Development Studies Collection

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    Promoting up scaling of water system innovations: the case of Makanya watershed, Same, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2007) Byakugila, Medardi Mukulasi
    Many innovations have shown to be effective in pilot studies, but the adoption of most of these technologies on a wider scale has always been a concern. In the uplands of the Makanya river watershed, terraces have higher extent of diffusion than in midland. The reasons behind the high extent of adoption of terraces in the uplands were not clearly known. However, these suggested that there could be special strategies behind the diffusion of terraces, which when explored would help to develop strategies for wider adoption and diffusion of water system innovations (WSIs) in the area. A questionnaire survey was used in conjunction with qualitative approaches such as focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and semi structured interviews. Descriptive statistics were the main tool used for data analysis. The findings made on the adoption and diffusion of terraces technologies revealed that time factor, sufficient communities’ awareness on terraces, and intervention by NGOs and development projects were major factors for wider diffusion of terraces technology. Terraces were introduced in the area by the colonial government in 1930s, and in 1980s, NGOs with intervention in soil and water conservation started working in the area. Time factor provided enough opportunity to build sufficient communities’ awareness on terraces. Interventions by NGOs and development projects in the 1980s, underlined the reason for increased uptake of terrace innovations from 1980s though the technology was long before introduced in the study area. The understanding of the diffusion of terraces technology enabled the study to develop a framework that could promote up scaling of water systems innovations (WSIs) at watershed level. The framework could not be tested due to limitation by resources. However it is recommended that it should be tested and improved for successful scaling upiii of WSIs at watershed level. This will bring improved livelihood of people in the watershed. Key elements of the framework are: validation of innovation to be scaled up, introduction to authorities, identification of potential local change agents, establishment of local change agents, employment of appropriate diffusion pathways, and evaluation of the scaling up processes.
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    Vulnerability to and coping strategies against food insecurity in Chamwino district, Tanzania
    (2018) Assenga, Emiliana A.; Kayunze, Kim A.
    Vulnerability to food insecurity persists in Chamwino District in spite of presence of various strategies to fight against it. The research on which this paper is based aimed at determining vulnerability to and coping strategies against food insecurity in the district. Specifically, the paper assesses the extent of vulnerability to food insecurity, determines coping strategies against vulnerability to food insecurity, analyses determinants of vulnerability to food insecurity and compares vulnerability to food insecurity among households with different coping strategies. A cross- sectional research design was used to collect data from 400 households which were randomly selected. A household food insecurity access scale was used to measure vulnerability to food insecurity. Using multiple linear regression total annual household income per adult equivalent, non-farm income generating activities, reducing meal size and food stored significantly influenced (p < 0.05) surveyed households’ vulner- ability to food insecurity. Most households relied on less preferred foods as a food insecurity coping strategy. Households were vulnerable to food insecurity with 75% of households experiencing mildly to severe vulnerability to food insecurity. One-way ANOVA showed that vulnerability to food insecurity differed significantly (p < 0.001) among households with different coping strategies. The paper concludes that coping strategies used against vulnerability to food insecurity had short-term effects, and vulnerability to food insecurity differed significantly based on coping strategies. Improving non-farm income generating activities, total house- hold income and increasing food stored in the household can help more reduce vulnerability to food insecurity than any other factors can do. Ac- cordingly, these factors should be given high importance, among others.
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    Work and Human Ethics in Public Service in Malawi
    (The College of Social Sciences and Humanities, Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2019) Mphepo, P. J.; Muhanga, M. I.
