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    Genetic diversity and risk factors for the transmission of antimicrobial resistance across human, animals and environmental compartments in East Africa: a review
    (Springer Nature, 2020-08-06) Katale, Bugwesa Z.; Misinzo, Gerald; Mshana, Stephen E.; Chiyangi, Harriet; Campino, Susana; Clark, Taane G.; Good, Liam; Rweyemamu, Mark M.; Matee, Mecky I.
    Background: The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) present a challenge to disease control in East Africa. Resistance to beta-lactams, which are by far the most used antibiotics worldwide and include the penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams and carbapenems, is reducing options for effective control of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The World Health Organization, Food and Agricultural Organization and the World Organization for Animal Health have all advocated surveillance of AMR using an integrated One Health approach. Regional consortia also have strengthened collaboration to address the AMR problem through surveillance, training and research in a holistic and multisectoral approach. This review paper contains collective information on risk factors for transmission, clinical relevance and diversity of resistance genes relating to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing (ESBL) and carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae, and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) across the human, animal and environmental compartments in East Africa. Main body: The review of the AMR literature (years 2001 to 2019) was performed using search engines such as PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Google and Web of Science. The search terms included ‘antimicrobial resistance and human-animal-environment’, ‘antimicrobial resistance, risk factors, genetic diversity, and human animal-environment’ combined with respective countries of East Africa. In general, the risk factors identified were associated with the transmission of AMR. The marked genetic diversity due to multiple sequence types among drug-resistant bacteria and their replicon plasmid types sourced from the animal, human and environment were reported. The main ESBL, MRSA and carbapenem related genes/plasmids were the bla CTX-Ms (45.7%), SCCmec type (27.3%) and IMP types (23.8%), respectively. Conclusion: The high diversity of the AMR genes suggests there may be multiple sources of resistance bacteria, or the possible exchange of strains or a flow of genes amongst different strains due to transfer by mobile genetic elements. Therefore, there should be harmonized One Health guidelines for the use of antibiotics, as well as regulations governing their importation and sale. Moreover, the trend of ESBLs, MRSA and carbapenem resistant (CAR) carriage rates is dynamic and are on rise over time period, posing a public health concern in East Africa. Collaborative surveillance of AMR in partnership with regional and external institutions using an integrated One Health approach is required for expert knowledge and technology transfer to facilitate information sharing for informed decision-making.
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    Poultry farmers’ information needs and extension advices in Kilosa, Tanzania: evidence from Mobile-based extension, advisory and learning system (meals)
    (University of Nebraska - Lincoln, 2018) Msoffe, Grace; Chengula, Augustino; Kipanyula, Maulilio J; Mlozi, Malongo R.S; Sanga, Camilius A
    Poultry farmers need different information in order to improve their farming and contribute to the national economy. Information on poultry management is usually obtained from family members, friends, and neighbors with previous experience, extension officers, researchers, Television, radio, web and mobile based agriculture information systems. Promoting utilisation of vetted sources of information is envisaged to support poultry farmers in making informed decisions about management practices. This in turn will result into increased poultry productivity. Objective: Many researches have been done to evaluate various information sources but few have been done to evaluate the mobile based extension, advisory and learning system here referred to “UshauriKilimo”. This study particularly assessed poultry farmers’ information needs and extension advices given through the agro-advisory system among farmers in Kilosa district of Tanzania. The objective was to determine poultry farmers’ information needs submitted through “UshauriKilimo” and resulting advisory responses. Method: ICT based agro-advisory system 'UshauriKilimo' was deployed and used by poutry famrers for more than two years. The data from it were used to assess poultry farmers information needs. Only questions and advisory responses addressing poultry farming were analysed. These data were imported into the Qualitative Data Analysis Software, MAXQDA Plus 12 (Release 12.2.0) where they were coded, counted and analysed. Frequencies of variables were performed during content analysis. Results: More than 340 farmers used “UshauriKilimo” for the period of two years. There were more than 1500 questions and answers which contained 320 questions related to poultry farming. Most of the poultry farmers who used “UshauriKilimo” sought information on health management aspects (diseases transmission, diagnosis, treatment and control); egg production; chicken feeds and feeding; chicken breeds and housing aspects. Information on markets was the least used.
