moshi District, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2013) Kafupa, Leonard
    The study aimed at assessing the contribution of the tourism sector in reducing youth income poverty in Moshi District. The study was guided by three research questions focusing on perceptions of youth on being employed in the tourism sector, effectiveness of the tourism sector in reducing youth income poverty and challenges facing youth from accessing tourism income. The study was conducted in Marangu area in Moshi District Kilimanjaro Tanzania. A cross sectional research design was adopted to collect information on how the tourism sector contributes to the reduction of youth income poverty. Data were collected from 120 respondents who were hoteliers, tour guides, tour operators, porters, sculptors and sellers in the tourism sector. The respondents were obtained through purposive and simple randomly sampling techniques. Primary data were collected using a questionnaire, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software was used to analyse the collected data in which descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were computed. Findings from the study show that the tourism sector contributed to poverty alleviation among the youth employed in the sector. Paired-samples t-test analysis revealed a significant (P< 0.001) difference average level of 5% between income gained by the youth before and after joining the tourism sector. Although the tourism sector is contributing to youth’s income poverty reduction there are still some challenges facing the youth who work in the sector. The study recommends that more efforts should be done for the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism to make sure that the sector is contributing more.
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    Household coping strategies with vulnerability to food insecurity in rural areas of Maswa district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2012) Gyunda, Abel Elia
    A study aimed at investigating the strategies used by households to cope with food insecurity was carried out in Maswa District, Shinyanga Region. Specifically the study sought: (1) To measure the degree of food insecurity in households in the study area; (2) To identify the coping strategies employed by households; and (3) To determine household characteristics associated with various food insecurity coping strategies. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design where a questionnaire was applied to collect data from a sample size of 126 households while a checklist was used to interview nine (9) key informants in three randomly selected wards. Quantitative data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) computer software and qualitative data were summarized and analyzed using non-statistical methods. Chi-square was used to test relationship between food insecurity situation and household characteristics as well as association between coping strategies and household characteristics. Findings from this study showed that food insecurity in the study area is still a problem (>30% of households are food insecure). It was also found that residence of respondent, sex, household size, level of income and size of land owneu have influence on food insecurity situation. The most common coping strategies used by households included casual labour, getting support from government/NGOs, changing diets, skipping and eating fewer meals. It was also observed that sex; household size, age dependency ratio, education level, size of land owned and income earned were significantly associated with getting support from government/NGOs, changing diets, skipping and eating fewer meals as food insecurity coping strategies when fac-. 1 with food shortages. This finding implies that household characteristics have great influence on choosing food coping strategies in the study area.
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    Effectiveness of training and technical assistance provided by microfinance institutions to women microenterprises: a case of Sido, Arusha Region
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2014) Makundi Millen
    This study was conducted in Arusha region with the aim of assessing the effectiveness of training and technical assistance (TTA) provided by SIDO to the performance of women owned microenterprises. Specifically, this study was intended to characterize TTA provided by SIDO to the women’s microenterprises; assess factors associated with the current business performance of women owned enterprises; and assess the effectiveness of TTA provided by SIDO on business performance of women owned enterprises. The study employed quantitative and qualitative research designs and data were collected using questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to a total of 90 respondents, 61 of which had received TTA and 29 respondents had received loan only. In addition, five key informants were interviewed. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentages and inferential statistics mainly multiple regression and independent t-test. The study findings indicate that most TTA provided by SIDO were entrepreneurship, business management and technical training with assistance on marketing, product labels, selection of machine and advice onbusiness. Factors for success of women microenterprises were found to be the age of enterprise, availability of funds, age of the respondents as well as training and technical assistance. TTA provided by SIDO had positive influence on business. Groups of women microenterprises with loans and TTA obtained higher profit and accumulated assets with high value compared to those groups with loans only. The study recommendes that microfinance institutions (MFIs) should increase TTA for their clients to enable them improve their business performance. It is also recommended that microentrepreneurs should proactively make use of TTA provided by MFIs in order to improve their business performance.
