Theses and Dissertations Collection

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    Women’s participation in income generating activities : the case of women groups in Mbarali District
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2014) Luwondo, Elice Nehemia
    The main objective of the study was to assess women’s participation in income generating activities (IGAs) in Mbarali District, Tanzania. Data were collected using various methods including interviews and focus group discussions. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was employed in analyzing the obtained data on income generating activities. Specifically the research focused on: types of IGAs in the District, level of women’s participation in IGAs and factors influencing women’s participation in IGAs. The study further assessed social and institutional challenges facing women participating in groups meant for IGAs. Cross-sectional research design was employed. The findings show that women in IGAs groups usually sold agricultural products, namely rice, maize, beans vegetables and fruits. Levels of women participation in IGAs groups were significantly influenced by the amount of fee contributed and number of meetings attended per year. The study further found that the motive behind women engagement in IGAs groups were: education for children, expansion of enterprises, and meeting of household necessities, future savings and renovation of houses. Moreover, social and institutional challenges identified included: inadequate credit sources and trainings on entrepreneurship. The study recommends government institutions to increase and maintain good policies on women groups training, and make sure that money lenders reduce interest rates and extend grace period to improve women participation. On the other hand, women group members should use the loans for the purpose applied.
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    Analysis of economic efficiency of keeping dairy cattle in Babati urban in Manyara region, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University Of Agriculture, 2012) Anthony Daniel Luther
    In many urban parts of Tanzania, there is lack of understanding of economic efficiency of keeping dairy cattle. To achieve the economic efficiency in the urban context, dairy cattle keepers, planners and administrators need to be adequately informed and educated about the cost-effective allocation of resources. This study investigated the economic efficiency of keeping daily cattle. Specifically, the study examined socio-economic factors that influence the number of dairy cattle to keep. Then analyze economic efficiency of urban dairy cattle units in different urban density areas. A cross-sectional research design was used involving a random . sample of 129 respondents. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics. multiple linear regression and Benefit-Cost Ratio analytical techniques. The findings revealed that, dairy cattle kept in BU were influenced by a combination of factors including the socio-economic (age, marital status, education, income, food. employment, land, finances, markets), cultural (status quo, inheritance, milk preference), psycho-social (curiosity of being, casual labour, savings, informal motivating, technical support), environmental (browses, forages, open spaces, weather for crop farming, farm and agro-processing residues). Yet, institutional ■ factors included, technical services, policies, support institutions and provision of social services. Incomes earned were influenced by number of milking cows, lactation period, milk price and management practices. With good dairy cattle management, the high density areas produced more milk and received more annual revenues than in the medium- and low- density areas. The BCR showed that, dairy cattle keepers in BU should economically keep two, four and six dairy cows in high- , medium- and low- density areas respectively. However, the Babati Urban Authorities should support the urban dairy cattle keeping promoting the keepers' livelihoods in the council.
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    A study of the factors influencing offtake and marketing of milk and milk products around Dodoma town
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 1993) Araudoba Chigunje Nicanory Harun
    This work was carried out in Dodoma Urban district to study the milk production situation and the existing milk utilization options in the areas surrounding Dodoma town in central Tanzania. The study was carried out by the use of a questionnaire, observations and direct recording. Fifty producer households and 61 non - producer households were interviewed. In addition, a total of 20 batches of milk produced by 20 households were evaluated for fat recovery efficiency using traditional churning methods. The results showed that there were on average 33 head of cattle per household. Cattle demography composed of 46% cows, of which 21 % were in milk; 15 % heifers, 21% males and 24 % calves. The calving rate was less than 50%. The lactation length was on average 9.72 ± 2.34 months with a coefficient of variation of 24%. were 17.6% and 3.8% Mortality rates for calves and adult cattle respectively. On average 70 % of the cows produced milk in the range of 0.25 - 0.50 1 of milk per day, while the rest produced above 0.50 to 2.00 1 per day. Watering of animals was done once per day in 94 % of the herds and for the rest it was done twice per day. Grazing time was on average 7.38h for herds that grazed continuously during the day and 6.48h for herds that had partial rest in kraals during the day. Producer households utilized 43.5 X, 32.0 X and 23.4X of the consumption milk and for sales consumers obtained direct processing, household Non respectively. milk through purchases. producer of the 61 non-producer households, 57 % obtained milk within the village, 28.6 % between 2 and 10 km and 14 % from more than 10 km. Consuming households living far away from the producers were supplied with milk through bicycle-boys as intermediaries. Milk price which ranged between TSh.26.60 and TSh.120.00 per litre of milk was positively correlated (r = 0.68 ) to distance from the source. For producer households, the amount of milk sold was significantly dependent (P< milk 0.001) on total production per household per day. Household consumption and household processing decreased the