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    Aedes aegypti abundance, larval indices and risk for dengue virus transmission In Kinondoni district, Tanzania
    (BMC, 2022) Ngingo, Baraka L; Mboera, Leonard E. G; Chengula, Augustino; Machelle, Ines; Makange, Mariam R; Msolla, Michael; Mwanyika, Gaspary O; Rugarabamu, Sima; Misinzo, Gerald
    Background: Tanzania has experienced periodic dengue outbreaks with increased incidence since 2010. However, there is limited information on vector dynamics and transmission risk in most parts of the country. This study was conducted to determine Aedes mosquito abundance, larval indices and dengue virus infection rate as risk indicators for DENV transmission in Kinondoni district, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three wards of Kinondoni district in Tanzania between Decem- ber 2019 and January 2020. In each ward, three streets were randomly selected for adult and immature mosquito sampling. The adult mosquitoes were collected using Mosquito Magnet traps, while mosquito larvae and pupae were inspected in water-holding containers in the selected household compounds. The detection of dengue virus (DENV) in female Aedes mosquitoes was done using a one-step reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) method. Results: Of the 1416 adult female mosquitoes collected, Ae. aegypti accounted for 16.8% (n = 238). A total of 333 water-holding containers were inspected and 201 (60.4%) had at least an Aedes larvae or pupae. Water-holding containers supporting the breeding of Aedes larvae and pupae included discarded car tires, flowerpots and small and large plastic containers. The overall House Index, Container Index and Breteau Index were 55.1%, 60.4% and 114.2, respectively. None of the 763 female Aedes mosquitoes tested by RT–PCR was found to be infected with DENV. Conclusion: The presence and abundance Ae. aegypti mosquitoes and the large proportion of water-holding con- tainers infested with the mosquito larvae and pupae put residents of Kinondoni district at high risk of DENV trans- mission. Our findings emphasize the need for continuous mosquito vector surveillance and control to prevent the possibility of future DENV outbreaks in Tanzania.
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    Poultry ecto-, endo- and haemoparasites in Tanzania: a review
    (Austin Publishing Group, 2020) Rukambile, EJ; Chengula, A; Swai, ES; Jongejan, F
    Poultry production plays an essential role in food and nutrition security at household level through the provision of eggs and meat and income generation. Ecto-, endo- and haemoparasites occurring in poultry singly or a combination are commonly found in Tanzania and affect poultry sector productivity. At least 27 species of nematodes, one species of trematodes; 13 species of cestodes and seven species of protozoa (only Eimeria spp) reported parasitizing commercial, indigenous chicken, ducks, guinea fowls and pigeons in Tanzania. Several ecto-parasites (fleas, mites, lice, soft and hard ticks) identified and reported in indigenous chickens and pigeons whereas eight species of haemoparasites documented in indigenous chickens, pigeons and guineafowls. Most of the studies conducted in Tanzania skewed toward eastern parts of the country, which makes the use of available reports for determination of poultry parasite profiles and distribution difficult or impossible. This paper reviews the ecto-, endo- and heamoparasite profiles of poultry occurring in Tanzania. This review provides available information and gaps in the occurrence and distribution of the ecto-, endo- and haemoparasites in different types of poultry in Tanzania. The study suggests a broader country survey and frequent surveillances establishing the magnitude of the problem, which is an essential tool in designing control strategies.
