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    Dietary intake and diversity among children of age 6–59 months in lowland and highland areas in Kilosa District in Morogoro, Tanzania
    (Elservier, 2023-06-27) Mrema, J.D.; Nyaruhucha, C.N.; Mwanri, A.W.
    Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is essential to ensure children’s growth, health, and development to their full potential. Geographical area may influence dietary intake and, hence, the population’s nutritional status. This study aimed to assess dietary intake among children aged 6–59 months in the lowland and highland areas in the Kilosa District, Morogoro. A cross-sectional study involved 200 randomly selected households from the lowland and 141 in the highland areas. Socio-demographic characteristics, feeding prac­ tices, and 24-h dietary recall information were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. In assessing dietary intake, a single day 24-h dietary recall was used where a mother/care giver was asked to recall foods and beverages fed to the child in the 24 h prior to the interview. Mean daily nutrient intake (calorie, vitamin A, iron, calcium and zinc) were estimated using NutriSurvey version 2007 with food database from Tanzania Food composition table. Furthermore, Dietary Diversity Score was done by grouping the mentioned foods into the seven main food groups which are grains, roots and tubers; legumes and nuts; Vitamin A rich fruits and vege­ tables; other fruits and vegetable; dairy products; and flesh foods and eggs. For each food group consumed, a score of one was assigned and a zero score for the non-consumed group. Inadequate intakes of vitamin A, cal­cium, and iron were observed more in younger children of age 6–12 months, where none of them met the RDA in both areas. There was a significant difference only in fat intake in children aged 12–36 months between the lowland and highland areas. Children who reside in the lowland area had a significantly more diversified diet. Nutrition education with promotion of home gardening and keeping small animals is necessary to ensure household food availability which subsequently will facilitate dietary diversification.
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    Farmer’s knowledge and practices on proper use of pesticides on tomato production to ensure safety among consumers: a case study of Mvomero district, Morogoro
    (Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2023) Fundikira, S. S.; Selestine, E.; Msollo, S. S.
    Farmer’s knowledge and practices on proper use of pesticides in vegetables production is very crucial for increasing productivity while reducing the associated health risks. However, knowledge and practices on the use of pesticides in tomatoes production is limited. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing knowledge and practices on proper use of pesticides in tomatoes production for appropriate interventions. A cross sectional study was done at Doma and Mlali wards in Mvomero district among 120 randomly selected tomato farmers who were face to face interviewed using a questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done using SPSSTM version 20. Results showed that 100% of farmers used pesticides to control tomato pests and diseases of which 54% preferred Snow tiger (Chlorofenapyr) and Dudumetrin (Sumithrin). About 85% reported to be reading pesticide instructions before applying but 45.8% among them did not adhere to the instructions claiming the recommended dosage to be inefficient. About 57% harvest tomatoes after seven days while others harvest at any time when they get customers. Ninety two percent of the farmers know the effects of improper use of pesticides on health however; among them 20% are not sure of the specific health effects. Knowledge on health effects of improper use of pesticide was significantly associated with reading instructional labels (AOR 2.99, 95% CI: 1.06-3.95) after adjusting for education levels and attending trainings on pesticides use. Generally, there is low knowledge on proper use of pesticides in tomatoes production and their associated health effects which creates a need for educating farmers and the public on proper use of pesticides to safeguard the health of consumers.
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    Knowledge and perceptions on overweight and obesity among adults in Same district, Tanzania
    (East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation, 2023-09-14) Massawe, E. S.; Msollo, S. S.
    Overweight and obesity are nutritional problems requiring great attention in both developed and developing countries where nutrition knowledge is confined to few people allied with health sectors. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess knowledge and perception about overweight and obesity among 362 adults aged 25-55 years in Same District, Kilimanjaro Region. This age group comprises active people at higher risk of non-communicable diseases, and much of the effects may not be due to aging. A structured questionnaire was administered through a face-to-face interview to obtain demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge and perception about overweight and obesity. Standard WHO Anthropometric procedure of weight and height measurement was used to obtain Body Mass Index (BMI) which was categorized as normal (18.5-24.9kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9kg/m2) and obesity (≥30 kg/m2). A high prevalence of overweight (23%) and obesity (17%) was observed among adults. Women were more overweight (28%) and obese (23%) as compared to men (14%) and (6%) respectively. About 80% perceived their body weight as being normal but in reality, only 51% were confirmed to be normal. Also, 22% of overweight respondents perceived their body weight as normal and 10.5% of obese people perceived their BMI as being overweight. Nevertheless, 60% perceived an obese person as healthy and rich and 26% perceived a thin person as poor and unhealthy because they associated thinness with illness such as HIV/AIDS. Obesity was significantly related to income, sex, parity of the mother, education levels, perception and employment status at P<0.005. The high prevalence of overweight and obesity, lack of nutrition knowledge and poor perception about body weight may increase the risks of developing non- communicable diseases. Hence, these findings will assist health-related stakeholders to design appropriate interventions to reduce the problems.
