Theses and Dissertations Collection

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    The Link between compliance with project requirements and project success: evaluation from TASAF-III beneficiaries’ perspectives in Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2024-05) Maswe, Godfrey M. M.
    In fighting against transitional households’ income poverty, many of the initiated community economic development (CED) projects have faced a number of unanticipated outcomes. Non-compliance with the stated project requirements is labelled the cause. However, substantial and fully complied projects have too shown the similar mixed results of success and failure. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the link between compliance with project requirements and CED projects’ success: the evaluation of which was done from TASAF-III beneficiaries’ perspectives in Tanzania. With specific reference to TASAF-III supported CED projects, the study intended: to determine the compliance drivers in CED projects in Tanzania; to analyse the influence of compliance with project requirements on CED projects’ performance outcomes in Tanzania; to assess the effects of compliance with project requirements on CED projects’ satisfaction outcomes in Tanzania; and, to evaluate the impact of compliance with project requirements on CED projects’ value outcomes in Tanzania. The study was guided by the Theory of Regulatory Compliance (TRC), with the premise that, being in full (100%) compliance with all rules/requirements is not necessarily a good policy for project success, as rules/requirements are not created equal. The study adopted a cross-sectional design with multiple cases—undertaken in twelve selected TASAF-III supported CED projects in six regions of Tanzania, namely Tanga, Morogoro, Tabora, Mbeya, Mwanza, and Kigoma. The three levels multistage sampling method, coupled with stratified and simple random sampling, was used to obtain the appropriate sample as poor households’ population in Tanzania is widely distributed. Firstly, the six impact wave districts from six regions in six geographical zones in Tanzania, were identified using stratified sampling method. Secondly, the twelve most representative TASAF-III projects were selected using the same method. Thirdly, 480 households from 17 424 population of needy households under impact wave districts were chosen at 2:3 ratio for treatment (192) and control (288) subjects respectively—using simple random sampling technique. Primary data were collected using the research schedules. IBM SPSS v.16 and stata software were used for data analysis. Ordinal regression model was used for testing the predictive validity of project compliance drivers to compliance requirements. Based on the model results that the defined compliance drivers in TASAF-III projects are negative significant predictors of compliance with TASAF-III project requirements, it could be concluded that, the observed non-compliance of TASAF-III with its defined requirements is fuelled by increased adherence to non- predictive compliance drivers. It is therefore recommended that plans for the desired project ends should not discriminate-out the predictive assumptions for positive compliance outcomes. Proportional Chi-test was used to determine whether the defined TASAF-III project requirements are self-drivers for involuntary compliance with the same or not. Based on the test results that the defined TASAF-III supported CED projects requirements are non-self-drivers of individuals’ voluntary compliance—with McGregor’s theory “X” being an option, it was concluded that, CED projects in Tanzania record less of project success for more of resources committed as they employ poorly defined project requirements that drive away compliance than enhancing it. Project entities are therefore recommended to define project requirements enticing stakeholders’ self-compliance. One sample t-test was used to determine whether institutional ethical culture influence project compliance with requirements or not. Based on the finding that about 80 percent of TASAF-III projects compliance with requirements is influenced by 20 percent of its institutional ethical culture, it was concluded that projects compliance driven failures in TASAF-III projects are mostly fuelled by their unethical institutional cultures. Strategic audits of self- imposed institutional ethical cultures are therefore recommended to overcome the influence of detrimental individuals’ interests. Based on binomial test results for population proportion that, about 80 percent of TASAF-III project compliance culture results from 20 percent of its institutional ethical culture, it was therefore concluded that CED project’s compliance culture is moulded by its institutional ethical cultural domains. Project practitioners’ enculturation is recommended to reduce risks of hidden unethical cultural practices which may be detrimental to project compliance outcomes. Moreover, the same ordinal regression model was used to estimate the predictive validity of project requirements to project outcomes. Based on the finding that defined project requirements are significant negative predictors ofprojects performance outcomes, it was concluded that the employed TASAF-III projects requirements are not selected based on projects’ environmental fit. Project entities are therefore recommended to revamp their feasibility study mechanisms; and hence, design and plan for environmental friendly project requirements with positive performance outcomes. Nevertheless, considering the finding that the defined project requirements are significant negative predictors of projects satisfaction outcomes, it could be concluded that the observed institutional failure on income poverty relief is more fuelled by inapt selections of the right project requirements than on compliance challenges. Participatory community needs assessment results use for CED projects designs is highly recommended, as the continued reliance on negatively perceived project requirements reduces the success likelihood of projects satisfaction outcomes than upturning the same. The propensity score matching model was used to evaluate the impact of compliance with project requirements on project value outcomes—assessed by project fitness for the purpose on households’ delivery from transitional income poverty in Tanzania. Based on the result that there is no significant difference in incomes and spending between households participated in TASAF-III supported projects and those who did not, it could be concluded that compliance with TASAF-III supported projects has no significant impact on poor households’ relief from transitional income poverty. This is because TASAF implements projects which are more of secteral priorities than those which are specific community felt needs. The study recommends practical decentralized planning for households’ desired projects as opposed to traditional approach—for which districts departments’ and sectoral priorities determine the type of TASAF-III project to be executed. The overall TASAF failure to deliver households from income poverty, in the facet of negative predictive project requirements at substantial compliance, warrants the conclusion that compliance with project requirements does not necessary result to project success—if requirements are inaptly selected. Proper choice of projects requirements with positive predictive outcomes is therefore recommended as the TRC is proven true.