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    Exploring pathogenic and zoonotic bacteria from wild rodents, dogs, and humans of the Ngorongoro district in Tanzania using metagenomics next-generation sequencing
    (MDPI, 2023) Issae, Amina Ramadhani; Katakweba, Abdul Selemani; Kicheleri, Rose Peter; Chengula, Augustino Alfred; Van Zwetselaar, Marco; Kasanga, Christopher Jacob
    Globally, zoonoses have serious consequences due to their socioeconomic impacts. Ngoron- goro District is home to a diverse range of wildlife and domestic animals, including rodents and dogs, which often coexist in close proximity with humans. The aim of the study was to identify the zoonotic bacteria present in wild rodents, domestic dogs, and humans using metagenomics next-generation sequencing technology. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2022. This study used both Illumina and Oxford Nanopore sequencing technologies to identify bacteria in 530 blood samples collected from humans (n = 200), wild rodents (n = 230), and dogs (n = 100). Several zoonotic airborne/contagious bacteria, including Mycobacterium spp., Mycoplasma spp., Bordetella spp., and Legionella spp., were detected in wild rodents, domestic dogs, and humans. Arthropod-borne zoonotic bacteria such as Bartonella spp., Borrelia spp., and Rickettsia spp. were detected in all three hosts, while Orientia spp. was found in wild rodents and domestic dogs. Yersinia pestis, Streptobacillus spp. and Anaplasma spp. were found only in wild rodents. Other zoonotic bacteria found shared among wild rodents, domestic dogs, and humans are Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., and Salmonella spp. Generally, wild rodents had the highest prevalence of zoonotic bacterial species when compared to domestic dogs and humans. The detection of zoonotic bacteria in rodents, dogs, and humans supports the hypothesis that infections can spread between animals and humans sharing the same environment.
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    Genetic diversity of newcastle disease virus involved in the 2021 outbreaks in backyard poultry farms in Tanzania
    (MDPI, 2023) Amoia, Charlie F.; Hakizimana, Jean N; Chengula, Augustino A; Rohaim, Mohammed A; Munir, Muhammad; Weger-Lucarelli, James; Misinzo, Gerald
    Newcastle disease virus is a significant avian pathogen with the potential to decimate poultry populations all over the world and cause enormous economic losses. Distinct NDV genotypes are currently causing outbreaks worldwide. Due to the high genetic diversity of NDV, virulent strains that may result in a lack of vaccine protection are more likely to emerge and ultimately cause larger epidemics with massive economic losses. Thus, a more comprehensive understanding of the circulating NDV genotypes is critical to reduce Newcastle disease (ND) burden. In this study, NDV strains were isolated and characterized from backyard poultry farms from Tanzania, East Africa in 2021. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based on fusion (F) gene amplification was conducted on 79 cloacal or tracheal swabs collected from chickens during a suspected ND outbreak. Our results revealed that 50 samples out 79 (50/79; 63.3%) were NDV- positive. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the selected NDV isolates showed that 39 isolates belonged to subgenotype VII.2 and only one isolate belonged to subgenotype XIII.1.1. Nucleotide sequences of the NDV F genes from Tanzania were closely related to recent NDV isolates circulating in southern Africa, suggesting that subgenotype VII.2 is the predominant subgenotype throughout Tanzania and southern Africa. Our data confirm the circulation of two NDV subgenotypes in Tanzania, providing important information to design genotype-matched vaccines and to aid ND surveillance. Furthermore, these results highlight the possibility of the spread and emergence of new NDV subgenotypes with the potential of causing future ND epizootics.
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    Tilapia lake virus does not hemagglutinate avianand piscine erythrocytes and nh 4 cl does not inhibit viral replication in vitro
    (MDPI, 2019) Chengula, Augustino Alfred; Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein; Munang’andu, Hetron Mweemba
    Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA (-ssRNA) icosahedral virus classified to be the only member in the family Amnoonviridae. Although TiLV segment-1 shares homology with the influenza C virus PB1 and has four conserved motifs similar to influenza A, B, and C polymerases, it is unknown whether there are other properties shared between TiLV and orthomyxovirus. In the present study, we wanted to determine whether TiLV agglutinated avian and piscine erythrocytes, and whether its replication was inhibited by lysosomotropic agents, such as ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl), as seen for orthomyxoviruses. Our findings showed that influenza virus strain A/Puerto Rico/8 (PR8) was able to hemagglutinate turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L), and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) red blood cells (RBCs), while infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) only agglutinated Atlantic salmon, but not turkey or tilapia, RBCs. In contrast to PR8 and ISAV, TiLV did not agglutinate turkey, Atlantic salmon, or tilapia RBCs. qRT-PCR analysis showed that 30 mM NH 4 Cl, a basic lysosomotropic agent, neither inhibited nor enhanced TiLV replication in E-11 cells. There was no difference in viral quantities in the infected cells with or without NH 4 Cl treatment during virus adsorption or at 1, 2, and 3 h post-infection. Given that hemagglutinin proteins that bind RBCs also serve as ligands that bind host cells during virus entry leading to endocytosis in orthomyxoviruses, the data presented here suggest that TiLV may use mechanisms that are different from orthomyxoviruses for entry and replication in host cells. Therefore, future studies should seek to elucidate the mechanisms used by TiLV for entry into host cells and to determine its mode of replication in infected cells.