amount of milk sold significantly (P<0.001). Family size was positively and significantly (P< 0.05) correlated to herd size, milk output and processing with daily coefficients of correlations of 0.69, 0.66 and 0.66 respectively. Only fermented milk, butter and ghee were found to be produced with buttermilk as a by - product in the fat recovery process. The capacity of gourds that were used in churning sour milk ranged between 4.5 to 28.0 1 while the average volume of milk churned was 3.6 1 (range 7.5 1) representing a churn capacity fill of 31 average (range 1 .3 to x on 6.8 to 62.5 X). The sour milk churned had a pH range of 3 to 5 and was churned at an average temperature of 26 :C. Churning time averaged 28.8 minutes (range 10 to 50 minutes). Overall efficiency of fat recovery using traditional churning methods ranged between 57.5 % and 85 % It is concluded management systems, coefficients with an average of 71.6 % that the production levels and milk marketing and milk processing found in this study are similar to those reported elsewhere for traditional agro-pastoral systems in Africa. Recommendations that could bring improvements in all the aspects studied are given about
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    Gender dimensions on agricultural input voucher system in Songea district
    (Sokoine University of Agriulture, 2014) Wilson, Monica, L
    The study examined the gender dimensions on agricultural input voucher system in Songea District The main objective of the study were to establish the effect of agricultural input voucher system (TVS) on gender dimensions of agricultural input subsidy in Songea District The study used a cross-sectional design and data were collected using a questionnaire and key informant interviews. The study population comprised of farm households of Songea District The sampling frame consisted of smallholder fanners who were growing maize for more than two seasons prior to data collection. A simple random sample of 120 respondents were picked using a table of random numbers from four villages that were randomly selected from a list of potential maize growing divisions in Songea District Furthermore, the research findings showed that the proportion of fanners using agricultural input voucher system had declined after the inception of input voucher system. The findings also showed that the low purchasing power, unavailability of inputs on time and lack of credit were the main factors limiting accessibility of inputs to farmers. Farmers and extension workers perceived the agricultural input voucher system as being better compared to its performance before the inception of voucher system due to the following reasons (i) supply of inputs was reliable (ii) the farmers are getting inputs at subsidized prices (iii) quantities of inputs supplied at a time formally were inadequate (iv) input supplies has been increased (v) inputs are accessible to farmers throughout the season. Recommendations pertaining to this study are presented in chapter five.
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    Assessment of on-farm and off-farm income generating activities in Kisarawe district
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2002) Washa, Florence Lameck
    This study was designed to assess on-farm and off-farm income generating activities in Kisarawe District.The study was conducted in five villages of Sungwi Division namely Kazimzumbwi, Sungwi, Kisarawe, Kifuru and Visegese. It involved 101 randomly selected farmers. The general objective of the study was to assess income-generating activities. The specific objectives of the study were, (a) to identify the major on-farm and off-farm income sources at household level, (b) to identify the most important sources of income at household level and, (c) to delineate the main factors on income generation for identified sources. The study used a cross-sectional design that employed the survey method. The survey population comprised of smallholder farmers in five villages of Sungwi Division. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire. A random sample of 101 respondents was picked using a table of random numbers from the sampling frame that was developed. Field observations supplemented the questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyse the data. Frequencies and percentages were used to present the results. The findings of the study show that the major on-farm income sources are cassava, cashewnut, orange, paddy and potato production. Major off-farm income sources were carpentry work, petty business and charcoal selling. But of the two income sources, most farmers depended on more on-farm activities. Off-farm sources have low contribution to income in the District. The most important income sources were obtained from on- farm activities namely crop (cassava and cashewnut) and local chicken production. However, income generation was affected by lack of market information, vermine, lack of market, lack of credit, unreliable rainfall, high cost of inputs, pests andiii diseases. It was observed from this study that the District is only 28 kilometers from Dar es salaam, which facilitates easy transportation of produce to the main market (Kariakoo), and from town to the District. Being near the forest, raw materials for off-farm activities are obtained easily. Carpentry and charcoal business draws raw materials from the forest. About 52.5% of the respondents kept records for off-farm income generating activities. The study, among other things, recommends that Government and NGOs should mobilize the formation of farmers* groups to facilitate access to credit. The Ministry of Cooperatives and Marketing should provide market information to farmers through their associations on what to produce for both local and export markets. Well articulated official policies and incentives for the off-farm sector should be developed. Planners and policy-makers should recognize the important positive implication of improving smallholder farmers economic situation, and the need to support economic activities in the overall village development plans. There is a need for the government and Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to provide more technical and financial support to the farmers to undertake and augment income generating enterprises, such as simple technologies on processing and preservation of fruits and vegetables.