    The effectiveness of the public service in most of the least developed countries (LDCs) is highly questionable. Malawi is not an exception. The government of Malawi launched a code of ethics and conduct in 2013 basically to enhance the delivery of quality services to the public. Despite that, the media has been almost daily reporting a lot of misconduct and malpractices in the public service including non-adherence of the Public servants' work ethics, embezzlement of public resources, corruption, among others. This article discusses work ethics and human ethics in Malawi. A documentary research method was used in collecting relevant information from peer-reviewed journals, conference papers, and the media. Different search engines and databases were used in information search. The search strategy involved key words such as work ethics, human ethics, public service, Malawian public service', misconduct and malpractices in the public service, Public servants' work ethics, embezzlement of public resources, corruption, among others. The literature search identified a total of 2,132 references related to a set of specified search terms. Only Sixty (60) studies met the final criteria for review. The study found out that most of these misconducts are taking place because of the low salaries civil servants receive, lack of knowledge about the work ethics and code of conduct, weaker structures enforcing the code of ethics, shortage of staff, lack of resources in the government and also because of lack of proper channels for reporting unethical behaviour. Non-adherence to work ethics has resulted into poor services being delivered. This, therefore, calls for a need for the government for sensitization of staff on work ethics and improve working condition in the public service. In recruitment, the government has to make sure that it employs that have good reputation of work ethics in their previous employment and there has to be a routine performance appraisal.
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    Efectiveness of participatory monitoring and evaluation on achievement of community‑based water projects in Tanzania
    (Applied Water Science, 2020-08-03) Kabote, S.J; Mgoba, S.A
    The Government of Tanzania is struggling to implement water projects throughout the country to ensure that 90% of the population has access to clean and safe drinking water by 2025. While most of the community-based water projects fail to deliver as expected, participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E), critical for projects’ achievement, is at an infancy stage. This article determines effectiveness of PM&E on achievement of community-based water projects’ objectives. The article adopted sequential exploratory research design to collect quantitative and qualitative data. A random sample of 120 water users in the government and NGOs funded projects was involved whereby 53.3% were women. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews were used to collect qualitative data. SPSS was used to summarize descriptive statistics. Kruskal–Wallis H test was used to compare median differences between the projects, while qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. Overall, 51.7% of the respondents reported that community-based water projects’ objectives were achieved except capacity building. The projects funded by NGOs recorded high achievement relative to the government funded projects. In addition, PM&E was effective in achieving water projects’ objectives. There was a statistically significant difference in responses between low, medium and high effectiveness of PM&E (P ≤ 0.05). Majority reported high effectiveness, more so for NGOs-funded water projects. The article concludes that PM&E was effective in achieving projects’ objectives except capacity building. Therefore, it recommends strengthening of capacity building for the local communities to manage community-based water projects effectively. This is a policy issue that needs serious efforts at all levels of the government.
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    Get Connected Or Get Destroyed? Adolescents And Mobile Devices In Urban Settings In Tanzania
    (International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications, 2017-09) Muhanga, M.
    This study was conducted to assess the impact of the mobile phones among adolescents in secondary schools in Morogoro municipality in Tanzania . Specifically the study determined the influence of mobile phones on students‟ behaviors, and assessed the impact of mobile phones on students‟ academic performance. A cross sectional research design was used to obtain data from both primary and secondary sources of information through structured questionnaire from 90 respondents obtained through simple random sampling. The collected data were coded and analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) computer program. Findings revealed that, 93.3% of the interviewed respondents‟ access and use mobile phones, and 63.3% agreed that mobile phones usage among secondary school students cause behavioural changes. Also the study revealed that students use mobile phones to organize and maintain their social networks (8.9%), search materials on internet and organize discussion (54.4%), and informing their parents‟ on issues concerning their education (1.1%). A number of impacts on using mobile phones were revealed, including; facilitating engagement of students in sexual affairs (41.1%), decline in moral values (43.3%), decrease in academic performance (91.1%), causing health problems to students (50.0%), cause disturbance in studies (47.8%) and resulting to time wasting (88.9%). This study recommends various measures to be taken by secondary school teachers and parents to minimize the use of mobile phones among secondary school students hence ensuring that students are getting time to concentrate on their studies and improve academic performance.
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    Does Attitude Associate, Correlate, Or Cause Behaviour? An Assessment Of Attitude Towards Health Behaviour Under One Health Approach In Morogoro, Tanzania
    (International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications, 2017) Muhanga, M.; Malungo, J.R.S.