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    Porcine circovirus 2 uses heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate B glycosaminoglycans as receptors for its attachment to host cells
    (Journal of virology, 2006) Misinzo, Gerald; Delputte, Peter L; Meerts, Peter; Lefebvre, David J; Nauwynck, Hans J
    Monocyte/macrophage lineage cells are target cells in vivo for porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) replication. The porcine monocytic cell line 3D4/31 supports PCV2 replication in vitro, and attachment and internalization kinetics of PCV2 have been established in these cells. However, PCV2 receptors remain unknown. Glycosami- noglycans (GAG) are used by several viruses as receptors. The present study examined the role of GAG in attachment and infection of PCV2. Heparin, heparan sulfate (HS), chondroitin sulfate B (CS-B), but not CS-A, and keratan sulfate reduced PCV2 infection when these GAG were incubated with PCV2 prior to and during inoculation of 3D4/31 cells. Enzymatic removal of HS and CS-B prior to PCV2 inoculation of 3D4/31 cells significantly reduced PCV2 infection. Similarly, when PCV2 virus-like particles (VLP) were allowed to bind onto 3D4/31 cells in the presence of heparin and CS-B, attachment was strongly reduced. Titration of field isolates and low- and high-passage laboratory strains of PCV2 in the presence of heparin significantly reduced PCV2 titers, showing that the capacity of PCV2 to bind GAG was not acquired during in vitro cultivation but is an intrinsic feature of wild-type virus. When Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were inoculated with PCV2, relative percentages of PCV2-infected cells were 27% ⴞ 8% for HS-deficient and 12% ⴞ 10% for GAG-deficient cells compared to wild-type cells (100%). Furthermore, it was shown using heparin-Sepharose chromatography that both PCV2 and PCV2 VLP directly interacted with heparin. Together, these results show that HS and CS-B are attachment receptors for PCV2
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    Historical environmental change in africa drives divergence and admixture of aedes aegypti mosquitoes:aprecursor to successful worldwide colonization?
    (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2016) Bennett, Kelly louise; Shija, Fortunate; Linton, Yvonne-marie; Misinzo, Gerald; Kaddumukasa, Martha; Djouaka, Rousseau; Anyaele, Okorie; Harris, Angela; Irish, Seth; Hlaing, Thaung; P r a k a s h, A n i l; L u t w a m a, J u l i u s; Walton, Catherine
    Increasing globalization has promoted the spread of exotic species, including disease vectors. Understanding the evolutionary processes involved in such colonizations is both of intrinsic biological interest and important to predict and mitigate future dis- ease risks. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is a major vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika, the worldwide spread of which has been facilitated by Ae. aegypti’s adaption to human-modified environments. Understanding the evolutionary processes involved in this invasion requires characterization of the genetic make-up of the source population (s). The application of approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to sequence data from four nuclear and one mitochondrial marker revealed that African populations of Ae. aegypti best fit a demographic model of lineage diversification, historical admixture and recent population structuring. As ancestral Ae. aegypti were dependent on forests, this population history is consistent with the effects of forest fragmentation and expansion driven by Pleistocene climatic change. Alternatively, or additionally, histori- cal human movement across the continent may have facilitated their recent spread and mixing. ABC analysis and haplotype networks support earlier inferences of a single out-of-Africa colonization event, while a cline of decreasing genetic diversity indicates that Ae. aegypti moved first from Africa to the Americas and then to Asia. ABC analy- sis was unable to verify this colonization route, possibly because the genetic signal of admixture obscures the true colonization pathway. By increasing genetic diversity and forming novel allelic combinations, divergence and historical admixture within Africa could have provided the adaptive potential needed for the successful worldwide spread of Ae. aegypti.