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    Compliance to recommended prevention and management practices among type 2 diabetes patients in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 2024-04-02) Bofu, Hasna; Msollo, Safiness Simon; Mwanri, Akwilina Wendelin
    Introduction: Diabetes-related complications are the significant causes of morbidity and mortality among type 2 diabetes patients. The complications can be reduced by practising and maintaining several preventive measures. The present study aimed to assess compliance and factors associated with recommended management practices and prevention of complications among type 2 diabetes patients in selected health facilities in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2023 among 140 patients diagnosed with diabetes for at least three months before the study. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire, which included patients’ characteristics and a previously validated Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities questionnaire to assess patients' compliance with recommended practices. A multi variable regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with compliance with recommended practices. Results: The mean age of the respondents was59 ±12.08 years and 65% were females. Among 140 patients, 91.4% (n=128) had poor or unsatisfactory self-care practices with an overall mean of 3.81± 2.08 days per week for diabetes management. The recommended practices with good or satisfactory performance were non-smoking, non-alcohol drinking and prescribed medication. In contrast,unsatisfactory performance was observed for self-monitoring blood glucose and physical activities. Multiple regression analysis showed that co-morbidity (AOR 4.5; 95% CI: 1.14-18.02) and being employed (AOR 4.4; 95% CI:1.25-15.44) independently predict self-care practices. Conclusion and recommendation: Compliance with self-monitoring of blood glucose, physical exercise and dietary practices were found to be low among type 2 diabetes patients, which could increase the risk of complications. Nutritional and lifestyle counselling and the use of peer groups should be emphasized to improve compliance with recommended practices.
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    Prevalence, knowledge and practices on prevention and management of overweight and obesity among adults in Dodoma City, Tanzania
    (PLOS ONE, 2024-01-30) Msollo, Safiness Simon; Shausi, Gosbert Lukenku; Mwanri, Akwilina Wendelin
    Overweight/obesity is increasing leading to high rates of non-communicable diseases. The study aimed to assess the prevalence, knowledge and practices on prevention and management of overweight/obesity among adults in Dodoma region. Methodology A cross- sectional research was conducted among 313 randomly selected adults aged 25– 65 years. Face to face interviews were conducted to obtain demographic information, knowledge on preventing and managing overweight/obesity using a pre-tested questionnaire. Weight and height were measured following standard procedures and nutrition status was categorized using WHO criteria. Dietary intake was assessed using qualitative 24 hours recall to obtain dietary diversity score. Data was analyzed using the SPSS™ Version 20 to obtain descriptive and inferential statistics. Results About 62.6% (n = 196) of the participants were females. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 59.7% (n = 186) of which 28% (n = 88) were overweight and 31.3% (n = 98) obese. Obesity was three times higher among females (41.8% vs 13.7%) than males. Overweight/obesity was positively associated with female sex (Adjusted OR 2.34; 95%CI: 1.235–4.68; p = 0.001), low knowledge (Adjusted OR 2.15; 95%CI: 1.22–3.81; p = 0.008) and negatively associated with dietary diversity score (Adjusted OR 0. 452; 95%CI: 0.199– 1.87; p = 0.03). About 76% of respondents reported that overweight/obesity is a result of consuming high energy (38.8%; n = 92) and high fat foods (27%; n = 63). More than half of the respondents reported to be insensitive with kind of foods they consume and for those who were sensitive, 64% do so to avoid diseases. Furthermore, 60% control their weight by doing physical exercises while 18% by both physical exercises and diet management. However, about 43% did not know foods exposing individuals to health problems. Conclusion and recommendations High prevalence of overweight/obesity was observed and significantly associated with female sex, low dietary diversity and knowledge on overweight/obesity prevention. This creates a need to improve knowledge on prevention of overweight/obesity.