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    Effectiveness of warehouse receipt system in cashew nuts marketing in Mtwara region.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2010) Kassiane .C
    WRS, history of which started in Tanzania in 2000, was adopted in Mtwara region in 2007/08 cashew marketing season. There is a need to know its: key actors roles, influence on distribution of benefits among them, impact on farmers’ participation in decision making, major achievements, challenges, effects on farm gate price and cashew farmers’ responses to it. This study was intended to satisfy this need. Cross sectional research design was applied. Questionnaires were used to obtain information from 120 randomly sampled farmers whilst interview guides were employed to get data from purposively selected key informants. Documents provided secondary data. SPSS version 12 aided data analysis. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Hence frequencies and percentages were determined and farmers’ costs and returns and average market share were computed. In this study actors were found to have: distinct roles such as coordination and warehousing. Sulphur and its alternative usage were influenced by compulsory savings and government input subsidies. WRS had managed to: restore cashew nuts grading, reduce cash and crop losses, and improve cashew nuts marketing records. However, WRS was not used in other cashew areas in 2008/09. Constraints noted were; untimely, inadequate and inconsistent resources supply, violation of WRS and fair trade laws, many levies and political interferences. It is recommended that: WRS be replicated in all cashew nuts growing areas, there should be adequate and consistent resources supply, WRS and fair trade laws must be enforced and cashew' kernel domestic market need special emphasis. Also, levies and taxes on cashew nuts should be reviewed, DIFs should be abolished, cashew nuts farmers must be represented in decision making organs, politics in cashew business should be ended and more related studies need to be encouraged.
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    Land use conflicts between pastoralists and farmers in Kilosa district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2006) Tsoxo, Mark Joseph
    Land use conflicts between pastoralists and crop farmers in Tanzania arc becoming prominent. Kilosa District in Morogoro Region has been experiencing these conflicts frequently. The survey was conducted in Mfilisi, Mbwade and Rudewa Batini villages in the district with the main objective of determining causes and solutions to land use conflicts between pastoralists and farmers. Ninety respondents, with equal number of pastoralists and farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire. PRA methods and key informants interviews were also used in gathering information from local officials and members of village conflict resolution committees. The major causes of the conflicts revealed include cattle grazing on crops in fields, unclear land demarcations, and land shortage, poor and low level of education, poor and/or lack of social and veterinary services in pastoral allocated areas, ethnicity and lack of respect between group members. Other causes were increase in livestock population, high and unbearable fines (penalties), lack of instant response to conflict and bad governance. The study also highlighted solutions of the conflicts between pastoralists and farmers. The major solutions at village level included effective use of the village conflict resolution committees, individual negotiations and proper allocation of village land. General solutions determined include establishment and respect of land demarcations, education, reduce number and improve livestock management, respect between group members, establishment and improvement of social and veterinary services in pastoral allocated areas. Also review of land policies and good governance were among major solutions. Conflicts between pastoralists and farmers can be resolved and managed in a democratic way. Involvement of main actors (farmers and pastoralists) can contribute significantly in maintaining peace and manage conflicts between pastoralists and farmers.
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    Factors affecting adoption of 15 % NaCI solution technique for separating rice seeds: a study of Ndungu rice project in Same district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2001) Mattijo, Angelina Julius
    A study to identify factors affecting adoption of 15% sodium chloride (NaCI) solution, a seed separating technique was conducted at Ndungu rice project, Same District. A cross sectional research design, which allows collection of information at a single point in time, was adopted. Structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 75 respondents of which 45 had adopted the salt solution technique while 30 had not. The data were analysed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) computer software. The study described the importance of seed health and methods used by the farmers to separate infected seeds. In the process it was examined how informed the farmers were, their attitudes towards innovation’s benefits, and the associated reasons for adopting and not-adopting the technology. The results of the present study revealed that, attitudes and practices towards method of seed selection, source of information, and level of education were significantly (P>0.001) associated with adoption. Some of the major factors, which limited adoption of 15 % NaCI solution technique, were insufficient water for irrigation and lack of awareness. Other limiting factors were lack of motivation and inadequate extension services, which resulted in poor participation in seminars. Although Chi- square test did not show a significant (P>0.05) association between extent of adoption and gender, participation of women was discouraged by their limited access to ownership of resources, information and household decisions. It is recommended that research should be geared towards conserving more water; promotion and dissemination of farming techniques which are relevant to local conditions and that are environmentally friendly, and creation of voluntary farmers’ groups whose farms will be used as demonstration plots.