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    Gender dynamics and women’s empowerment: a case of small- scale fish business in Mwanza Region, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2024-02) Gibe, Advera Mang’are
    Women play important roles in fisheries, fishing and fish trading. However, they are a disadvantaged group in the fishing sub-sector; as a result, their levels of empowerment and business development have remained low. This is probably due to the fact that the small- scale fish business sub-sector carries the image of men than women, which leads to women working in the sub-sector tending to experience inequality. Therefore, this study was undertaken to: (i) Analyse gender dynamics within the small-scale fish business, (ii) Assess gender related factors influencing small-scale fish business growth, (iii) Determine the contribution of small-scale fish business to women empowerment, and (iv) Examine impact of climate variability on gender dynamics in the study area. The study was conducted in Ilemela and Nyamagana Districts, in Mwanza region Tanzania where a cross-sectional research design was used. Purposive sampling was employed to select Ilemela and Nyamagana Districts, wards and six major fish markets were selected namely Busweru Market, Igoma Market, Pasiansi Market, Sabasaba Market, Mwaloni Market and Kamanga Ferry Market. The sample size was calculated using the proportion allocation formula that was adjusted for an infinite population (Kothari, 2004). A combination of minimum probability sampling, and simple and proportionate stratified sampling was used to select 309 respondents involved in small-scale fish business, including both women and men. Qualitative data were collected through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and Key Informants Interviews (KIIs); a questionnaire with both closed and open ended questions was used to collect quantitative data. The analysis of qualitative data was conducted with the aid of ATLAS.ti computer software. Descriptive statistical analysis techniques were employed, including the construction of index scales and the Women Empowerment Index (WEI). Quantitative data analysis involved the use of inferential analysis: linear regression models, independent sample t-tests, chi- square tests, and ordinal logistic regression. The study found that gender inequalities exists in all aspects of gender roles, access to and control over resources, and gender relation within Small-scale fish business as well as at the household level. These inequalities, affects women’s participation in the business, women’s financial freedom and access to quality fish products increases not only the burden to women but also marital conflicts resulting into marriage breaks. Results from regression analysis revealed that marital status, SSFB experience, daily capital in SSFB, type of customers, storage facilities and SSFB self-help groups were important predictors (p<0.05) influencing small-scale fish business growth in terms of amount of profit obtained per day. Women’s capital invested and obtained profit were low as compared to their male counterparts (p<0.097). The findings from Ordinal regression show that type of marriage, contributing to family income and accesses to resources were important predictors for women empowerment (p < 0.05). The study found that, men have more comparative advantage and capacity to overcome all risk factors affecting business growth when compared with women. Women’s business growth is constrained by factors such as low capital invested, lack of business skills and lack of business networks. Small-scale fish business contributes to medium levels of empowerment whereby women were found to have average power control over permanent assets, able to contribute on household income and have ability to vote and be elected in political sphere while higher levels of empowerment were evident in the aspects of women participation in household decision making and freedom of movement. The study found the disproportionate burden faced by women in small-scale fish businesses in Mwanza due to climate variability. It is concluded that, gender inequalities embedded in all gender dynamics existing within small-scale fish business negatively affect women's active participation in the business as well as their business growth prospects. Men have a greater comparative advantage to enjoy their participation and benefits obtained from small-scale fish business and they have the capacity to overcome all risk factors affecting SSFB growth when compared to women. Increased education on gender equality among policy makers and stakeholders will improve women participation in the Small-scale fish business in order to achieve holistic women’s empowerment. Climate variability has a significant impact on gender dynamics in small-scale fish businesses as it exacerbates adaptive capacity of women in the sector. The study recommends to the government and gender activists to develop a more systematic and rigorous gender responsive strategies to gender equality and equitable participation in all socio- economic activities. The study recommends the policy makers to design programmes such as establishment of small-scale fish business groups that will serve as platform for them to share business experiences to stimulate women’s business growth such. To enhance women's empowerment in SSFB policymakers and stakeholders should provide education that address gender norms which perpetuate patriarchy practices, promote women's economic empowerment by supporting access to credit and improving land ownership, and strengthen women's political participation. The study recommends collaboration between government agencies; development organizations and local communities to provide training, support, and market access for women in order to build sustainable practices and climate-resilient technologies in the small- scale fish business.