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    Participation of smallholder farmers in agricultural development micro-projects: a case study of DADPs projects in Kwimba district Mwanza region.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2014) Mwita, Philemon Maige
    Smallholder farmers’ participation in agricultural development micro-projects is viewed as a process by which individuals are involved in identification, planning, implementing. monitoring and evaluation. It is also a process of social development in which smallholder farmers, as subjects in their own environment, seek out ways to meet their collective needs and expectations to overcome their common problems. This study was conducted to assess participation of smallholder farmers in agricultural development micro-projects under District Agricultural Development Plan (DADPs). Data were collected by interviewing respondents using interview schedule as the main tool. Descriptive and regression analyses were employed to determine factors influencing participation. Findings revealed that agricultural development micro-projects which farmers participated included cattle dip, charco-dam and improvement of local chickens and were supported by DADPs funds. Age, education level and occupation influenced participation of smallholder farmers and were found to be statistically significant at p < 0.05. However, sex and farm size of the respondents did not significantly influence participation of smallholder farmers. It is concluded that participation of smallholder farmers in agricultural development micro-projects should not be limited to contributions that farmers offer, but should aim at empowering smallholder farmers to take control of the development process. It is therefore recommended that smallholder farmers should play an active role in the identification, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation processes which implies increasing level of participation and hence empowering them to take control of the micro-project
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    Acquisition of land in rural areas of Morogoro district of Tanzania: policy and practice
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2013) Martin, Respikius
    This study aimed at assessing the implementation of land policy al the village level with specific attention to the process of land acquisition through the village government. The study had three specific objectives which are: (1) to assess the rural communities' awareness of the national land policy and the village land Act No. 5 of 1999: (2) to examine the actual processes of acquiring land through the village government in rural areas and (3) to analyze constraints facing rural people to acquire land through the village government. A cross- section survey method was employed whereby two wards were selected purposively and from each ward, two villages were selected randomly. A total of 86 respondents were interviewed while other data was solicited through focus group discussions and key informant interviews. SPSS computer program version 12 was used to analyze quantitative information while qualitative information was analyzed using the content analysis technique. The findings revealed that, the awareness of land policy is low among respondents. Majority of the respondents reported about having heard about the policy but were not familiar with key aspects of the policy. It was also revealed by the study that the process involved in acquiring village land is not as per land policy guidelines. Furthermore, lack of transparency and bureaucracy in land allocation process are the major limitations for rural people to acquire land through the village government. From the findings it is concluded that, at the village level, implementation of land policy is not effective. For the implementation to be effective the study recommends empowering rural people through access to information and capacity building for local institutions which oversee implementation process of land policy.
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    Socio-economic factors influencing farmers participation in agricultural marketing cooperative societies: a case study of Njombe district
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2001) Mgina, Fidea Luhwano
    The study on factors influencing farmers participation in Agricultural Marketing Cooperative Societies was carried out in Njombe District. The interest in this study has been prompted by the recognition that Agricultural Marketing Cooperative Societies (AMCOS) are organizations that can help poor farmers to raise their economic status, but the extent to which they join and participate in cooperative activities is very low. Hence the general objective was to find out what factors influence farmers participation in AMCOS. All farmers who are members and non-members in Njombe District were taken as the population of the study. Four societies were randomly selected to be included in the study. A total of 120 respondents, 60 members and 60 non-members were selected for the study. Data were collected through questionnaire and review of societies records. Data were then analyzed by descriptive statistics and test of independence (Chi-square) was used. The results of the study show that, farmers join societies and continue to be members if they can get the services, which are better than what they can get from other sources. This study found that there was no relationship between members participation in AMCOS and formal education, marital status, land distribution, and land acquisition. On the other hand, cooperative member education, economic activity, cash crops, markets, prices, and membership fee have influence to members participation in AMCOS. Lack of members education and poor services offered to members by AMCOS were cited as some of the problems hindering members’ participation. It is recommended that AMCOS should improve services offered to members. Societies and the government should emphasize cooperative education to the whole society. Likewise societies should find ways of building their capital through contributions, which will be used to buy crops from farmers so as to compete with private traders who pay cash.