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    The contribution of microfinance institutions to poverty reduction among women: a case study of Rombo District, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2013) Tarimo Beatrice Gasper
    This study would not have been accomplished without the technical and moral assistance of many persons. Appreciations arc extended to all those who, in one way or another contributed to the success of this study. In the first place, I am very grateful to my supervisor, Dr. E. E. Chingonikaya, of Development Studies Institute (DSI) for his tireless guidance, constructive advice, overall encouragement and assistance throughout the research part of my M.A (Rural Development Degree Programme). Without his educational ideas and moral support this study would not have been accomplished. My appreciation also goes to my beloved parents Mr. Gasper Tarimo and Mrs. Priscilla Gasper ,who laid down the foundation of my education. I am very grateful for their encouragement, moral support and prayers throughout the period of my studies. I also acknowledge my lovely husband Mr. Mengi Togwa who provided both financial and moral support throughout the research part of this study. Special thanks go to my beloved sons Joshua Mengi and Joel Mengi who accepted my stay in the classroom and the being far from them to late hours and weekends in order to accomplish this study. Lastly, but not less important, my appreciation goes to the staff and colleagues in Development Studies Institute (DSI) for their constant encouragement throughout the course of this study. I remain solely responsible for any errors in content or design inherent in this dissertation.
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    Assessment of the implementation of the co-operative reform and modernization programme: the case of Babati District Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2010) Njau Luka Sabasi
    This study was conducted to assess the implementation of the Co-operative Reform and Modernization Programme (CRMP) in Babati District. Manyara Region. It involved 200 respondents (112 male and 88 female). The specific objectives were to establish the financial status of co-operative societies before and after commencement of the CRMP in the study area, to compare the quality of services offered by co-operative societies to the aspired services in CRMP document, to assess how co-operative societies overcome competitive challenges, to identify how members’ empowerment, good governance and accountability have been achieved as a result of CRMP and to identify the challenges hampering effective implementation of CRMP. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and checklists. Field observations and secondary data from RIVACU, Regional and District Co-operative Departments supplemented the questionnaires and checklists. Descriptive statistics and t-test were used in the analysis. The results showed that: Five years after CRMP the co-operative societies are still suffering from insufficient capital for running their activities. Moreover, about 77.2% of the interviewees stated that the quality of services offered by their co-operative societies was substandard. Similarly, it was found that only 38% of the surveyed co-operative societies had some kind of economic linkages among themselves making most of them uncompetitive. Furthermore, about 52.2% of the interviewed respondents indicated that members’ empowerment, good governance and accountability have not been achieved in their co-operative societies. Likewise, lack of commitment by the government in allocating sufficient resources and insufficient co-operative education and training were found to be the main challenges hampering effective implementation of the CRMP. The study calls for additional allocation of resources by the government and other co-operative stakeholders and provision of practical co-operative education and training to co-operative members among other recommendations as detailed in this study.
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    The contribution of microfinance institutions to poverty reduction among women: a case study of Rombo District, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2013) Tarimo Beatrice Gasper
    Microfinance institutions can be a critical clement of an effective poverty reduction strategy, especially for developing countries. Credits provided by these institutions can enable the poor in alleviating poverty. This study examined how the credit obtained by women was used. Then it determined the monthly income from the businesses conducted by women who had borrowed cash from SACCOS. The study also examined whether they were able to repay the loan on time and how sustainable their businesses were after repaying. In addition, the study examined the obstacles women faced in alleviating poverty and the contribution of microfinance institutions to household standard of living among women. The data were collected by using the questionnaire survey method, whereby, 60 women from Mashati SACCOS were selected. Following the information collected from SACCOS officials and women who had borrowed from SACCOS, it was revealed that microfinance institutions had brought very little changes to the lives of those poor women. Also the study has revealed that most of the women failed to continue with their business activities after repaying the credit. Despite the limitations to the poor women to access credit, results show that those who had accessed credit faced many obstacles and as a result they failed to meet their objectives. It is recommended that, credit obtained must be used effectively to meet the required objectives, microfinance institutions should minimize the interest rates and provide enough information about other services given by these institutions such as savings to increase chances of obtaining enough capital. Also proper education for running business should be given to borrowers so that their businesses can be sustainable. Financial institutions should also find alternative ways to reduce obstacles which women face in obtaining and using credits so as to improve their household’s standard of living.