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    Human leptospirosis in tanzania:sequencing and phylogenetic analysis confirm that pathogenic leptospira species circulate among agro-pastoralists living in Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem
    (BMC, 2016) Muller, Shabani K; Assenga, Justine A; Matemba, Lucas E; Misinzo, Gerald; Kazwala, Rudovick R
    Background: Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonotic disease of worldwide public health importance. The disease affects humans, domestic animals and wildlife. However, leptospirosis is challenging in its diagnosis in humans. Culture technique, which is time consuming, is not recommended for clinical diagnosis. For these reasons, serological and molecular techniques remain the test of choice. The major objective of this study was to explore the genetic characteristic of Leptospira species which are prevalent among agro-pastoralists living in Katavi–Rukwa Ecosystem, Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out in the Katavi-Region South-west, Tanzania between August, 2013 and November, 2014. A total of 267 participants were randomly recruited for the study. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was used to detect antibody against six Leptospira antigens including local serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae, Ballum, Grippotyphosa, Sejroe and reference serogroups Hebdomadis, and Australis. Samples with MAT titers ≥ 1:160 were scored as positive, samples with MAT titers ranging from 1:20 to 1:80 were scored as exposed to Leptospira, and absence of agglutination titers was scored as negative. All MAT positive samples, including the low titre samples were subjected to PCR using the respective 16S rRNA primers for the pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. Results: Out of 267 samples tested, 80 (29.9 %) were positive with MAT. The major circulating leptospiral serogroups were Sejroe (15.7 %,), Icterohaemorrhagiae (8.9 %), Grippotyphosa (4.8 %), Hebdomadis (3.37 %), Australis (1.49 %) and Ballum (1.19 %). By using PCR, 33 (15.7 %) out of 210 samples were pathogenic Leptospira while no saprophytic Leptospira spp. was detected. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of Leptospira species which were obtained from this study were submitted to GenBank and acquired accession numbers KP313246 and KP313247. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences revealed that species obtained from Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem clustered in the same group with several published pathogenic Leptospira specifically Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira kirschneri. To the best of the authors’ knowledge , this is the first study from Tanzania to confirm pathogenic Leptospira in human subjects using genomic typing technique. Conclusion: These findings provide ultimate evidence of pathogenic Leptospira species circulating among agro-pastoralists living in Katavi-Rukwa Ecosystem suggesting that active disease surveillance should be undertaken in order to achieve greater protection of the agro-pastoral communities in Tanzania.
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    Climate change influences potential distribution of infected aedes aegypti co-occurrence with dengue epidemics risk areas in Tanzania
    (PLOS, 2016) Mweya, Clement N; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Stanley, Grades; Misinzo, Gerald; Mboera, Leonard E. G
    Dengue is the second most important vector-borne disease of humans globally after malaria. Incidence of dengue infections has dramatically increased recently, potentially due to changing climate. Climate projections models predict increases in average annual tem- perature, precipitation and extreme events in the future. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of changing climate on distribution of dengue vectors in relation to epi- demic risk areas in Tanzania.
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    Ectoparasites of free ranging local chickens in urban and peri-urban areas of Morogoro municipality, Tanzania
    (Research Gate, 2022) Materu, Adrian E; Mkhandi, Jastin W
    A free range system of poultry production is an important economical investment to most of the poor farmers as a source of income and protein, however it faces several challenges including parasitic diseases such as ectoparasite infestation. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites, as well as to assess the possible predisposing risk factors infesting free- ranging local chickens in urban and per urban areas in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania. Samples were randomly taken from 144 chickens and age, sex and management practice status of the study population was simultaneously recorded. An overall 53.5% (77/144) prevalence was recorded in this study and three common taxa of ectoparasites were identified, which are lice, fleas, and mites. The individual ectoparasite prevalence were as follows Menopon gallinae 48.6% (70/144) followed by Cnemidocoptes mutans 16% (23/144), Echidnophaga gallinacean 9.7% (14/144) and Goniodes gigas 5.8% (8/144). Among the potential predisposing factors assessed, age and management practice was found to be statistically significantly associated with ectoparasitic infestation (p< 0.05). However, sex was not found statistically significantly associated with the level of infestation (p> 0.05) . This study reveals that ectoparasites are highly prevalent in free-ranging local chickens in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania.