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    Dietary diversity and anthropometric status of students at universities in Dodoma and Morogoro Regions, Tanzania
    (AJOL, 2024-04) Muhimbula Happiness; Mgetta Neema John
    Background: Young adulthood is a transitional period that provides an opportunity to influence immediate and future eating behavior and good nutritional status. As diets evolve during young adulthood due to changes in circumstances and the introduction of new influences, young adults are a significant population group that influences future eating behaviours and prevents the development of NCDS. There is scanty information on the relationship between dietary diversity and the nutritional status of university students in Tanzania. This study aimed to find the synergy between university students' anthropometric status and dietary diversity in Morogoro and Dodoma regions of Tanzania. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 247 University students in Morogoro and Dodoma regions (130 from Mzumbe University and 117 from Saint John’s University) respectively. The two Universities were purposively selected from each region. Data on Dietary diversity was collected using food groups from DDS to obtain the dietary score of each student. Anthropometric measures such as weight, height and waist circumference were done to obtain the anthropometric status of the University students. Results: The descriptive cross-sectional study involved 247 University students. In comparative chi-square analysis, the association was found among different socio-demographic characteristics of the University students. The p-value < 0.05 was used to determine the association among the variables. Conclusion: In conclusion, university students are a vulnerable group in developing obesity/overweight due to the transitional stage. Being overweight and obese was associated with being female, increased age and being married. High dietary diversity was also linked with abdominal obesity. Factors that can help describe and understand the anthropometric status of university students have also been identified. These include years of study, religion, and university location. Therefore, efforts to adopt good lifestyle behaviours should be sensitized amongst this sub-population to reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases in the long run.
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    Drivers of millet consumption among school aged children in Central Tanzania
    (2021-08) Chande Monica; Muhimbula Happiness; Mremi Ruth; Muzanila Yasinta C.; Kumwenda Nelson C; Msuya John; Msere Harry; Bekunda Mateete; Okori Patrick; Gichohi-Wainaina Wanjiku N.
    Background: Iron and zinc deficiency are common public health problems in low-income countries largely due to poor consumption of iron and zinc rich foods. It has previously been observed that 57% of school aged children (SAC) in Tanzania suffer from anemia. In addition, estimates indicate that over 25% of the population have inadequate zinc intake. Pearl millet is an example of a nutrient dense, resilient cereal crop, that can be promoted to diversify diets and combat iron and zinc deficiency. This study overall aim was to increase pearl millet consumption among school aged (5 – 12 years) children. As part of the study, we investigated, the drivers of food choice relating to pearl millet consumption. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study of randomly selected households in Kongwa district, Dodoma region of Tanzania. In total, 128 women of reproductive age (20 – 49 years) were randomly selected for the study. A study questionnaire consisting of 66 items, was developed and validated. The constructs in the questionnaire were categorized in two groups: internal and external factors. Respondents were asked to indicate their level of agreement or disagreement with statements read to them by interviewers. The scores on intention and behavior constructs were based on the number of times caregivers intended to, or had fed their school going children with pearl millet in the referent month. Intention was considered high if it was higher than the median intention score of the group, and low if it was equal to or lower than the median scores. Correlations and multiple linear regressions were performed to measure association between constructs and to identify predictive constructs. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for score comparison. Results: There was a significant difference between intention and behavior among those who did not consume pearl millet (P = 0.003), and those who consumed pearl millet two or more times a week, in the same month (P = 0.01). Knowledge was significantly correlated with behavior identity (ρ = 0.58, P = 0.001), while health behavior identity was significantly correlated with intention (ρ = 0.31, P = 0.001). Intention of caregivers was significantly and positively correlated (ρ = 0.44, P = 0.001) with and predicted consumption of pearl millet (ρ = 0.87, P = 0.067). Conclusion: Increasing knowledge or awareness on nutritional benefits of pearl millet among caregivers may increase consumption of pearl millet by children of school going age.
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    Overweight and obesity among adults in Same District, Tanzania
    (AJOL, 2016) Msollo, S. S.; Chivaghula T. J.; Muhimbula H. S.; Krawinkel M.; Kinabo J.