    Literature doesn‘t empirically posit it very clear whether attitude associates to, correlates or cause certain health behaviours. Yet; little that is known is limited to associating attitudes with health behaviour in the context which did not take into account the interaction of humans, animals and the environment. A cross sectional study was conducted in Morogoro urban and Mvomero districts in Tanzania , aiming at:- (i)assessing attitudes over health behaviour under the interface of humans, animals and the environment; and, (ii) analyzing associations, correlations and causality existing between attitudes on health behaviour and health impairing habits/practices under One Health Approach. The sample comprised of 240 respondents obtained through a multistage sampling procedure. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire using a Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) electronic platform. Associations between attitude and health behavior were modest at p value=<0.001, correlation coefficient was significant with r = .235 and p-value = <0.01, and no evidence of having attitudes directly causing certain behaviours was established. In logit regression analysis, health literacy was found to predict health behaviours too. Individual behaviors performed in a particular context tend to be influenced not only by general attitudes but by a wide range of additional factors.
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    Sexual health knowledge among secondary school students in Morogoro, Tanzania: half full or full empty?
    (Science Publishing Company (SPC), 2017) Kaale, G.; Muhanga, M.
    Background: Sexual health knowledge (SHK) is very crucial as the world is facing HIV/AIDS tragedy, increased cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unsafe abortions among adolescents. It is obvious that knowledge is an important prevention factor for any disease. Objectives: The study was conducted to assess knowledge and attitude on sexual health among secondary school students in Morogoro Municipality. Specifically the study (I: (i) examined students’ knowledge and attitude on sexual transmitted infections, (ii) analyzed stu-dent's awareness on early pregnancy prevention, and; (iii) determined students’ knowledge on issues related to puberty. Methods: The study involved 75 respondents from five secondary schools and 13 key informants through purposive sampling and sim-ple random sampling techniques. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) ver.12. Results: Findings revealed that 79.8% of the respondents had knowledge on sexually transmitted infections, 86.5% were aware of methods of controlling early pregnancies; 83.9% have never used protective gears during sexual intercourses, and 54.7% did not under-stand a menstruation cycle. Conclusion: The study recommended for provision of sexual health knowledge to students to reduce incidences of early pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections; likewise on the need to use protective gears during sexual intercourses. Knowledge concerning sexual health is vital for all particularly for adolescents, as they are vulnerable to adopt negative behaviors if not guided properly and at the right age.
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    Health literacy and its correlates in the context of one health approach in Tanzania
    (Co-operative and Business Studies, 2018) Muhanga, M; Malungo, J.R.S
    Health literacy is an important predictor of health outcomes, health care costs and utilization, yet most countries, Tanzania inclusive, lack health literacy measurements in their health datasets. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Morogoro urban and Mvomero districts in Morogoro, Tanzania to assess health literacy and its correlates in the interface of humans, animals and the environment. The sample comprised of 240 respondents was obtained through a multistage sampling procedure. A structured questionnaire administered through a Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) electronic platform was used to collect data. Health literacy was measured using a context specific One Health Literacy Assessment Tool (OHLT) developed to capture health related aspects reflecting the interactions of humans, animals and the environment. The study used IBM-SPSS (v20) and Gretl software to analyse quantitative data. The results revealed that 36.3% of the respondents had Inadequate Health Literacy, followed with Marginal Health Literacy at 30.8% and Adequate Health Literacy standing at 32.9%. Pearson coefficient correlation revealed health literacy correlating to group of attitudes (r=0.135, p<0.01), levels of engagement in health-related discussion (r=0.609, p<0.05), health behaviours categories (r=-0.648, p<0.05) and category of information seeking (r=0.753, p<0.05). Efforts should be made by the government and non-governmental organizations to promote health literacy in the context of One Health Approach through mass awareness given its importance towards realization of optimal health for humans, animals and the environment.