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    Assessment of practices that urban dwellers do for environmental management in Kinondoni municipality
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2011) Iddi, Sunday David
    This study was conducted in Kinondoni Municipal Council in Dar es Salaam region. Tanzania. The main objective of the study was to investigate the environmental management practices of the urban dwellers in their residential areas. A simple random sampling procedure was employed to obtain a sample of 85 households from two divisions namely: Kinondoni and Magomeni. Data were collected through personal observations. administration of structured questionnaire and key informant interview. The collected data were coded and analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer program. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis were employed. It was revealed that about 93% of the residents in Kinondoni Municipality involved in environmental management practices. The linear regression results showed that domestic waste collection practice and cleaning the surroundings were statistically significance (p<0.05). This implies that these were the major environmental management practices of the urban dwellers in their residential areas. The study also found out that social, economical, political and cultural factors such as among others income levels, education levels, municipal guidelines, bylaws, and plot sizes influenced urban dwellers' participation in residential environmental management activities. The study concludes that majority of the residents participated differently in residential environmental management activities due to differences in their socio-economic, cultural and political orientations. The study recommends that the central government through local government authorities should lay down proper policy mechanisms for promoting dwellers’ participation in environmental management at the residential areas. In addition, municipal authorities should ensure that urban dwellers in residential areas are provided with supporting environmental management infrastructures such as tap water and better drainage systems, which will enable them to participate fully in the environmental management activities.
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    Conflicts in the Evangelical Lutheran church in Tanzania. the case study of Meru diocese, Arusha, Tanzania.
    (2007) Mmbaga, Stanley Kajiru
    Conflicts have been happening since God’s creation (RSV, 1978). A number of factors contribute to conflicts and some take a long time before they are solved, yet leave permanent scars or destructions, others are not solved or worked on, and the society talks about them like folk stories (Mndcme A, Personal communication, 2006). Among the factors contributing to these conflicts include; selfishness, money, fame and jealousness (Ayo M, Personal communication, 2006). Selfishness, which also involves money, to a great extent is what has lead to the problems many of the Evangelical Lutheran Churches (ELCT) in Tanzania are lacing. The main purpose of this study was to assess the causes and effects of conflicts in the ELCT. The objectives of the study were, first to assess socio-economic factors leading Christians into conflicts, and secondly, to investigate conilict management mechanisms. Data for the study were collected using questionnaire survey. Questionnaire survey was done in the Parishes of Meru Diocese. Data were coded, analyzed and verified. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze quantitative data. Findings of the study suggest that selfishness; greed, misuse of church funds and the lack of transparency arc major causes of conflicts. The main impact has been the creation of a new diocese, destruction of property, and loss of life. The results of this study provide some suggestions to the church leaders to be cooperative, honest, transparent and spiritually dynamic. It also provides appropriate use of the word of God in times of misunderstandings and chaos on church affairs. The study also suggests leaders to be transparent and to share information with believers all the time, especially during misunderstandings. The study further suggests that when problems occur church leaders should resolve them as soon enough to reduce their effects. Conflicts can be solved if strategies are laid down and involving equally all parties in the conflict.