    Overweight and obesity are malnutrition which needs great attention due to their health consequences. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 362 adults aged 25-55 years in 2012 to examine the prevalence of overweight, obesity and risk factors through; assessing nutritional status, dietary intake and physical activities in lowland and highland areas of Same District, Kilimanjaro Region. Demographic, dietary intake and physical activity were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were determined using standard WHO procedures. Data were analyzed using Statistical Product and Service Solutions version 16, excels and NutriSurvey 2007 program. The prevalence of overweight was 23% and obesity 17%. Women were more than 4 times likely to be overweight and obese compared to men (OR 5.53, 95% CI: 3.11 – 9.82). Lowland had high prevalence of overweight and obesity compared to highland areas (OR 2.034, 95% CI: 1.138-2.952). About 33% of lowland subjects had excess energy intake compared to 23% of highland (p=0.050). Positive energy balance was significantly associated with overweight and obesity (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.66 – 1.91). The mean Physical Activity Level for highland was 2.2 compared to 1.87 of lowland areas (p<0.05). Overweight and obesity was significantly related to income, sex, residence, education, farming technology, carrying produce, occupation, employment, energy balance and age (P<0.005). The high prevalence of overweight and obesity especially in lowland may be due to physical activities and energy intake which are controllable. These findings will assist health stakeholders to allow design of appropriate interventions to reduce the problems
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    Determinants of infant nutrition status in rural farming households before and after harvest
    (WILEY, 2019-04-06) Muhimbula Happiness; Kinabo Joyce; O'Sullivan Aifric
    Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices determine infant growth, develop- ment and health. Despite global recommendations for exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months, adherence rates are low worldwide for different reasons, largely dependent on environment. In low‐income countries, inappropriate IYCF leads to poor nutrition status. This study examined IYCF practices and nutrition outcomes in rural farming households in Tanzania before and after harvest. Mothers and their infants were recruited from two regions in Tanzania. Demographics, health status, IYCF practices, anthropometrics and haemoglobin were measured; preharvest and postharvest. Regression analysis modelled the relationship between IYCF and nutrition outcomes. Despite high rates of breastfeeding a large proportion did not meet early initiation of breastfeeding and minimum acceptable diet standards. Undernutrition was high with 30–40% of infants classified as stunted depending on season, and the majority (81%) were anaemic. Early initiation of breastfeeding was associated with higher Length‐ for‐age z‐score and weight‐for‐age z‐score and lower risk of stunting and under- weight (p < 0.05). The introduction of fluids other than breast milk in the first 3 days after birth was associated with lower weight‐for‐age z‐score and increased under- weight (p < 0.05). Maternal age and height were strongly and positively associated with child anthropometrics. Findings confirm the importance of early infant feeding practices for growth and development and emphasize the significance of mother's nutrition status in relation to infant health. Future interventions should focus on improving maternal nutrition status before, during and after pregnancy as well as edu- cating and supporting mothers to adopt appropriate infant feeding including breastfeeding practices for the prevention of undernutrition.
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    Drivers of pigeon pea consumption among school-aged children in Central Tanzania
    (Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 2022-01-03) Gichohi-Wainaina Wanjiku N.; Mremi Ruth; Chande Monica; Msuya John M.; Kumwenda Nelson C.; Muzanila Yasinta C.; Msere Harry; Muhimbula Happiness; Bekunda Mateete; Okori Patrick
    Background: Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and iron deficiencies (ID) are of major public health concern in Tanzania including among school-aged children. PEM and ID in early childhood have serious, long-term consequences because they impede motor, sensory, social and emotional development, growth retardation, poor cognitive development, learning disability of children, lowered resistance to infectious diseases, and reduced physical work capacity. The objective of this study was to elucidate the drivers of pigeon pea consumption among school-aged children in Dodoma district, Central Tanzania. Understanding these drivers would be useful in promoting pigeon pea consumption among school-aged children as one of the strategies to increase dietary protein and iron intake. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study in which data were collected using a questionnaire based on a combination of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Health Belief Model. The data were collected from caregivers (n = 138) in four villages in Kongwa district, Dodoma region, Central Tanzania. We used correlations and multiple regressions to assess associations between constructs and identify predictive constructs. Mann–Whitney U tests were used for score comparisons with a significant p-value set at <0.10. Results: Health value was significantly correlated with health behavior identity (r s = 0.63, p < 0.001) and also significantly predicted health behavior identity (r s = 0.49, p = 0.001). The constructs cues to action and control belief were significantly associated with intention (β = −0.41, p = 0.059 and β = 0.06, p = 0.019 respectively). Finally, we observed that intention was a significant predictor of behavior (β = 1.38, p = 0.001). We also observed a significant negative interaction between perceived barriers and intention to consume pigeon pea (β = −0.04, p = 0.006), indicating that perceived barriers limit intention to consume pigeon pea. Conclusion and Implication: Our findings indicate that when the caregiver places increased importance on preventing her school-aged child from being iron or protein deficient or indeed anemic (health value), it results in a positive evaluation of the effectiveness of giving pigeon pea to address these nutrient deficiencies. Programs and efforts aimed at promoting pigeon pea consumption should focus on educating caregivers on iron and protein deficiency and the role that pigeon pea could play in addressing these. However, perceived barriers such as pest infestation during storage need to be addressed to increase pigeon pea consumption. The involvement of post-harvest management specialists is therefore crucial. Along with this, increasing productivity and crop management is also crucial to ensure year-round affordable supply of pigeon pea.