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    Contribution of local chicken production towards improving peoples wellbeing: A Case of Peri-Urban areas of Kinondoni District, Tanzania
    (2018-02-23) Chingonikaya1, E. E.; Salehe, F. S.
    Several studies have been conducted on characterization of local chicken production systems in some places of Tanzania, yet clear information is limited regarding to its contribution towards improving peoples wellbeing particularly its socio-economic importance in the country. This study therefore accessed the socio- economic importance of local chickens’ production in peri-urban areas of Kinondoni District, Dar es salaam-Tanzania. A cross sectional research design was employed. The study was conducted in peri-urban areas of Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam Region involving three peripheral wards namely: Kibamba, Kwembe and Mabwepande, between September and October 2014. Both purposive and random sampling was used. Purposive sampling was used in selecting six streets from which local chickens were kept and random sampling was used in selecting 90 local chicken keepers (15 local chicken keepers per street) from the list provided by livestock extension officer. Data were collected using a household questionnaire survey, Focus Group Discussion (FGDs) and Key Informant interview (KI) methods. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using respective methods of data analysis (SPSS).The study findings found that, the local chicken contributes to peri-urban household’s wellbeing as 92.2% of all the respondents spent some amounts of local chicken earnings to buy food. This shows that local chicken keeping contributes to improving food security at the households of the local chicken keepers.Some households used local chicken for gift giving, rituals and detection of time. Education level, initial capital, experience of local chicken keeping, rearing systems, accessibility to extension services and constraints were significantly influencing production of the local chicken (p<0.05). The researchers conclude that local chicken production improves socio-economies of peri-urban households of Kinondoni District. The study recommends that various stakeholders including the local governments should put more emphasis on promoting local chicken production as it contributes to the smallholder household’s socio-economies.
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    Schistosomiasis: A comparative study of its socioeconomic consequences in different types of irrigation schemes in Tanzania.
    (2012) Salehe, F. S.; Mtambo, M. M. A.; Tarimo, A. K. P. R.; Mattee, A. Z.; Hassan, S. N.
    This study was carried out through a cross-sectional design in June through August, 2010 in modern, improved traditional and traditional irrigation schemes in Kilimanjaro and Morogororo Regions, Tanzania. A total of 240 irrigation rice farming respondents were selected purposively at head, middle and tail of each scheme. Interviews using structured questionnaires with closed and open-ended questions were used to collect data. T-test was used to determine variation in different variables for infected farmers between irrigation schemes, and for the same variables between infected and non-infected farmers within the same irrigation schemes. Infection was least at a traditional scheme, but high at a modern scheme both in Kilimanjaro Region. Consequently, infected farmers at Kilimanjaro modern scheme lost the highest number of working days on treatment and care of oneself/family members, 14-30 days per season compared to 4-13 days for infected farmers at a traditional scheme in Morogoro Region. We also found significant difference on income accrued from rice selling between infected farmers in modern (p > 0.001) and traditional schemes (p > 0.001). Moreover, there was a significant difference in net working hours per month between infected versus non-infected farmers in modern (p>0.001), improved traditional (p = 0.006) and traditional (p > 0.001) schemes. Since some of infected farmers in Morogoro schemes sold what could have been their food, assets and livestock the study concluded that schistosomiasis has not only caused illness to those infected, but it had impact on socio- economic development of those infected and their households at large.
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    Wildlife-based domestic tourism in Tanzania: experiences from northern tourist circuit
    (2011-12) Hassan, M. S. B.; Maganga, S. N.; Modest, S. L. S.; Salehe, F. S.