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    A survey on ectoparasites and endoparasites of African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) in urban and suburban areas of Morogoro municipal, Tanzania
    (Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 2022-08-06) Materu, Adrian E; Ndunguru, Max C; Ngayabosha, Nathanael J
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites and endoparasites of the African pygmy hedgehogs in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania. A total of 20 African pygmy hedgehogs were captured during the study period, among the captured individuals twelve were females and eight were males. The ectoparasites and endoparasite prevalence was found to be 60% (12/20) and 45% (9/20) respectively. Ectoparasites found from the infested hedgehogs were exclusively hard ticks, composing the three species of hard ticks namely Haemaphysalis leachi, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) sp. and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. The endoparasite identified were helminthes from one genus of nematodes namely Aspiculuris and Stongyle nematode egg and a trematode egg. The results of the present study will contribute to the general knowledge of the parasites of African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) in Tanzania.
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    Distribution of infectious endogenous retroviruses invading mixed and breeding cats.
    (SpringerLink, 2020) Ngo, Minh; Soma, T; Endo, T; Makundi, Isaac; Miyake, A; Nga, B; Nguyen, H; Arnal, M; Fernandez, D; Nishigaki, K; Hatoya, S; Deshapriya, R; Kawasaki, J
    Endogenous retroviruses of domestic cats (ERV-DCs) are members of the genus Gammaretrovirus that infect domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus). Uniquely, domestic cats harbor replication-competent proviruses such as ERV-DC10 (ERV-DC18) and ERV-DC14 (xenotropic and nonecotropic viruses, respectively). The purpose of this study was to assess invasion by two distinct infectious ERV-DCs, ERV-DC10 and ERV-DC14, in domestic cats. Of a total sample of 1646 cats, 568 animals (34.5%) were positive for ERV-DC10 (heterozygous: 377; homozygous: 191), 68 animals (4.1%) were positive for ERV-DC14 (heterozygous: 67; homozygous: 1), and 10 animals (0.6%) were positive for both ERV-DC10 and ERV-DC14. ERV-DC10 and ERV-DC14 were detected in domestic cats in Japan as well as in Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, South Korea and Spain. Breeding cats, including Singapura, Norwegian Forest and Ragdoll cats, showed high frequencies of ERV-DC10 (60-100%). By contrast, ERV-DC14 was detected at low frequency in breeding cats. Our results suggest that ERV-DC10 is widely distributed while ERV-DC14 is maintained in a minor population of cats. Thus, ERV-DC10 and ERV-DC14 have invaded cat populations independently.
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    Occurrence of staphylococcus aureus in fresh Indian mackerel fish
    (Tanzania Veterinary Journal, 2019) Ali, F. S; Lupindu, A.M; Mdegela, R.H; Mmoch, A.J
    Fish provide important protein to human population. The procedures to preserve and maintain quality of fish from fishing until consumption can play a role in contamination with pathogens. Consumption of contaminated sea food products such as fish may lead to food poisoning. Knowledge about the spectrum of fish bacterial contaminants may assist in prevention of contamination and control food poisoning incidences. The present study aimed at characterizing and estimating prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in fresh Indian Mackerel Fish (Rastrelliger kanagurta) from landing sites in Unguja Island. A total of 400 Indian Mackerel Fish were collected from landing sites in Unguja Island and from each fish two samples, skin swab and muscle, were collected. The primary culture was obtained from Mannitol salt agar, Nutrient and Blood agar followed by Gram staining, catalase coagulase tests. PCR targeting 16S rRNA, nuc, mecA, pvl, spa and enterotoxin genes was run to genetically characterize isolates and identify S. aureus. The result indicates that there was growth of bacteria in 359 (89.75%) fish skin swabs and 102 (25.5%) in fish muscle samples. Based on biochemical tests, 27 isolates (6.75%) were confirmed to be Staphylococcus bacteria. Of the 27 isolates, seven (1.75%) were confirmed S. aureus based on PCR. All 27 isolates confirmed to be positive in 16Sr RNA gene, two isolates demonstrated mecA gene and one had SEB and SEC. Detection of S. aureus in fresh Indian Mackerel Fish at landing sites poses a contamination risk to other critical points along the value chain and threatens public health.