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    Determinants of child undernutrition in Tanzania: agriculture and season perspective: a review
    (Science Publishing Group, 2024-01-08) Muhimbula, Happiness Samuel
    The causes of undernutrition are known to be complex and interrelated which need responses and solutions from different sectors to effectively design proper nutrition interventions. The UNICEF conceptual framework is a useful tool for understanding the causes of undernutrition and serves as a guide for assessing and analysing the causes, particularly among children in developing countries. Identifying determinants of child nutrition status is a necessary step in designing interventions, policies and programme that can support the scaling up of nutrition. This review scrutinizes undernutrition and its determinants based on the UNICEF conceptual framework on malnutrition. Poor feeding practices and characteristic of complementary foods were observed as immediate causes while household’s food insecurity, environmental factors such as agricultural practices and seasonal influences as underlying determinants particularly in rural households. The highlight from this review suggests that seasons had significant impact on both immediate and underlying determinants of undernutrition and therefore intervention to improve nutrition status should consider variation in agriculture seasons. Lastly, multicomponent interventions focusing on agricultural interventions and practices that are affecting immediate changes in nutrition status among infants and young children are emphasized. Future attempt to improve children nutrition status in rural households should be multicomponent addressing nutrition sensitives farming practices including rural livestock intensification, poverty alleviation and considering agricultural seasons in all planning.
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    Awareness on type 2 diabetes mellitus does not necessarily translate to a better knowledge and practices on prevention and management among adults
    (AJOL, 2023) Msollo, S.S; Shausi, G.L.; Mwanri, A.W.
    The prevalence of diet-related non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes is on the rise in Tanzania. This creates a need to explore knowledge on prevention and management for designing appropriate interventions. This study aimed to assess the prevalence, knowledge and practices on prevention and management of type 2 diabetes among adults in urban areas of Dodoma region. This cross-sectional study involved 313 randomly selected adults. A pre-tested questionnaire adapted from the Tanzania STEPS SURVEY was administered through face-to- face interviews. Fasting blood capillary was tested using Gluco-plusTM. Sixty three percent were females and 53.6% (n=168) completed primary school. About 11% (n=35) had diabetes and 23% (n=72) pre-diabetes of which 82% (n=88) were undiagnosed before this study. About 60% (n=188) knows that diabetes can be prevented whereby 34% (n=64) and 21.3% (n=40) mentioned preventive measures to be physical activities and eating balanced diet respectively. Knowledge was positively associated with education level (AOR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.57-3.25) and female sex (AOR 1.76, 95% CI: 1.08-2.87). Half of the respondents did not know how to manage diabetes; 46% (n=70) mentioned diet as the only management strategy while 24% (n=36) mentioned physical activity. Furthermore, all participants were aware of type 2 diabetes existence of which 48% (n=150) reported it to be a consequence of overweight/obesity. However, about 89% (n=278) were unaware of gestational diabetes. Although pre-diabetes and diabetes rate was high, majorities were undiagnosed before the study and there was limited knowledge on prevention and management of diabetes creating a need for public education.
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    Textural, cooking quality and sensory acceptability of noodles incorporated with Moringa Leaf and sardine powders
    (European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety/ SSRN, 2023) Mpalanzi, Victoria Thobias; Chaula, Davis Naboth; Wenaty, Alex
    Noodles with varying percentages of wheat flour, moringa leaf and Sardine powders were developed and tested for texture, cooking quality, and sensory qualities. Various formulations were used to make the noodle samples. Noodles with moringa leaf powder were developed using in the following wheat and Moringa proportions in percentage: 99.6:0.4 (WM1), 99.2:0.8 (WM2) and 99:1 (WM3). Noodle samples containing sardine powder were created in the following ratios: 95:5 (WS1), 90:10 (WS2), 85:15 (WS3), and 100:0 wheat flour. Textural qualities of the noodle samples were measured, including hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and adhesiveness. The inclusion of moringa leaf powder and sardine powder resulted in a considerable reduction in hardness and cohesiveness when compared to the wheat control. The noodles became softer and less cohesive as the concentration of moringa leaf powder or sardine powder increased. The noodle samples' cooking loss, volume increase and water absorption were also measured. Higher concentrations of moringa leaf powder or sardine powder resulted in greater cooking loss as well as lower volume and water absorption. This implies that the inclusion of these powders altered the texture and water-holding capacity of the noodles. Additionally, sensory evaluations were performed to determine the acceptability of the developed noodles in terms of color, aroma, texture, taste and overall acceptability. The results revealed that when the concentration of moringa leaf powder or sardine powder increased the sensory properties of the noodles samples were altered. Lower concentrations of these powders were related with greater acceptance scores in general. Specific characteristics of the noodles-, such as color, aroma, saltiness and hardness were evaluated using quantitative descriptive analysis. The results showed that adding moringa leaf powder and sardine powders altered these properties with larger concentrations causing more noticeable changes.