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    The role of small scale farming as a livelihood strategy among the Maasai pastoralist community in Ngorongoro district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2011) Lekeni, James Orongai
    This study was undertaken to explore the role of small scale farming as a livelihood strategy among the Maasai pastoralist community. The study was conducted in four villages, two villages from each of the following wards namely; Esoit Sambu and Olgosorok in Loliondo Division in Ngorongoro District. The sample involved 100 respondents and two Extension Officers from each ward who were responsible for the sampled villages. The specific objectives of the study were; to find out how small-scale farming addresses food insecurity problems among the Maasai, to determine the contribution of small-scale farming as a source of income in the Maasai household, to determine if small scale farming plays a role in increasing of Maasai herd size per household, and to identify the contribution of small-scale farming to the proper land utilization and environmental management. Data were collected using structured questionnaire with open ended and close ended questions. Personal observation and secondary data supplemented the questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used in data analysis. The results revealed that 72.7% of the respondents depend on small scale farming as a livelihood strategy. It was found that small scale farming among the Maasai has contribution to food security, generating income, providing local employment as well as making the Maasai to lead a more sedentary lifestyle. Despite the fact that small scale farming is practised in many areas of the Maasai land, there are some constraints that are hampering Maasai farmers. Examples were lack of improved tools, lack of cash to buy improved seeds, soil exhaustion, pest and diseases, lack of farming skills as well as formal education. Geographical locations of many of the Maasai villages hinder the Ward Extension Officers from visiting all the pastoralist farmers. Lack of credit facilities and reliable market where the pastoralist farmers can sell crops were also identified as obstacles. Recommendations from the study include; providing more training on farming rather than on livestock keeping, giving them at least an exposure outside of their areas to
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    Abundance and diversity of wild mammals along a hydrologic gradient in the Usangu wetlands, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2011) Kicheleri, Rose Peter
    This study was conducted in the Eastern Usangu wetland in Mbcya and Iringa regions to examine the composition, abundance and diversity of mammals along a hydrological gradient. Data were collected in two seasons using distance sampling method along transects using a GPS to locate positions. Kruskal-Wallis, Pearson’s correlation and t-tests were employed to test the association of distance and number of animals observed along the gradient. Diversity of mammals along the gradient was determined by a number of indices using PRIMER 5.0 software. The study revealed that animal sightings decreased with distances from the edge of wetland though not significant different along the gradient. Also, flight distance of observed mammals was high indicating higher degree of poaching, and probably disturbances. Human activities such as abandoned farms, demolished houses and fresh livestock dung. were rampant in the wetlands. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of observed mammals in the two seasons, where species richness and abundance were higher in the late dry season. These results indicate that wetlands are important refuge areas for mammals as both abundance and diversity decreased with distance from the edge of the wetland. This study recommends a continuous monitoring of birds and mammals populations such as topi to help in determining the changes in abundance and diversity over time in Usangu wetlands as a result of intervention from anthropogenic disturbances.
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    Economic potential of biodiesel production: a case of small scale farmers in Meru and Monduli districts in Arusha Region, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2010) Dahaye, Boay
    Tanzania is among the countries which depend entirely on imports for their crude oil requirements. This dependence on imported oil requires a lot of foreign currency. This dependence on imported crude oil necessitates looking for alternative sources of energy. The present study aims to assess the economic potential of biodiesel production among small scale farmers. The study was conducted in Arusha region, in northern Tanzania. Two Districts namely: Meru and Monduli were purposely selected basing on jatropha production in these areas. A cross sectional survey was conducted to collect primary data from 120 households. Secondary data were secured from Meru and Monduli Districts, SNAL and internet sources. Descriptive and quantitative analytical techniques were used. The findings show that the profit accrued from Jatropha production was the smallest compared to other crops in the study area. Black bean has the largest margin, followed by coffee, maize, beans, banana, and lastly Jatropha. Cattle contribute 78% while 9.1% from goats and sheep and 3.8% from chicken to the household income. The factors such as extension services and price influence profitability of Jatropha production and were statistically significant (PO.Ol). The smallest of costs of producing biodiesel by using Jatropha as a feedstock is TZS 1469 to be competitive with landed oil price of TZS 1120 per litre. The current landed oil prices of around TZS 1120 a litre requires biodiesel production costs to be around TZS 1469 a litre for the production of biodiesel to be profitable in the country. This study recommends Jatropha production on contour and fences.
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    Governance in the implementation of TASAF community sub­ Projects: a case of Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2010) Jesse, Agela
    The study of Governance in the implementation of TASAF community sub projects in Tanzania was carried out in Morogoro Municipality in Morogoro Region. The interest of this study was encouraged by the recognition that good governance and development reinforce each other, hence in any development activity including TASAF community sub projects; participation, transparency, consensus oriented, rule of law, accountability, effectiveness and efficiency, equitable and inclusiveness and responsiveness as features of good governance are needed to ensure proper implementation and sustainability of the given community development activity. However, governance has come under severe pressure of creeping corruption, poor accountability and inefficient legal system in public services. Hence it was necessary to carry out this study under Morogoro condition. The study examined ways of creating awareness and sensitization on community sub projects, the degree of community participation in identifying and setting priorities of community sub projects, equal representation in monitoring and evaluation of community sub projects, factors that hinder the implementation of community sub projects and perception of community members towards community sub projects. Structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information from 120 respondents. A checklist was also utilized to collect information from key informants. The data were then analysed statistically to obtain frequency distribution and percentages. Generally this study revealed that governance in the implementation of TASAF community sub project is poor due to lack of transparency, poor accountability, poor participation of community members in setting priorities and individualization. It is recommended that transparency and accountability, consensus orientation and participation in setting priorities, efficiency and effectiveness should be emphasised. Moreover, community sub projects should not be taken as a tool of getting votes but as a tool that helps to improve the livelihoods of the community members by being handled by the community members themselves.