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    Feline foamy virus transmission in tsushima leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus) on Tsushima island, Japan
    (MDPI, 2023-03-24) AbuEed, Loai; Makundi, Isaac; Miyake, Ariko; Kawasaki, Junna; Minoura, Chisa; Koshida, Yushi; Nishigaki, Kazuo
    Tsushima leopard cats (TLC; Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus) only inhabit Tsushima Island, Nagasaki, Japan and are critically endangered and threatened by infectious diseases. The feline foamy virus (FFV) is widely endemic in domestic cats. Therefore, its transmission from domestic cats to TLCs may threaten the TLC population. Thus, this study aimed to assess the possibility that domestic cats could transmit FFV to TLCs. Eighty-nine TLC samples were screened, and FFV was identified in seven (7.86%). To assess the FFV infection status of domestic cats, 199 domestic cats were screened; 14.07% were infected. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the FFV partial sequence from domestic cats and TLC sequences clustered in one clade, suggesting that the two populations share the same strain. The statistical data minimally supported the association between increased infection rate and sex (p = 0.28), indicating that FFV transmission is not sex dependent. In domestic cats, a significant difference was observed in FFV detection in feline immunodeficiency virus (p = 0.002) and gammaherpesvirus1 infection statuses (p = 0.0001) but not in feline leukemia virus infection status (p = 0.21). Monitoring FFV infection in domestic cats and TLC populations is highly recommended as part of TLC surveillance and management strategies.
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    Direct detection of brucella species in blood clots from live- stock in Northern Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2021) AbdulHamid, S. Lukambagire; Akoko, James M.; Mathew, Coletha; Sambu, Rosamystica M.; Mwampashi, Raphael R.; Yapi, Richard; Amani, Nelson B.; Njau, Judith S.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Shirima, Gabriel M.; Mmbaga, Blandina T.; Kasanga, Christopher J.; Katani, Robab; Halliday, Jo E.B.; Kazwala, Rudovick R.
    Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease of public health priority in many sub-Saharan countries, where robust tools for detection of Brucella in animal populations are needed for sur- veillance. Blood collected from 501 animals at a ranch suspecting brucellosis was tested for Brucella infection using molecular and serological techniques. Information on animal species, sex and abortion history were recorded. Blood clot DNA extracts were tested using two Brucella spp. genus specific targets, IS711 and bcsp31. Samples positive for both targets were subjected to a multiplex species-specific assay targeting alkB for B. abortus and BMEI1162 for B. melitensis. All sera were tested using the Rose Bengal test. Brucella spp. DNA was detected by qPCR in a total of 58 (11.6%) of 501 blood samples. B. abortus was identified in 18 and B. melitensis in 22 of the 58 samples posi- tive for Brucella spp. A total of 73 (14.6%) of 501 sera tested positive by RBT with poor agreement (kappa = 0.102) between the RBT and Brucella spp. qPCR assay results. Brucella abortus was found in cattle and goats, while B. melitensis was detected in cattle, sheep and goats. These findings sup- port the use of molecular assays alongside serology in brucellosis surveillance programs.