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    Contribution of mobile telephony to the performance of agriculture-based small and medium enterprises in Ulanga district
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2014) Kisusi, Fidelis
    This study assessed the contribution of mobile telephony to the performance of agriculture based small and medium enterprises in Ulanga District Specifically, the study examined the innovative uses of mobile telephony in agriculture based SMEs; identified factors associated with usage of mobile telephony; mapped the nexus between mobile telephony usage and agriculture based SMEs activities; and established the extent to which mobile telephony contribute to the performance of agriculture based SMEs. Both multi-stage and purposive sampling techniques were used to obtain 104 questionnaire respondents and 40 FGD participants. Quantitative data were collected using questionnaires whereas qualitative data were collected using Focus group discussions (FGDs). Quantitative data were analyzed by using SPSS and qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis technique. The study findings revealed that beeping, loudspeaker, camera and voice recording were innovative applications of mobile phones; mobile phones’ usage was mainly enhanced by good mobile network coverage and mainly constrained by frequent cut-off of electricity; and uses of mobile phones had significantly increased profit, sales volume, operating efficiency, managerial and customers’ satisfaction ratings. It is concluded that uses of mobile phones contributed to the performance of agriculture based SMEs. It is recommended that the government and private sectors should take the charge of providing reliable electricity services and owners of SMEs need to increase usage of mobile telephony commercially than for social contacts in order to realize better performance.
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    Islamic philanthropy and rural poverty alleviation: the case of Mtwara region
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2010) Lenga, Seleman Abdallah
    This is a exploration study done in Muslim community in southern coastal of Tanzania. deliberately selected because represent the home to a wide contrast on income between the rich and the poor and being areas of large Muslim communities. Muslim communities seem to be one of the extreme contrasts in regards to rich -poor dichotomy. There are members that are considerably rich living in the midst of their brethren Muslims who form the bulk of the deprived members of the Tanzania's society despite the insistence in their Islamic precepts for both equitable distribution of wealth such as obligatory giving, and philanthropic institutions like Zakat, Sadaka and Waqf. The study starts from viewing conceptual relationship deduced from two inextricable pillars of fundamental articles of faith and that of action i.e five pillars of Islam as the way of considering the ideology how it serves the interest of benefactors as well as being the sources of moral imperatives. It is found that areas populated by Muslim majorities are likely to be most backward, with least developed physical and social infrastructures and deteriorating indicators of wealth. Unlike Christian communities, the rudimentary Islamic philanthropic institutions in Tanzania operate at primitive interpersonal level or at best perform a few developmental activities in urban areas. This has left vacuum among the vast rural community generating a disenchanted society unhappy with itself and very angry against the others. The study through light whether Muslim community could accept philanthropic best practices that resemble to the current and contemporary situation of the present era. The study findings suggest that values created by modern society have generated avenues for the emergence of large number of faqir and meskeen who are not taken care by the institution like family or Mosque.
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    Assessment of attitude towards selling livestock among the pastoralists in Ngorongoro district of Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2009) Haule Michael Emanuel
    A survey study was done in Ngorongoro District to examine and document the attitude of pastoralists towards selling livestock. The methodology employed was field visits to three villages, namely Endulen, Ololosokwan and Malambo. Key informant interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs), household questionnaire administration to 90 respondents and visits to livestock markets were done. Data collected were both qualitative and quantitative in nature and were mainly on dynamics in livestock selling and factors influencing the attitude towards selling livestock. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, chi- square test and Tobit model. The results showed that there were more sales of livestock in the years which pastoralists experienced drought (year 2006) than those years with normal weather (2007 and 2008) which was a coping mechanism from food insecurity. Furthermore, results showed that 42.2% of respondents had positive attitude towards selling cattle and 45.6% were positive towards selling goats. Results also showed that male household head, big household sizes, short distances to the livestock markets and high price of livestock tend to increase livestock sales. About 87% of respondents were willing to sell livestock at feedlot centres. In conclusion, pastoralists showed a positive attitude towards selling livestock and being male house head, big household size, short distances to the livestock markets and high price of livestock tend to increase livestock sales. Incidence of drought and hence famine lead into increased livestock but they also lead to decrease in livestock prices. It is therefore, recommended that the government in collaboration with other development actors should establish more livestock markets and networks at the village to reduce long trekking distances. Provide market links between the livestock producers and consumers of the livestock and livestock products to motivate more iii pastoralists to sell livestock. Feedlot centres should be established close to the pastoral areas.