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    The impact of market liberalization to members of agricultural marketing cooperative societies: the case of Moshi and Rombo Districts, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2011) Monyo Shose Eliezeri
    In Tanzania Cooperatives societies and unions emerged as socio-economic institutions in the 1920s purposely to protect the interests of indigenous coffee growers in production and marketing. Following economic and market reforms in 1990s. which propagated market liberalisation, the reform have not lead to the expected improvement in the productivity, incomes and overall livelihoods of coffee growers. As a consequence. primary cooperatives societies or Agricultural Marketing Cooperative Societies (AMCOS) and cooperative unions like KNCU have been unable to provide satisfactorily the essential services to their members. This study analysed the impact of market liberalisation to members of AMCOS in Rombo and Moshi rural districts whereby 120 members of ?\MCOS and 12 Key informants were involved through use of structured questionnaires and checklist in focus group discussion. The results indicate that; following market liberalisation. AMCOS are disorganised and lack strong management such that they are easily penetrated by unfaithful traders (PCBs) who are normally organised, well informed tricky, tactical, works in cartel and come to hike for profit. There is no substantial welfare improvement to AMCOS members due to unpredictable pricing of coffee. Also bureaucracies, lack of transparency and farmers involvement by KNCU management are the major factors causing AMCOS members’ detachment to join G-32s. Basing on these findings, the study recommends that primary societies should be informative and inquisitive in searching for coffee quality production and market information by establishing farmers’ ICT centre. AMCOS should strengthen their organisations’ management (societies and unions) with emphasis on participatory and majority consensus. The government and KNCU should support AMCOS by enacting policies which deliberately protect and nurture them in terms of skills and power to negotiate, conduct regular stakeholders forum where farmers directly and. or through representation by their management actively participate, negotiate and defend their interest to instigate focused and collective objectivity.
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    Socio-economic, institutional and behavioural determinants of accessibility and utilization of agricultural information by women farmers in Korogwe District
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2007) Mntambo Betty David
    This study on the socio-economic, institutional, and behavioural determinants of accessibility and utilization of agricultural information was conducted in Korogwe District. Two wards were selected, these were Vugiri and Magunga and thereafter four villages were purposively selected namely; Vugiri, Bagamoyo, Kwcsemangubc and Magunga. The broad objective of this study was to investigate the accessibility and utilization of agricultural information for production among women farmers in Korogwe District. The study involved 100 women farmers randomly selected from four villages. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire supplemented by interview checklists for key informants and FGDs. The SPSS software was used to analyse data to obtain frequencies, percentages, and means. Chi Square test was used to determine the association between some of the variables. The findings of this study showed that education, age, extension services, and mass media determine the access and utilization of agricultural information. Furthermore, the results showed that poor household production was due to the lack of extension services, low education of the respondents, lack of financial credit and ignorance of sources of information. Moreover, the study found out that, sources of agricultural information (extension services, mass media, and farmers own efforts) have a direct linkage with the accessibility to agricultural information. The following recommendations were made from this study. First, since the results indicated that there is limited accessibility to agricultural information to women farmers, therefore efforts to increase the accessibility of agricultural information should be increased. Secondly, there is a need of improving extension services so as to reach targeted clients. The fact that Vugiri ward is located in the highlands, and soil erosion is among the problems which have contributed to poor production it is thus suggested that efforts should be made to introduce soil management programmes so as to increase crop production.