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    Occurence of aspergillus flavus and aspergillus parasiticus in stored maize in Morogoro Municipality and Makambako district,Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture., 2022-10-05) Makundi, Isaac; Mabruki, Fadhili; Temba, Benigni
    Maize is an important cash and food crop grown in Tanzania and other parts of the world. The crop is susceptible to fungal infestation and subsequent mycotoxins contamination that negatively affects human and animal health as well as the socio-economic status of the farmers and respective stakeholders. The study was conducted to determine occurrence of aflatoxigenic fungi (A.flavus and A.parasiticus) on maize stored in warehouses found in Morogoro municipality and Makambako district in Tanzania. A total of 226 maize samples were collected from six wards in the selected study areas then analysed for aflatoxigenic fungal infestation. Potato Dextrose Agar was used for isolation of the fungi which were then identified to species level via observation of morphological characteristics with aid of taxonomic keys. The proportional occurrence of A. parasiticus and A. flavus with respect to areas where samples were collected was presented using descriptive statistics. The result showed that only 15% (34/226) of the collected samples were contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Among the samples collected, the occurrence of A. flavus was higher than that of A. parasiticus whereby 28 samples were contaminated with A. flavus while 6 samples with A. parasiticus. We found that the methods used in the storage of this major staple food used by majority of Tanzanians makes it vulnerable to infestation and subsequent contamination by aflatoxigenic fungi. We therefore recommend that responsible sectors should implement appropriate intervention strategies designed to reduce occurrence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species on stored maize.
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    Identification of felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 in Tsushima leopard cats (prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus) on Tsushima island, Japan
    (MDPI, 2018-07-19) Makundi, Isaac; Koshida, Yushi; Endo, Yasuyuki; Nishigaki, Kazuo
    Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) is a widely endemic infection of domestic cats. Current epidemiological data identify domestic cats as the sole natural host for FcaGHV1. The Tsushima leopard cat (TLC; Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus) is a critically endangered species that lives only on Tsushima Island, Nagasaki, Japan. Nested PCR was used to test the blood or spleen of 89 TLCs for FcaGHV1 DNA; three (3.37%; 95% CI, 0.70–9.54) were positive. For TLC management purposes, we also screened domestic cats and the virus was detected in 13.02% (95% CI, 8.83–18.27) of 215 cats. Regarding phylogeny, the partial sequences of FcaGHV1 from domestic cats and TLCs formed one cluster, indicating that similar strains circulate in both populations. In domestic cats, we found no significant difference in FcaGHV1 detection in feline immunodeficiency virus-infected (p = 0.080) or feline leukemia virus-infected (p = 0.163) cats, but males were significantly more likely to be FcaGHV1 positive (odds ratio, 5.86; 95% CI, 2.27–15.14) than females. The higher frequency of FcaGHV1 detection in domestic cats than TLCs, and the location of the viral DNA sequences from both cats within the same genetic cluster suggests that virus transmission from domestic cats to TLCs is likely.
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    Knowledge, awareness and post-harvest practices predisposing stored maize to aflatoxin contamination in Morogoro municipality and Makambako district, Tanzania
    (Science and Education Publishing, 2022-07-01) Makundi, Isaac; Mabruki, Fadhili; Temba, Benigni A.
    Aflatoxin contamination in maize by Aspergillus species negatively affects the quality of food, economy as well as human and animal health worldwide and is hence a globally growing public health problem. This study aimed at assessing knowledge and awareness on aflatoxins as well as post-harvest practices predisposing stored maize to aflatoxin contamination in Morogoro municipality and Makambako district, Tanzania. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 226 stakeholders who responded to questions assessing their knowledge and awareness on aflatoxins and practices predisposing stored maize to aflatoxin contamination. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 was conducted to determine the statistical significance of the practices predisposing stored maize to aflatoxin contamination by comparison of means among the study groups. Descriptive statistical analysis was employed to describe knowledge and awareness of aflatoxin contamination among respondents. The results based on the assessment criteria revealed that majority (71%) of the studied population in the study areas had low knowledge and awareness in relation to aflatoxin contamination on stored maize. The results also revealed that some aspects of post-harvest handling of maize including storage with other crops, mode of storage and storage duration positively influenced infestation of aflatoxigenic fungi on the maize stored. We recommend the provision of appropriate education via seminars and workshops to the respective stakeholders to help increase their knowledge and awareness on aflatoxin contamination.