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    Effectiveness of climate change coping strategies on household vulnerability to food insecurity in Lushoto District
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture., 2014) Methusela, Fortunata
    In different parts of the world, farming households have evolved different climate change coping strategies (CCCS) to improve their livelihood. This study focuses on the effectiveness of CCCS that deal with household food insecurity (HFS). A cross sectional survey was performed on a random sample of 150 households in Lushoto District using structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were conducted through which the commonly practised strategies were identified. Community perceptions on the effectiveness of the strategies were assessed using a Likert type scale. Data on HFS were collected using Household Dietary Diversity (HDD) and Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HF1AS) which were also used to determine the incidence of food insecurity. Multiple regression models were used to establish the relationships between HDD/ HFIAS and CCCS. The commonly practised coping strategies were irrigation, the use of short-term crop varieties, sale of family labour, early planting, late planting, crop diversification, involvement in petty business, sale of livestock and poultry, tree planting and land intensification, purchase food on credits, borrowing food from friends or relatives, cultivation in wet areas and sending children to eat at neighbour houses. The study revealed that all the strategies were perceived effective in ensuring HFS with exception of the last two. Results of multiple regressions showed that HFS measured by HFIAS was significant and positively related to land intensification {beta = 0.34, P < 0.05) and early planting {beta = 0.20, P < 0.05). Also, HFS measured by HDD was significant and positively related to crop diversification {beta — 0.39, P < 0.05). Although majority of the strategies were perceived effective in ensuring HFS, only the above three were effective. Therefore, these strategies could be strengthened, advocated and integrated in different local and national developmental interventions to improve community members’ resilience towards climate change and vulnerability to food insecurity.
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    An assessment of rehabilitation approaches for persons with mental and physical disability in Morogoro Region
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture., 2008) Mbambe, Lucy Eugen
    More than half a billion persons are disabled as a result of mental, physical or sensory impairment. Tanzania is estimated to have 3,346.900 people with disabilities, and the majority of whom live in rural areas. Tanzania, like other countries, provides rehabilitation as a right to the disabled, but there are very few institutions that provide rehabilitation in Tanzania. Morogoro Region is one of the Regions in Tanzania that have a number of people with physical and mental disabilities. A cross sectional study on comparative assessment of Institutional Based Rehabilitation (IBR) and Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) approaches for persons with disabilities in Morogoro, in terms of their suitability and effectiveness under Tanzanian conditions was done. The study conducted in Morogoro Region, involved a total of 60 respondents, 30 respondents from Institution Based Rehabilitation and 30 respondents from Community Based Rehabilitation. The data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) computer software program. It was found that there are different services provided in different institutions in Morogoro. And the Effects of the services provided show that 67.7% have experienced changes and the remaining 33.3% had no changes due to staying too far from the centre, poverty, and severe disability. Advantages of CBR are: - interactions, familiarisation of the environments, get love from the parents, and develop the mind. Advantages of IBR are to live independently, creating understanding, vocational skills and avoiding sexual abuse. The study concludes that service provided to these institutions that have different approaches have shown slight differences. Approaches for both IRB and CBR need to be the same in terms of quality and quantity service provided, because both rehabilitate persons with mental and physical disability to live independently and provide skills to them according to their interests
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    Household poverty and child labour in Kyela District Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2006) Mwamkinga, Godwin Hezron Hamisi
    This study was done in six rural villages of Matema and Ipinda wards, Ntebela division of Kyela District, Tanzania to study the causes of child labour in rural areas of the district and the factors which perpetuate the problem. The study design was cross-sectional whereby 120 children and 36 households were purposely sampled in equal numbers from each village, and data were collected using structured questionnaire, check list of questions and focus group discussions. Children of the age 5 to 14 years were studied. Computer software of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was employed to code, enter and analyse the data. The study found that the factors influencing child labour in the area are household poverty indicated mainly by low household income as the main cause; many economic activities per household leading to bad/wrong time of working, long duration in hours of work per day and improper socialisation of children; adults and children migration in search of employment; marriage instability and breakage; children orphanage; children personal needs; allurement of children by casual daily or seasonal wage employers; low education level of the household head and lastly children not being interested in schooling. The null hypothesis was adopted since the chi-square test (single tailed test) show that p=0.0755 (p>0.05) at 5% significance level. In conclusion the study has dwelt on and revealed that many agricultural and non-agricultural household activities which are done to reduce poverty in the rural villages have side effects on the high participation of the children of the same households as child labourers. Therefore it is mainly recommended that the government should help people in rural areas to reduce household poverty and in turn the households will reduce and eliminate child labour.