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    Factors affecting sustainability of farmers groups: the case of Twikinde Malimbichi Cooperative Society of Mgeta, Morogoro
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2004) Chibehe Musa Moses
    Earlier approaches to extension work emphasized the use of individual contact farmers rather than farmers groups by believing that new agricultural techniques would flow from innovators to the rest of the farming community through the “trickle down effect” However, this assumption was found to be inappropriate, particularly in poor third word countries, where the contact farmer approach seems to have failed to improve the majority of peasant farmers and therefore farmers’ groups seem more suitable as an extension technique than the individual approach. There is a lot of faith in farmers’ groups that various government and non governmental organizations use this approach for their rural extension programs, but at the same time many groups collapse soon after being formed hence they are not sustainable. A study to determine factors affecting the sustainability of farmer’s groups using Twikinde Malimbichi Cooperative Society as a ease study was conducted in Mgeta Division (Mvomero District) of Morogoro Region. Data were collected through survey questionnaires and interview checklists whereby 70 respondents were consulted through focus group discussions and personal interviews. The cut and paste analysis was used to select the relevant information. Also SPSS computer programme was used for analysis. The results revealed that the idea of group formation did not directly originate from the members themselves but it was an advice from Upper Mgeta Horticultural Development Project (UMHODEP). However the group becomes strong and more sustainable if origin of its formation comes from its members. Further results indicate that the initial group vision and its objectives were good and suitable with regard to the members’ benefits but the implementation strategies to realize the vision were not clear to both members and leaders things which made the group objectives not to be achieved there was a minimum contribution of capital by members for the group investments such as buildings, inputs shop, lorry and milling machine compared to the grants and loans received by the group from external sources. This trend contributed to the poor sense of ownership by the members in the groups’ activities, a factor that led to low sustainability of the group. Furthermore, the group has gender imbalance such that, most of its leaders (87%) are males, a situation which shows low participation of women in the group activities. The findings show that technical and service supports were the common factors that kept the group members together and proceed to remain in the group, the factors that enhance the stability of the group membership which is the key factor for the contribution of positive sustainability of the group. It is recommended that, Twikinde Malimbichi should improve its income generating projects so as to be able to generate more funds and improve working capital of the projects hence increasing its capacity of purchasing the horticultural products from the farmers. It is also recommended that Twikinde Malimbichi establish clear implementation strategics to enable all members and leaders to accomplish perfectly the group objectives and activities. perfectly hence reducing the sustainability of Twikinde group. The findings revealed that
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    Effect of rural out- migration on farm labour force in Bariadi district, Shinyanga region, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2009) Sabuni, Suzana Lameck
    In Tanzania, like any other developing country, there is ample evidence to suggest that the number of people moving from rural areas to urban has tremendously been increasing. The total labor force of Tanzania is growing at around 3.1% per annum while the agricultural labour force is growing at a maximum of 2.8% per annum due to rural-urban migration and the growth of non agricultural informal sector activities in the rural areas. Rural-out migration is selective in that it attracts, age cohorts of the population, which are the most active in production. Therefore it is felt that there is a cause-effect relationship between rural-out migration and farm labour force because it depletes household labour force which in turn reduces agricultural productivity and consequently worsening of poverty. Understanding the effect of rural-out migration on farm labour force will contribute to the government's efforts of reducing rural-out migration for the betterment of the agricultural sector, which is the engine of the economic growth of Tanzania. The study was done in Bariadi District to determine the effect of rural-out migration on farm labour force. Specifically to identify the proportion of people moving from rural areas by sex (N=308), estimate size of labour force used for farming (N=1037), compare the farm characteristic features between households with migrants (N=79) and without migrants (N=46), lastly determine the pattern of remittance flows and its influence on agriculture (N=29) using structured interview schedule on 125 randomly selected households. The study found that the impact of rural out- migration on farm labour force is currently not significant but it is recommended that remedies should be taken to counteract the proportion of people moving from the villages to safeguard the agricultural sector in the future.