    It is believed that for tourism industry to become successful, domestic, and international tourism should complement each other. But domestic tourism in many developing countries is nearly non-existent, with local residents mainly visiting friends and relatives. The study to examine characteristics and factors affecting domestic tourism was carried out in northern Tanzania tourist circuit. Specifically the study sought to determine the characteristics of Tanzanians who mostly visit the protected areas; to identify and assess factors affecting domestic tourism; and different factors that hinder growth of domestic tourism. A sample of 322 respondents was interviewed. Primary data was collected through questionnaires, focus group discussions, informal discussion; and secondary data was obtained from tourists visiting reports, and statistics. Data was analysed for descriptive statistics. The results obtained revealed that: More men visited wildlife protected areas than women. The age group of 26 – 37 was the most active group in visiting protected areas. Low financial income was indicated as the main constraint (77.0%) affecting the growth of domestic tourism, followed by means of communication and inadequate information (71.8%). It is recommended that, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism need more plans, efforts, and combination of approaches in promoting and marketing domestic tourism.
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    Differences in schistosomiasis knowledge among irrigation rice farming communities in different irrigation schemes in Tanzania
    (2013-02-26) Salehe, F. S.; Mattee, A. Z.; Tarimo, A. K. P. R.; Ensink, J. E. E.
    Aim: To assess differences in schistosomiasis knowledge in farmers working in traditional, improved traditional and modern irrigation schemes in Tanzania. Study Design: A cross-sectional survey among farmers practicing irrigation rice farming, in 2 different regions and 6 different irrigation systems. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out between November and December 2011 in the Morogoro and Kilimanjaro Regions, Tanzania. Methodology: Equal number of irrigators in each scheme was employed. Irrigators were chosen randomly by the researcher from the list of all farmers actually engaged in rice irrigation farming provided by the village governments in the six schemes. Two hundred and fourty samples (240) were used, 120 from each region (40 farmers practicing irrigation rice farming in each scheme). Independent sample t-test was used for testing schistosomiasis knowledge differences among irrigators between schemes with the same design and construction of their infrastructures between the two regions. Results: More than 88% of irrigators surveyed in Kilimanjaro schemes had better knowledge regarding to all schistosmiasis items asked compared to those in Morogoro, particularly Chabi scheme-traditional. There were significant difference on irrigators knowledge on schistosomiasis symptoms (P<0.001), and predisposing factors (P<0.001) between Morogoro and Kilimanjaro Modern schemes. Knowledge on predisposing factors differed significantly (P<0.001) between irrigators in Morogoro and Kilimanjaro improved traditional schemes. Moreover significant difference were noted on irrigators knowledge on schistosomiasis symptoms (P<0.001), predisposing factors (P<0.004) and schistosomiasis control measures (P=0.003) between irrigators in Morogoro and Kilimanjaro traditional schemes. Conclusion: From the results it appears that the level of farmers’ knowledge of schistosomiasis is related to: proximity to health facilities of the community, trainings that have been provided to farmers and farmer’s literacy rate. However the government should be responsible to improve health facilities, construct roads and deliver schistosomiasis education to communities in irrigation areas even for schemes which have not been planned, designed and constructed by the government.
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    Attitudes of community towards female genital mutilation in Manyoni district, Singida region, Tanzania
    (2018-04-18) Chingonikaya, E.E; Salehe, F. S.
    The female genital mutilation (FGM) has a series of consequences which most of them lead to discomfort, maternity complications and finally deaths of girls and women. In Tanzania as well as other countries, a number of campaigns have been waged against FGM, but to date the practice still persists. This problem requires critical researches to look for the factors leading to the FGM not to end. Therefore, this study intended to assess the attitudes of people towards the FGM and its social value in order to generate information, which would be useful in conducting more successful campaigns against the practice. The study was conducted in Manyoni District in Singida Region- Tanzania from September to October, 2015. A cross-sectional research design was employed. A total of 120 respondents were selected in the three villages namely Aghondi, Kamenyanga and Mkwese. In each village 40 respondents were randomly selected and subjected to a structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS computer software programme. From the results it was revealed that the overall attitudes of the respondents were as 66.7% accounted for negative, 20.8% neutral and 12.5% of the respondents had positive attitude towards the FGM. Results further show that majority (79.2%) of respondents mentioned increasing chances for marriage as one of the reasons for undergoing FGM practice, (77.5%) mentioned Lawalawa and (76.7%) mentioned signs for sexual maturity. Generally, many people in the District seemed to have negative attitudes towards the FGM. This therefore, entails that FGM could be eradicated as majority of the people have negative attitude towards the practice.