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    Privatization and employment opportunities in Morogoro Municipality
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2006) Mdule, Kidawa Omari
    A study on privatization and the livelihood of the people was conducted in Morogoro Municipality in Morogoro Region. The general objective of the study was to assess the impact of privatization on employment opportunities in Morogoro Municipality. Specifically to: assess the employment opportunities before and after privatization; assess the categories of employees; assess the living standard of laid off employees; assess the attitude of employees towards privatization. Number of employees, skill, job contracts and income are indicators of employment opportunities, number of meals, housing, clothes and ability to manage education cost and asset ownership were indicators of livelihood. Structured, unstructured questionnaire and direct observation were used to collect data. The total sample size was 105 respondents of which 85 respondents were from industries. Among them there were 4 top managerial officers and another 20 respondents were retrenched employees. The employment opportunities have decreased by 52% therefore null hypothesis was accepted. All top managerial officers were skilled, 53% of other industrial workers were unskilled and 47% were skilled. About 76.5% of employees were temporarily employed. The income of employees ranged between 30 000- 50 000 Tsh per month which was inadequate for livelihood sustenance. Chi Square Test revealed no statistically significant association (p>0.005) between training and salaries per month. The laid off employees were 80% skilled; only 20% unskilled and 55% had an experience of more than ten years. The income of some laid off employees was low and unsustainable and fluctuates compared to earnings from formal sector therefore were not able to sustain their livelihood. The highest meal cost was 5 000 Tsh and the lowest cost was I 500iii Tsh per day and about 75% paid house rent of 5 000- 8 000 Tsh per month which was difficult for them to afford. The employees showed negative attitude towards privatization. The study also revealed other findings such as sabotage, corruption and abusive language. The study concluded that; the employment opportunities have decreased, some factories were closed and some operated under capacity after privatization, new technology introduced was very little; the living standard of laid off employees was affected. The recommendations are; the government is required to monitor and supervise employment opportunity; to review privatization contract documents; to review workers salaries; preparations for the payment of the retrenched.
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    The household food security coping strategies among the poorest of the poor in Mvomero District, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture., 2006) Nguya, Nuru Rashid
    The key elements to determine food security include availability of enough food for active and healthy life, the access and stability of food supply. Many studies have been done on food security coping strategies. The studies say little (if any) about the poorest of the poor (POP). This implies many studies still report on poor people coping strategies towards food security with little information on the strategies for the poorest. This study determines the household food security coping strategies among the POP in Mvomero district. Specifically the study sought to define the POP, determine amount of food produced and establish household socio-economic status. Other objectives of the study included, identifying types of food storage and determining level of utilization of improved agricultural technology. The study adopted multi-stage s ampling technique. Before q uantitative s urvey the POP were identified by using Participatory Rural Appraisal methods. The sample size included 180 respondents. Data from these respondents were analyzed by using quantitative and qualitative methods, using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and structural function analysis respectively. The study revealed that farming was the main economic activity. However, the activity is not efficiently carried on due to lack of improved agricultural technology and lack of capital for buying agro-chemicals such as fertilizers. Inadequate education was also found to be constraints that affect the life of the poorest. To cope with food shortage the study came out with 10 strategies including purchasing food on credit and borrowing food from neighbour. The study concluded, the poorest live in miserable conditions, which are attributed to the low level of agricultural technology and inadequate education. Therefore, Government should provide subsides for agro-chemicals to the poorest of the poor. Also the community members should pay attention to welfare of the poorest in the village by bringing them together with other social group in the development interventions
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    Potential of “payment for ecosytem services - PES” as an effective tool for water management of the Uluguru Watershed in Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture., 2013) Mlasi, Tabu Mabonyesho
    A study was carried out in the Uluguru watersheds from November 2011 to June 2012 to evaluate the potential of Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) to serve as an effective watershed management tool; and the results should be used for formulating policies and strategies for sustainable management of watersheds in the Uluruguru Mountains. The specific objectives were to assess the Willingness to Pay (WTP) for watershed services in the Uluguru Mountains; evaluate the Willingness to Accept Compensation (WTAC) of communities residing in the Uluguru Mountains for conserving watersheds, and assess factors which influence the WTP and WTAC for ecosystem conservation in the study area. A total of 120 households were covered. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) and its variant, the Choice Experiment (CE) constituted the key approaches to the study. The results of non­ parametric and parametric WTP indicated that the non-parametric approach yielded lower mean WTP estimates than the parametric approach even when compared with the univariate model. The mean WTP for the nonparametric approach was TZS 4200 compared to TZS 7500 and TZS 6600 for univariate and multivariate parametric analyses, respectively. Potential revenues from water charges for domestic uses in Morogoro Municipality, that could to fund the watershed management was estimated at TZS 31.99 million per month or TZS 383.92 million annually. The results of Choice Experiment (CE) showed that upstream farmers would need to be compensated at the rate of about TZS 100 000 per ha per year for developing terraces with 4 rows of trees and grass strips on 1% of their agricultural area. For a 1% increase of area containing terraces with 4 rows of trees and grass strips upstream farmers would need a compensation of more than TZS 400 000 per ha per year. Age and education revealed positive role in the willingness to adopt environmentally friendly practices under a PES. Key recommendations from the study include the need to carry out activities towards informing and educating the public about PES and its advantages. The public should be informed the various environmental services they benefit from. Likewise, binding agreements and a specific regulatory among service providers of environmental services need to be established to facilitate the implementation of compensation measures on a broader scale.