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    Changes in fatty acids during storage of artisanal-­processed freshwater sardines (Rastrineobola argentea)
    (WILEY, 2023) Chaula, Davis; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Laswai, Henry S.; Chove, Bernard Elias; Dalsgaard, Anders; Mdegela, Robinson; Hyldig, Grethe
    For ages, indigenous small fish species have been important in food and nutritional security of poor communities in low income countries. Freshwater fish, in particu- lar fatty fish species are attracting a great attention because they are good sources of health promoting long chain omega-­3 fatty acids. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-­3), Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, C22:5n-­3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-­3) are the main omega-­3 PUFAs known to confer health benefits in humans if consumed in required amounts. While nutritionally valued, omega-­3 PUFAs in fish are susceptible to oxidative damage during processing, transportation and subsequent storage. Lake Victoria sardines (Rastrineobola argentea), are rich source of chemically unstable omega-­3 fatty acids DHA, DPA and EPA. Traditionally, sardines are pre- served by sun drying, deep frying and smoking. Sardine products are transported, stored and marketed at ambient temperatures. Generally, uncontrolled and higher temperatures are known to increase vulnerability of polyunsaturated fatty acids to oxidation which in turn results into loss of nutritional and sensory qualities. This study investigated changes of fat acids in sun dried, deep fried and smoked sardines during storage. Lipolysis and the progressive hydroperoxides formation were monitored by free fatty acids (FFAs) and peroxide value (PV) respectively. None volatile secondary products of lipid oxidation were measured by thiobabituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flameionization de- tector (GC-­FID). Deep fried sardines maintained the lowest and apparently stable PV, TBARS and FFAs. Proportions of saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with time while that of monounsaturated fatty acids increased. Omega-­3 fatty acids EPA, DPA and DHA decreased with increase in storage time. In 21 days of storage, DHA was oxidized beyond detectable levels in all sardine products. Gradual increase in FFAs in sun dried sardines was suggestive of lipid hydrolysis induced by enzymes.
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    Sensory properties and consumer acceptability of nutrient dense porridge from locally available foods for infants in Tanzania
    (2016) Marcel, M.; Turyashemererwa, F; Mukisa, I; Mongi, R
    Childhood under nutrition during the first two years of life has been associated with irreversible harm and is linked to higher rates of morbidity, mortality, impaired cognitive ability and poor school performance in children. Low nutrient dense complementary foods are amongst the main causes of childhood malnutrition in developing countries. Thus, the use of locally available nutrient dense foods to improve infants nutrition is of considerable importance. A study to develop and assess sensory properties and consumer acceptability of nutrient dense porridge form locally available foods for infants in Tanzania was carried out in Morogoro region. Five formulations each containing soybeans, amaranth grains, pumpkin seeds and orange fleshed sweet potatoes (SAPO1-SAPO5) at different ratios were developed. The five developed formulations and two control samples were subjected to quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and consumer acceptability tests.With exception of oiliness, significant differences (p≤0.05) were observed between samples tested for all attributes. The formulated samples had significantly higher mean intensity scores of 5.4± 1.67-5.6± 1.67 for aroma, 5.1 ±1.46 -7.0 ±1.44 for hue, 5.3±1.75 - 5.6±1.63 for sweetness and 4.2±1.85-4.6±1.98 for oiliness than control samples. Control samples had higher texture values than formulated samples. Consumer groups showed different acceptability for control and formulations. Mothers preffered control samples to formulations contrary to students who preferred formulated samples to control samples. Furthermore, all formulations had higher scores in aroma, sweetness and oiliness compared to control groups, thickness and grittiness were higher in control groups than formulations, while SAPO 3, 4 and 5 had higher scores of color hue than other samples. SAPO5 was the most accepted formulation by both mothers and students. This suggests that its ingredients ratio produced a most accepted product and hence it can be recommended for adoption.
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    Nutritional evaluation of complementary porridge formulated from orange-­fleshed sweet potato, amaranth grain, pumpkin seed, and soybean flours
    (2021) Marcel, Mary R.; Chacha, James S.; Ofoedu, Chigozie E.