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    Schistosomiasis occurrence and risk factors influencing transmission in different surface irrigation schemes in Morogoro and Kilimanjaro regions, Tanzania
    (2017-03-04) Salehe, F. S.
    Aims: To assess schistosomiasis occurence and identify risk factors influencing its transmission in different surface irrigation schemes in Morogoro and Kilimanjaro Regions of Tanzania. Study Design: Cross-sectional research design was used and Schistosomiasis recorded cases for ten years (January 2002 to December 2011) were collected from health facilities located nearby the irrigation schemes. Place and Duration of Study: Mkindo, Chabi and Mwega (Morogoro Region) and Kikafu Chini, Lower Moshi and Njoro (Kilimanjaro Region) between October and December, 2011. Methodology: Out of 378 respondents selected; 240 in the questionnaire survey, 96 in the Focus Group Discussions and 42 in the Key informant interviews. In each scheme 40 farmers practicing irrigation rice farming were interviewed. Binary logistic regression was used to test association between schistosomiasis infection and a number of predictors such as: age, sex, education, wearing gumboots during irrigation activities, washing clothes and household utensils and cleaning farming tools in canals. Data on activities involving water contacts, water management practices and people’s behaviour were collected through questionnaires and observations. Moreover, tables and figure were used to describe the data. Results: There was no significant statistical association between predictors and disease occurrence in both Regions (P>0.05). The findings further show that lack of toilets in the schemes and excessive vegetation growth in irrigation and drainage canals have lead to prominence of schistosomiasis infection. Education in both Morogoro and Kilimanjaro schemes highly contribute to occurrence of the disease (Walds 2.057 and 1.164 respectively). Conclusion: Although the level of schistosomiasis occurance is slightly reducing in the study areas the government of Tanzania through the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare should have a plan of schistosomiasis control to communities engaged in irrigation farming and those who live close to irrigation schemes. This should be done through providing praziquantel tablets to communities at least once in a year.
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    Adoption of rainfed paddy production technologies among smallholder farmers: a case of central District- Zanzibar, Tanzania
    (2018-02-23) Haji, A. K.; Salehe, F. S.; Msinde, J.
    This study intended to determine factors affecting the adoption of new technologies in rainfed paddy production practiced by smallholder farmers in the Central District-Zanzibar, Tanzania. A crosssectional research design was employed. A structured questionnaire, focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant (KI) interviews were used to explore issues related to rainfed paddy production. 120 respondents who were engaged in rainfed paddy farming were selected from 4 village clusters (30 respondents in each village cluster) from December 2013 to January 2014. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression model. Results show that majority of respondents (55%) were female while 45% were male aging 19-59 years. The study revealed that rainfed paddy production technologies that were adopted by smallholder farmers included row planting, fertilizer application (P=.03), weed control and the use of improved paddy seed varieties (p= .04). Descriptive analysis results showed that the adoption level of technologies was high. The logistic regression analysis showed that extension services, age, off-farm income and distance from residence to the marketplaces were factors that influenced the decisions of smallholder farmers to adopt technologies (p<.05). Researchers recommend that the government of Zanzibar should continue providing efficient extension services to smallholder farmers in order to ensure sustainability in the adoption of rainfed paddy production technologies in Zanzibar.
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    Assessment of water supply and its implications on household income in Kabuku Ndani ward, Handeni District, Tanzania
    (SCIENCEDOMAIN international, 2017-03-06) Saladi, J. A; Salehe, F. S.