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    An assessment of the local authorities’ policy response to the informal sector in selected wards in Morogoro Municipality.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture., 2009) Mtapa, Josephat Kilima
    It is not possible to list the hundreds of people who willingly helped me in the course of carrying out this study, who offered me a great deal of their time and expertise on the subject matter. However, with great pleasure I shall make some exceptions. I would like to specifically thank the management of the Sokoine University of Agriculture which granted me a study leave and tuition fees waiver that enabled me to register for M.A (Rural Development) at SUA. In a very special way, my thanks go to my Supervisor Prof. Z.S.K Mvena for his guidance and very valuable constructive comments and suggestions which have impacted positively in shaping up my ideas through all stages in accomplishing this task. I feel privileged to work under him. I am deeply indebted to the staff of Development Studies Institute at SUA, Prof. E. Mwageni, Prof. D.S. Kapinga, Mr. M.I. Muhanga and Dr. S. Mbwambo who in various ways contributed to this work. It would be very unfair if I don’t acknowledge those who did help me in the course of data collection from various officials at Morogoro Municipal offices and Ward Executive Officers at Kingo, Mji Mkuu, Saba Saba and Kiwanja cha Ndege.
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    Influence of personal attributes and selected business support services on growth of micro enterprises in Kigoma District, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2015) Kizanye, Lucy
    This study examined the influence of personal attributes (i.e self-motivation and innovation) and selected business supportive services (i.e financial services and enterprise networking) on micro enterprises growth in Kigoma District. The study also sought to identify the best predictor of micro enterprises growth among personal attributes and business support services. To attain these objectives a cross sectional research design was used in which 110 micro enterprise owners in two sectors of the economy (i.e retail and services) in the District were interviewed. Both purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used in the study in which descriptive and multiple linear regression model were used to analyze data. The findings confirmed positive influence of self motivation on the growth of micro enterprises implying that self motivated owners are more likely to open more enterprises, spend more hours in managing their enterprises and desire to generate profits for further business expansion. However, innovation of micro enterprises was found to have no influence on growth of micro enterprises. Networking recorded negative influence on growth of micro enterprises suggesting that the more time owners spend in enterprise networking activities the less the enterprise growth is realized. This is due to the fact that enterprise partners build a relationship on non enterprise activities which could not create network capability for enterprise advantage. Financial services of micro enterprises has no influence on growth of micro enterprise suggesting that financial services do not influence growth of enterprises in the study area. Financial services in the study area were not accessible to enterprise owners due to tough collaterals, high interest rates and short payback period. The best predictor that explains variance of growth of micro enterprises is self motivation due to its high p values compared to business support services.