    Supplementing breastmilk with poor energy and nutrient-­dense complementary foodstuffs for young children and infants has resulted in malnutrition, poor growth, and retardation of infant development in many sub-­Saharan African countries. Ensuring nutrient adequacy for infants because of their lower consumption requires energy and nutrient-­dense food. In this context, the nutritional composition of porridge from complementary flour blends of locally available foodstuffs (orange-­ fleshed sweet potato, pumpkin seeds, amaranth grains, and soybeans) was carried out. Complementary flours formulated from flour blends of pumpkin seeds, extru- sion cooked soybean, and orange-­fleshed sweet potato, as well as germinated and extrusion cooked amaranth grains, resulted in varieties of complementary porridges (SAPO1–­SAPO5). From these, proximate composition, mineral content (sodium, iron, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, and zinc), vitamin contents (A and C), and nutri- ent density of the formulated complementary porridge were determined. Results showed that all the formulated complementary porridge were able to meet the stipu- lated standards of energy and nutrient (zinc, iron, vitamin A, and protein) densities. Flour blend ratio, germination process, and extrusion cooking significantly (p < .05) influenced the targeted nutrients of interest, as well as the nutrient and energy densi- ties of the formulated complementary porridge. Specifically, the formulated comple- mentary porridge with 40% amaranth grain, 25% orange-­fleshed sweet potato, 20% soybean, and 15% pumpkin seed composite mixture had 76.92% compliance level with recommended standards, which assure adequate nutrient complementation to breastfeeding. The present study provides a valuable insight that complementary foods from locally obtainable foodstuffs are potential solutions for mitigating child- hood malnutrition and adequate complementation to breastfeeding by proffering the needed energy and nutrient densities required for the immunity, well-­being, growth, and development of young children and infants, without fortification.
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    Trans fatty acids in Tanzania: are consumers and processors aware of the associated health hazards? a case of Morogoro
    (TAJAS, 2021) Nzunda, G.; Kinabo, J.; Chove, L.M.
    Several studies have shown an association between Trans Fatty acids (TFAs) consumption and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). FAO and WHO recommend that the TFAs in human dietary fat should be reduced to less than 1%. This study was conducted to assess the awareness regarding TFAs among consumers and food/oil processors in Morogoro region, using a cross-sectional study design. Study sample included 340 households, whereby 176 were from Morogoro urban and 164 from Morogoro rural districts, as well as 32 food/oil processors (22 = small scale; 10 = large scale). Structured questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics were conducted to determine the awareness on TFAs and the health effects associated with the consumption of foods containing TFAs. About 98% of all consumers had neither knowledge nor awareness about TFAs and associated health effects. Nevertheless, awareness level was observed to improve with residence location and level of education. The level of awareness of TFAs in MjiMkuu ward (urban) was significantly different from Kiroka ward in rural area (OR:=18.111; P= 0.020). No significant differences were observed in the level of awareness between consumers in Kiroka (rural) and in Mazimbu ward (urban) (OR:= 5.397; p=0.126). Large scale food and oil processors were more aware about TFAs than small scale food and oil processors. General awareness on TFAs and the associated adverse health effects among consumers were very low compared to that of processors which were also influenced by residential location and level of education. The current study shows that consumers in the study area were at high risk of exposure to TFAs and developing conditions such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) which may result in stroke, leading to significant disability, emotional problems and death in the worst case.
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    Reduction of preharvest and postharvest losses of sweet orange (citrus sinensis l. osberck) using hexanal in Eastern Tanzania
    (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2019) Mwatawala, Maulid W.; Baltazari, Anna; Msogoya, Theodosy J.; Mtui, Hosea D.; Samwel, Jaspa; Chove, Lucy M.