    Aims: To assess the water supply accessibility and its implications on household income in Kabuku Ndani ward, Handeni district, Tanga Region. Place and Duration of Study: A cross sectional design was conducted between November 2013 and January 2014 in Kabuku. Methodology: Questionnaire related to water supply and household income was administered to 90 respondents who were randomly selected. Interviews with five key informants’ explored issues related to water supply and its influence on household income. The hypothesis used states that household’s expenditure on water supply does not significantly affect household income. Results: Majority of respondents falls between 26-56 years of age. About 42% of respondents did not attend any formal education while 59% had attended formal education. Marital status and occupation showed a significant influence on water supply (P=0.036 and 0.048 respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that infrastructure, management, occupation, education and age were significant (P=0.05) predictors of household income. People perceived that there was a direct relationship between water supply and household income. Access to water was a big problem which was thought to be caused by insufficient sources of water, outdated infrastructures, administration problems and climate changes. The available water sources could not meet household requirements. In addition long distances from settlements to water sources led people to spend up to 30 minutes fetching 20 litres of water on foot. The water was of poor quality and it could have led to serious waterborne diseases such as typhoid fever. The costs spent on water were alarmingly high and ranged between TZS 36, 000 and 54, 000 per month per household depending on family size. Conclusion: The study concludes that the water supply problem in Kabuku ward has influence on the limited available household income. Therefore addressing water shortage problems combined efforts at local and national levels are required.
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    What role for remittances in farm inputs expenditure among paddy farming households? a case study of Kilombero valley, Tanzania
    (SCIENCEDOMAIN international, 2017-04-10) Msinde, J.; Salehe, F. S.
    Migration and remittance have a potential to enhance farm intensification through spending on essential farm inputs and thus apparently improving farm production for liquidity constrained rural farming households. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of remittance derived from rural out-migrants on the expenditure on farm inputs using paddy dominated farming households of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania, as a case study. A questionnaire was used to collect data among 309 randomly selected households. The tobit model that considers cornered observations was used to assess the effect of migration and remittances on input expenditure. A T test was conducted to compare differences in input spending between migratory and non migratory households. Results show that remittances overcome inputs market failure as it provides cash that rural households use to purchase essential farm inputs. However, the results based on the T test revealed that there is no significant difference in terms of spending on hired labour (as one of a farm input) between migratory and non migratory households. The positive income effects of remittances outweigh lostlabour effects. It is thus recommended that migration should be encouraged through the growth of economy and thus the link between rural and urban areas should be strengthened.
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    Socio-economic effects of schistosomiasis on irrigation rice growers in Morogoro, Tanzania
    (SCIENCEDOMAIN international, 2012-05-12) Salehe, F. S.; Hassan2, S. N.
    Aims: To assess Socio-economic effects of schistosomiasis on irrigation rice farmers in Modern, Improved traditional and Traditional irrigation schemes in Morogoro Region. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Mkindo (improved traditional) in Mvomero district, and Mwega (Modern) and Chabi (Traditional) in Kilosa District, between March and April 2010. Methodology: In each scheme we used 40 farmers practicing irrigation rice farming. Between-scheme differences for infected farmers were tested using one way-ANOVA, and t-test for differences between infected and non-infected farmers within and irrespective of schemes. Results: Over 60% of all farmers surveyed reported to have had suffered from schistosomiasis, with traditional scheme exhibiting the highest number. Differences in financial expenditures on treatment and care were detected between improved traditional and traditional (P<0.001), and improved traditional and modern (p=0.014). Similarly, hours spent on treatment and care differed between improved traditional and traditional (p=0.001) and between traditional and modern (p=0.028). Additionally, net working hours per month differed between traditional and improved traditional (p=0.002) and between traditional and modern (p=0.056). Contrary, only net working hours per month differed between infected and non-infected farmers within traditional (p=0.003) and modern (p=0.001) before and after converting hours spent on caring of oneself/other family members into monetary cost. The same variable exhibited significant difference all schemes pooled together (p<0.001). Results of this study contravene the hypothesis that farmers in the modern scheme would have high income balance compared to farmers in traditional and improved traditional. Conclusion: Four key conclusions were reached: 1) Contrary to our expectation, net income balance remained highest in the improved traditional scheme both before and after conversion of time spent on treatment and care into monetary cost, but remained smallest amount in the traditional scheme. 2) Failure of expenditures related to treatment and care to trigger significant difference in net income balance between infected and non-infected farmers, both between and within schemes caused the proposed hypothesis not to be accepted. 3) Apparently, the family that replaces the labour of a family that fails to indulge in production process due to schistosomiasis illness is likely to undergo an economic cost as they will have abandoned their own production activities. But then, the tendency of ignoring such cost is deep rooted in many African traditions including rice farmers in Morogoro schemes thus causing underestimation of the actual Socio-economic cost of schistosomiasis in Sub-Sahara Africa. 4) Occurrence of higher expenditures on treatment and care in traditional than in modern and improved traditional schemes justify the need for improvement of traditional irrigation infrastructures and cleanliness as well as training on water management and cropping calendar that would “cut” the pathways of schistosomiasis transmission.