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    Contribution of tourism to the reduction of youth income poverty: a case of Moshi District, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2013) Kafupa, Leonard
    The study aimed at assessing the contribution of the tourism sector in reducing youth income poverty in Moshi District. The study was guided by three research questions focusing on perceptions of youth on being employed in the tourism sector, effectiveness of the tourism sector in reducing youth income poverty and challenges facing youth from accessing tourism income. The study was conducted in Marangu area in Moshi District Kilimanjaro Tanzania. A cross sectional research design was adopted to collect information on how the tourism sector contributes to the reduction of youth income poverty. Data were collected from 120 respondents who were hoteliers, tour guides, tour operators, porters, sculptors and sellers in the tourism sector. The respondents were obtained through purposive and simple randomly sampling techniques. Primary data were collected using a questionnaire, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software was used to analyse the collected data in which descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were computed. Findings from the study show that the tourism sector contributed to poverty alleviation among the youth employed in the sector. Paired-samples t-test analysis revealed a significant (P< 0.001) difference average level of 5% between income gained by the youth before and after joining the tourism sector. Although the tourism sector is contributing to youth’s income poverty reduction there are still some challenges facing the youth who work in the sector. The study recommends that more efforts should be done for the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism to make sure that the sector is contributing more.
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    Household coping strategies with vulnerability to food insecurity in rural areas of Maswa district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2012) Gyunda, Abel Elia
    A study aimed at investigating the strategies used by households to cope with food insecurity was carried out in Maswa District, Shinyanga Region. Specifically the study sought: (1) To measure the degree of food insecurity in households in the study area; (2) To identify the coping strategies employed by households; and (3) To determine household characteristics associated with various food insecurity coping strategies. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design where a questionnaire was applied to collect data from a sample size of 126 households while a checklist was used to interview nine (9) key informants in three randomly selected wards. Quantitative data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) computer software and qualitative data were summarized and analyzed using non-statistical methods. Chi-square was used to test relationship between food insecurity situation and household characteristics as well as association between coping strategies and household characteristics. Findings from this study showed that food insecurity in the study area is still a problem (>30% of households are food insecure). It was also found that residence of respondent, sex, household size, level of income and size of land owneu have influence on food insecurity situation. The most common coping strategies used by households included casual labour, getting support from government/NGOs, changing diets, skipping and eating fewer meals. It was also observed that sex; household size, age dependency ratio, education level, size of land owned and income earned were significantly associated with getting support from government/NGOs, changing diets, skipping and eating fewer meals as food insecurity coping strategies when fac-. 1 with food shortages. This finding implies that household characteristics have great influence on choosing food coping strategies in the study area.
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    Effectiveness of training and technical assistance provided by microfinance institutions to women microenterprises: a case of Sido, Arusha Region
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2014) Makundi Millen
    This study was conducted in Arusha region with the aim of assessing the effectiveness of training and technical assistance (TTA) provided by SIDO to the performance of women owned microenterprises. Specifically, this study was intended to characterize TTA provided by SIDO to the women’s microenterprises; assess factors associated with the current business performance of women owned enterprises; and assess the effectiveness of TTA provided by SIDO on business performance of women owned enterprises. The study employed quantitative and qualitative research designs and data were collected using questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to a total of 90 respondents, 61 of which had received TTA and 29 respondents had received loan only. In addition, five key informants were interviewed. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentages and inferential statistics mainly multiple regression and independent t-test. The study findings indicate that most TTA provided by SIDO were entrepreneurship, business management and technical training with assistance on marketing, product labels, selection of machine and advice onbusiness. Factors for success of women microenterprises were found to be the age of enterprise, availability of funds, age of the respondents as well as training and technical assistance. TTA provided by SIDO had positive influence on business. Groups of women microenterprises with loans and TTA obtained higher profit and accumulated assets with high value compared to those groups with loans only. The study recommendes that microfinance institutions (MFIs) should increase TTA for their clients to enable them improve their business performance. It is also recommended that microentrepreneurs should proactively make use of TTA provided by MFIs in order to improve their business performance.
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    Effectiveness of warehouse receipt system in cashew nuts marketing in Mtwara region.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2010) Kassiane .C
    WRS, history of which started in Tanzania in 2000, was adopted in Mtwara region in 2007/08 cashew marketing season. There is a need to know its: key actors roles, influence on distribution of benefits among them, impact on farmers’ participation in decision making, major achievements, challenges, effects on farm gate price and cashew farmers’ responses to it. This study was intended to satisfy this need. Cross sectional research design was applied. Questionnaires were used to obtain information from 120 randomly sampled farmers whilst interview guides were employed to get data from purposively selected key informants. Documents provided secondary data. SPSS version 12 aided data analysis. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Hence frequencies and percentages were determined and farmers’ costs and returns and average market share were computed. In this study actors were found to have: distinct roles such as coordination and warehousing. Sulphur and its alternative usage were influenced by compulsory savings and government input subsidies. WRS had managed to: restore cashew nuts grading, reduce cash and crop losses, and improve cashew nuts marketing records. However, WRS was not used in other cashew areas in 2008/09. Constraints noted were; untimely, inadequate and inconsistent resources supply, violation of WRS and fair trade laws, many levies and political interferences. It is recommended that: WRS be replicated in all cashew nuts growing areas, there should be adequate and consistent resources supply, WRS and fair trade laws must be enforced and cashew' kernel domestic market need special emphasis. Also, levies and taxes on cashew nuts should be reviewed, DIFs should be abolished, cashew nuts farmers must be represented in decision making organs, politics in cashew business should be ended and more related studies need to be encouraged.