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    Land use conflicts between pastoralists and farmers in kilosa district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2006) Tsoxo, Mark Joseph
    Land use conflicts between pastoralists and crop farmers in Tanzania arc becoming prominent. Kilosa District in Morogoro Region has been experiencing these conflicts frequently. The survey was conducted in Mfilisi, Mbwade and Rudewa Batini villages in the district with the main objective of determining causes and solutions to land use conflicts between pastoralists and farmers. Ninety respondents, with equal number of pastoralists and farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire. PRA methods and key informants interviews were also used in gathering information from local officials and members of village conflict resolution committees. The major causes of the conflicts revealed include cattle grazing on crops in fields, unclear land demarcations, and land shortage, poor and low level of education, poor and/or lack of social and veterinary services in pastoral allocated areas, ethnicity and lack of respect between group members. Other causes were increase in livestock population, high and unbearable fines (penalties), lack of instant response to conflict and bad governance. The study also highlighted solutions of the conflicts between pastoralists and farmers. The major solutions at village level included effective use of the village conflict resolution committees, individual negotiations and proper allocation of village land. General solutions determined include establishment and respect of land demarcations, education, reduce number and improve livestock management, respect between group members, establishment and improvement of social and veterinary services in pastoral allocated areas. Also review of land policies and good governance were among major solutions. Conflicts between pastoralists and farmers can be resolved and managed in a democratic way. Involvement of main actors (farmers and pastoralists) can contribute significantly in maintaining peace and manage conflicts between pastoralists and farmers.
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    Socio-cultural determinants of fertility in Kasulu district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2007) Sasu, Flosia Vugo
    Total fertility rate (TFR) in Kasulu District, in Kigoma Region is 7.9. This is highest compared to other regions in Tanzania. This has brought about some adverse effects on social and economic life of the people. Despite the efforts made to regulate fertility', fertility rate is still high. The main objective of the study was to determine the socio­ cultural factors influencing fertility. This will assist policy makers and programme planners to develop the appropriate strategies for regulating fertility in the district. Specific objectives of the study were to estimate the number of children born per woman, compare specifically the fertility rate of host (Tanzanians) and that of refugee populations, and to determine how sex preferences, value of children and religiosity affect fertility. A cross sectional study design was employed, whereby a multistage sampling technique was used in combination with simple random sampling method. The study involved a sample of 240 people. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Other sources included informal dialogue, focus group discussion (FGD), and participant observation. The data were analysed by using Statistical Package for Social Science computer programme to obtain averages, frequencies, percentages, minimum and maximum values. The findings show that the number of births by women during the 12 months period prior to the survey resulted in the TFR of 8.4 in the surveyed area, which is high. Fertility' is influenced by demographic characteristics such as age and socio-cultural variables such as religiosity. Others are cultural values. The study recommends that, because the knowledge and use of family planning methods are low, there is a call for more NGOs to establish more programmes on family planning issues. Kasulu District is one of the poorest in Tanzania. Fertility may be best addressed through deliberate efforts to bring development in Kasulu district.
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    Normative change in contemporary religious practice: a case of Africa inland and catholic churches in Morogoro municipality
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2006) Falanta, Emmanuel Mhoja
    The changes of norms in our contemporary church practice have been subjected to social changes which lead to loose spiritual conduct in and out of our churches. Based on the church profile this was merely caused by the earliest split of the church from Roman Catholic to Protestant churches, the consequences then to a major normative change that was to come. The rituals have changed overtime for different denominations and at different speeds. However no research has been undertaken to examine the change in Morogoro Municipality. This study was conducted in Morogoro Municipality in 2006 to determine the change of norms in our churches. It specifically focused on examining the nature of normative changes in religious practices by identifying norms that guide religious practices, establishing how and why these norms have changed over time and to compare the nature and sources of this change between conservative Roman Catholic and liberal Africa Inland Churches. The study employed a stratified sample of 40 respondents from each church to make SO respondents. Stratified random sample structured questionnaires were used to gather information from selected churches. Focus group discussion (FGDs) was used to gather information on normative values. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) of the computer programme was used to analyze data generated by questionnaire. These data from two denominations surveyed were analyzed descriptively and presented in a form of means, frequencies and percentages to show the relationships between independent and dependent variables. The results showed that there were great changes in respect to church norms, thus norms have generally been manipulated to suit interests of persons or particular groups.