    Fruits are rich in phytochemicals that protect human populations against diseases (Hung et al. 2004; Dauchet et al. 2006; Bellavia et al. 2013). Nutrients contained in fruits include essential vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, fibers, and carbohydrates that improve the quality of the human diet (Barrett 2007). For example, sufficient daily consumption of fruits can reduce the risks of diabetes, hypertension, heart diseases, and certain types of cancer (Bazzano et al. 2002; Yao et al. 2004). According to FAO/WHO (2003), up to 2.7million lives could potentially be saved each year with sufficient intake of fruits and vegetables. Much of the world’s population, however, does not consume the recommended intake of at least 100g per day of fruits daily. Global production of citrus fruits increased from 144 876 944 tonnes in 2015 to 146 429 018 tonnes in 2016 (FAO 2017). This was coupled with increased global demand for fresh fruits (Weinberger and Lumpkin 2007). Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osberck) is an important tropical fruit with high global demand. Sweet oranges are consumed fresh or processed as juice. Although citrus production increased moderately in several countries in the last decade, it fell in the USA. However, citrus fruit continues to be an important crop for satisfying food and nutrition needs (United States Department of Agriculture 2018). Sweet orange is a good source of potassium, folate, and vitamin C (Turner and Burri 2013). Vitamin C is an antioxidant that lowers risks of cancer, cataract formation, and heart‐related diseases (Harats et al. 1998; Jacques et al. 1997). Folate is necessary for DNA and protein synthesis (Turner and Burri 2013), while potassium helps to maintain normal blood pressure. Sweet orange also contains phenolic compounds that are important antioxidants (Rapisarda et al. 1999; Turner and Burri 2013). Production of sweet orange is a source of employment, income, and livelihood to large, medium, and smallholder farmers in various parts of the globe. Global production of sweet orange increased from 116 million tonnes in 2008 to 124 million tonnes in 2017 (FAO 2017). However, despite the demand due to the nutritional and health benefits, many fruits are highly seasonal and perishable with high preharvest and postharvest losses and wastages (Idah and Aderibigbe 2007). Postharvest losses in fruits and vegetables were estimated to be 30–40% in developing countries (Karim and Hawlader 2005). This chapter presents findings from trials on the effectiveness of different preharvest and postharvest treatments on orange fruit quality. The chapter also provides background information on production, socioeconomic importance, and constraints to orange production in Tanzania.
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    Effects of storage conditions, storage duration and post-harvest treatments on nutritional and sensory quality of orange (Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck) fruits
    (Taylor & Francis Group, 2019-10-15) Baltazari, Anna; Mtui, Hosea D.; Mwatawala, Maulid W.; Chove, Lucy M.; Msogoya, Theodosy; Samwel, Jaspa; Subramanian, Jayasankar
    The fruits of Msasa and Jaffa orange varieties were harvested and subjected to post-harvest treatments namely; dipping in hexanal, dipping in calcium chloride and compared with untreated control; and they were stored at ambient (28 ± 2° C) and reduced temperatures (18 ± 2°C) conditions. Data were collected on the 0, 4 th , 8 th , and 12 th days from the date of fruit harvest. Chemical analyses were conducted to determine vita- min C content, total sugars, reducing sugars and total flavo- noids. Post-harvest treatments had a significant effect on vitamin C and total flavonoids of Jaffa orange fruit. Hexanal treated fruit had higher values of total flavonoids, vitamin C, and total sugars compared to calcium chloride treated and control fruit. The storage durations showed significant effects on the vitamin C content of Jaffa, total flavonoids, the total and reducing sugars of both fruit varieties. Vitamin C and total flavonoids decreased with increasing storage duration of fruit. The significant interactions of factors were observed on total sugar which was increasing with increasing storage duration, but higher in hexanal treated and ambient stored fruit. Based on consumer acceptance test, the hexanal treated fruits were the most liked followed by calcium chloride treated and untreated fruits based on the appearance, taste, texture and overall acceptability.
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    Evaluation of post-harvest losses and shelf life of fresh mango (Mangifera indica L.) in Eastern zone of Tanzania
    (Taylor & Francis Group, 2019-12) Baltazari, Anna; Mtui, Hosea; Chove, Lucy; Msogoya, Theodosy; Kudra, Abdul; Tryphone, George; Samwel, Jaspa; Paliyath, Gopinadhan; Sullivan, Alan; Subramanian, Jayasankar; Mwatawala, Maulid
    Post-harvest loss negatively impacts food security, nutrition and economic stability of farmers, exporters, traders and consumers. Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of post-harvest techniques on the shelf life of Apple and Palmer mango cultivars under different storage conditions. Post-harvest losses of these fruit along the supply chain were also evaluated. A two-factors factorial experiment with six replications was used for each culti- var. Post-harvest techniques included dipping of fruit in hexanal solution (0.02% v/v), calcium chloride solution (2% w/v), smoke treatments and untreated fruit. The fruit were then stored at two different storage conditions namely: ambient temperature (28 ± 2°C) and cold storage (18 ± 2 ° C). Shelf life data was analyzed by using R-software. Mean separation was done by using Tukey Honestly Significant Difference at (p ≤ 0.05). Results showed that the major sites of post-harvest losses were at harvest, transport, wholesale and retail stages of supply chain. Furthermore, post- harvest treatments of fruit with hexanal and calcium chloride significantly increased shelf life and reduced disease incidences compared to untreated control and smoke-treated fruit. Cold storage significantly increased shelf life of mango fruit compared to ambient storage. Therefore, hexanal, calcium chloride and cold storage are recommended to extend fruit shelf life, maintain fruit firmness and to reduce disease incidences in mango fruit.