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    Factors influencing maize crop production at household levels: A case of Rukwa Region in the southern highlands of Tanzania
    (2015-03-05) Urassa, J. K.
    Production of staple food occupies an important part in Sub-Saharan Africa’s agricultural production. Maize crop in particular is the most important staple food in this area. The article mainly examines households’ socio-economic characteristics affecting maize production in Rukwa in the context of the market reforms carried out in Tanzania in the mid 1980’s. Rukwa region is one of Tanzania’s most reliant maize producers. The article explores the importance of maize to household’s crop production, its production levels and the determinants of its productivity. A number of specific issues are explored including the importance of factors such as farm size, education, and access to key inputs such as seeds, fertilizers and agricultural extension services. The study on which the article is based uses data collected from three districts of Rukwa. The findings showed that maize crop continues to play an important role in most households’ livelihood. However, the crop production levels were low. Education was observed to be an important factor in raising yields, suggesting that non-agriculture policies may also be important for improving productivity and welfare of farmers. Despite the importance of maize crop to household livelihoods, several constraints were reported to hinder its productivity including access to fertilizers, improved seeds and other chemical inputs necessary for higher production, and extension services. Therefore, efforts need to be taken by both the local and central government to raise households maize productivity and hence increase the possibility of improving their well-being.
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    Farm households food production and households’ food security status: A case of Kahama District, Tanzania
    (2014) Ngongi, A. M.; Urassa, J. K.
    Food is an important basic human need for survival, growth, and good health. Most rural households in Tanzania, Kahama district inclusive produce the food they consume. Despite this reality, a number of households in the district suffer from food insecurity. However, there are inequalities across the district’s ecological zones and administrative divisions. Therefore, the paper aims at determining how farming households in Kahama District cope with food insecurity. Specifically, the paper determines food security status based on Dietary Energy Consumed (DEC) per Adult Equivalent (AE) per day, identifies households’ food insecurity coping strategies and examines factors influencing food production and supply. The paper uses data collected through a survey of 150 randomly selected farm households in Msalala and Isagehe divisions. In addition, some qualitative information on crop production, food security situation and households’ food insecurity coping strategies was collected through focus group discussions (FDGs) conducted in the surveyed villages. Generally, observations based on the 24 hours recall and household income expenditure survey (HIES) indicate that food insecurity existed among households in the study areas based on the recommended average DEC/AE, of 2200 kcal and 2100 kcal respectively. Binary regression analysis results show that five predictors were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) associated with surveyed households’ food security/insecurity. Multiple regression analysis results further show that, total annual income, the amount of maize and paddy produced, household size, the number of plots owned, and the number of cattle owned significantly influenced the surveyed households’ food production and supply. Observations further show that most households rely on less preferred foods as a food insecurity copying strategy. The paper concludes that food insecurity existed among farming households in the study area. It is therefore recommended that, farming households adopt drought resistant food crops, diversify into off-farm income generating activities and that village extension officers (VEO’s) and community development officers (CDO’s ) play a more active role to enable households achieve food security.