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    Determinants of rural land use conflicts in west district-Zanzibar
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2014) Haji, Ameir Ali
    This study was conducted in West District Zanzibar to assess the determinants of rural land use conflict. Specifically, the study identified the prevailing land use conflicts and types of land tenure systems existing, as well as assessing the influence of demographic, socio-economic and institutional arrangements on land use conflicts. A cross section research design was adopted with 125 household’s respondents. Data were collected through questionnaires and key informant interview. Binary logistic regression model and descriptive statistics were used to analyse data. The result identified live main types of land use conflicts prevailing in the study area namely government and community, community and investors, farmers and pastoralists. villagers and villagers as well as community and military camps, whereby land tenure system has changed from communal status to individual/private ownership; lease hold has replaced customary freehold and other form of interests. Three fundamental factors mainly demographic, socio-economic, policy and institutional arrangement were identified to have direct influence on land use conflicts in the study area. The result of logistic analysis reveal that age (p<0.05), land utilization (p< 0.05), land size (p<0.05), land conflicts panel (p<0.05) and household size (p<0.05) had positive significant influence on land use conflicts. The study conclude that demography, socioeconomic as well as policy and institution arrangement are the main determinants of the existing land use conflicts in the study area where the existing weak institutions made local communities compete for land resource without being regulated. The study further recommends that land use conflict needs establishment of strong institutional organs and committed leadership in all levels, in order to provide enabling environment and transform it into practice so as to achieve desirable objectives.
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    Social-Economic impact of free range local chickens vaccinated against newcastle diseases in rural community of Mvomero district, Morogoro region
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture., 2010) Msuya, Jacob Timothy
    Improving free range local chicken (FRLC) production through vaccinating against Newcastle disease (ND) at the village level is an important component in improving socio-economics of the rural communities in Tanzania. This study assessed the socio-economic impact of FRLC vaccinated against ND in rural communities of Mvomero District. The Primary data were gathered from a sample of 181 respondents from Sangasanga, Changarawc. Tangcni, Kimambila, Lubungo, Mafuru and Vikengc. The primary data from the semi-structured questionnaire were analysed using SPSS 12.0 and descriptive statistics namely frequencies and percentage were used in explaining the data collected from the respondents. The survey findings reveal that on average, since 2007 to 2009 each household kept 23 FRLC and more than half 56.3 % of the respondents earned less than 50 000 Tsh through selling of FRLC and their products. Moreover, whereas women seemed to be more responsible 56.4 % in caring of the FRLC and making decision on selling of the eggs 52.9 %, men slightly dominated 35.6 % in making decision about the selling of live FRLC. In contrast, women were the ones responsible for keeping the income earned from selling FRLC and its products. Furthermore, majority of the respondents 82.9 % indicated that ND vaccination worked better than indigenous herbs whereas only 0.6 % had a negative attitude towards ND vaccines. The findings also reveal that the sustainability of the ND vaccination exercise was attained through formation of groups of the FRLC keepers and cost sharing for ND vaccines. The findings suggest that there is a need for mass education on the epidemiology and socio-economic implication of ND for the households.
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    Factors contributing to the witchcraft related killings in Bariadi District, Shinyanga
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2010) Rumbeli, Beatrice Sospeter
    Witch killings have been a problem facing the world especially African countries. In particular, African witches are widely thought to use their accult powers to inflict harm on other community members. In Tanzania, 3.693 people were killed for witchcraft related accusations. There are many efforts made by the Government, NGOs, training programmes, radio programmes to stop the witch killings. These include: TAMWA, Amnesty International, radio programmes like Radio Faraja (Shinyanga) and Radio Sauti (Mwanza). Together with all the efforts made to address the witchcraft killings, the problem is still rapidly increasing throughout the country and Bariadi district in particular. Overall objective of this study was to investigate factors contributing to the killings of old women. Study adopted a cross sectional design by using open and closed ended questionnaires administered to a sample of 30 villages as sampling unit. Stratified sampling technique was used whereby 30 villages were divided into two strata based on remoteness and township criterion. Stratification resulted into 15 villages selected from remote areas and 15 from town centres. Interviews with key informants and Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were used. Analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). A Probit regression model was run using STATA software. Findings revealed that, witchcraft related killings in Bariadi is negatively contributed by infant mortality rate, under five mortality rate, religion affiliation and natural calamity as hypothesized earlier. Witch killings were positively contributed by education status of the village, health services provision, poverty level of the village and scramble for resources. This suggests that in order to eliminate this situation, education to community should be provided, to improve economic well being of the people. Organizations which advocate anti-witchcraft killings should empower the community in dealing with the problem. Traditional songs could help to speed up the education to community.