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    Land use conflicts between pastoralists and farmers in Kilosa district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2006) Tsoxo, Mark Joseph
    Land use conflicts between pastoralists and crop farmers in Tanzania arc becoming prominent. Kilosa District in Morogoro Region has been experiencing these conflicts frequently. The survey was conducted in Mfilisi, Mbwade and Rudewa Batini villages in the district with the main objective of determining causes and solutions to land use conflicts between pastoralists and farmers. Ninety respondents, with equal number of pastoralists and farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire. PRA methods and key informants interviews were also used in gathering information from local officials and members of village conflict resolution committees. The major causes of the conflicts revealed include cattle grazing on crops in fields, unclear land demarcations, and land shortage, poor and low level of education, poor and/or lack of social and veterinary services in pastoral allocated areas, ethnicity and lack of respect between group members. Other causes were increase in livestock population, high and unbearable fines (penalties), lack of instant response to conflict and bad governance. The study also highlighted solutions of the conflicts between pastoralists and farmers. The major solutions at village level included effective use of the village conflict resolution committees, individual negotiations and proper allocation of village land. General solutions determined include establishment and respect of land demarcations, education, reduce number and improve livestock management, respect between group members, establishment and improvement of social and veterinary services in pastoral allocated areas. Also review of land policies and good governance were among major solutions. Conflicts between pastoralists and farmers can be resolved and managed in a democratic way. Involvement of main actors (farmers and pastoralists) can contribute significantly in maintaining peace and manage conflicts between pastoralists and farmers.
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    Factors affecting adoption of 15 % NaCI solution technique for separating rice seeds: a study of Ndungu rice project in Same district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2001) Mattijo, Angelina Julius
    A study to identify factors affecting adoption of 15% sodium chloride (NaCI) solution, a seed separating technique was conducted at Ndungu rice project, Same District. A cross sectional research design, which allows collection of information at a single point in time, was adopted. Structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 75 respondents of which 45 had adopted the salt solution technique while 30 had not. The data were analysed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) computer software. The study described the importance of seed health and methods used by the farmers to separate infected seeds. In the process it was examined how informed the farmers were, their attitudes towards innovation’s benefits, and the associated reasons for adopting and not-adopting the technology. The results of the present study revealed that, attitudes and practices towards method of seed selection, source of information, and level of education were significantly (P>0.001) associated with adoption. Some of the major factors, which limited adoption of 15 % NaCI solution technique, were insufficient water for irrigation and lack of awareness. Other limiting factors were lack of motivation and inadequate extension services, which resulted in poor participation in seminars. Although Chi- square test did not show a significant (P>0.05) association between extent of adoption and gender, participation of women was discouraged by their limited access to ownership of resources, information and household decisions. It is recommended that research should be geared towards conserving more water; promotion and dissemination of farming techniques which are relevant to local conditions and that are environmentally friendly, and creation of voluntary farmers’ groups whose farms will be used as demonstration plots.
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    The contribution of microfinance institutions to poverty reduction among women: a case study of Rombo District, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2013) Tarimo Beatrice Gasper
    This study would not have been accomplished without the technical and moral assistance of many persons. Appreciations arc extended to all those who, in one way or another contributed to the success of this study. In the first place, I am very grateful to my supervisor, Dr. E. E. Chingonikaya, of Development Studies Institute (DSI) for his tireless guidance, constructive advice, overall encouragement and assistance throughout the research part of my M.A (Rural Development Degree Programme). Without his educational ideas and moral support this study would not have been accomplished. My appreciation also goes to my beloved parents Mr. Gasper Tarimo and Mrs. Priscilla Gasper ,who laid down the foundation of my education. I am very grateful for their encouragement, moral support and prayers throughout the period of my studies. I also acknowledge my lovely husband Mr. Mengi Togwa who provided both financial and moral support throughout the research part of this study. Special thanks go to my beloved sons Joshua Mengi and Joel Mengi who accepted my stay in the classroom and the being far from them to late hours and weekends in order to accomplish this study. Lastly, but not less important, my appreciation goes to the staff and colleagues in Development Studies Institute (DSI) for their constant encouragement throughout the course of this study. I remain solely responsible for any errors in content or design inherent in this dissertation.