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    Constraints facing community secondary schools in incorporating agricultural science subject in their schools: the case of Songea Municipality, Tanzania.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2012) Komba, Protas Laurent
    The aim of this study was to find out constraints facing community owned secondary schools in Tanzania in incorporating agricultural science as one of the subjects taught in their schools, with specific reference to Songea Municipality. The study specifically identified the constraints facing the community owned secondary schools in incorporating agricultural science as one of the subject taught and assessed whether or not secondary school students were in need of studying agricultural science subject. Also it examined the views of secondary school students not studying agricultural science subject as well as assess if the Tanzanian education policy favored secondaiy school students to study agricultural science subject or not. It also assessed whether there were self-reliance activities carried out in schools such as animal husbandry, crop cultivation and school projects. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey method whereby students and teachers from randomly selected community secondaiy schools were selected and involved in the study. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages were used to summarize the information obtained from the respondents. The identified constraints include improper Tanzanian education policy concerning teaching agriculture science subject, lack of teaching and learning materials, inadequate school physical facilities, unavailability of qualified agriculture teachers and also financial problems in schools. The study further found out that students viewed agriculture science subject to be an important subject to them because of its immediate use of the knowledge and skills obtained through studying the subject. Moreover, the study found that there was no self reliance activities carried out in community secondaiy schools. Thus, the study concluded that, there is need to incorporate agricultural science subject in the community secondary schools since the informants were supportive of it, in spite of the constraints associated with incorporating the subject in these schools.
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    Assessment of efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability of farmer-to-farmer extension approach at mogabiri farm extension centre (MFEC), Tarime District- Mara Region, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture., 2001) Sonoko, Julius Mgaya
    One of the several extension approaches used by NGOs in agricultural extension in Tanzania is farmer-to-farmer extension approach. This is the approach in which farmers are the primary extension agents and professionals only facilitate their work. Using project villages in Mogabiri Farm Extension Centre as study area, the efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability of farmer to-farmer-extension approach was studied. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a randomly and purposively selected sample size of 75 respondents. Three types of questionnaires were developed and administered to 60 farmers, 10 FAMOs and 5 WEOs working in the project villages. The results of the study revealed that in one month period, FAMOs visited 88.3% of respondents interviewed for 1 to 5 days. Similarly, in three months period, 80% of FAMOs attended over 75% of project farmers using various extension tools. This implies that farmer-to-farmer extension approach is efficient in terms of supervision frequency and coverage. However, FAMOs were incompetent in solving some of the farmers' problems particularly control of common animal and crop diseases, pregnancy diagnosis and dystocia. Results further revealed that project farmers who adopted recommended practices realised a substantial increase in milk, coffee and cereal yields. The observed increase in yields substantiate the effectiveness of farmer- to-farmer extension services. Implementation of improved practices, growth of farmers group members and elements of cost sharing in farmer-to-farmer extension approach at MFEC show that this approach will sustain after the termination of the project. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that FAMOs should be given appropriate and adequate training suitable in solving common problems encountered by farmers in the project areas. It is also recommended that short and long term solutions to the lack of reliable market for milk and coffee should be considered. Furthermore, it is recommended that in order to come up with sustainable extension approach, strategies should be designed to ensure that challenges like replacement of old extension facilities, shortage of working facilities and lack of incentives to FAMOs have permanent solutions.
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    Feasibility of scaling up local level rural institution for sustainable land management: The case of Lushoto Disrict, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2013) John, Regina
    This study on local institutions was carried out in Lushoto District where several land management interventions took place. The interest of the study has been prompted by the recognition that local institutions are viewed as instrumental actors to farmers’ development but they face a number of problems which hinder them in performing their roles and responsibilities. Therefore it was necessary to have a systematic understanding of the roles of local institutions and how they can be scaled up to increase their impact. The study aimed to investigate the feasibility for scaling up local level rural institutions for sustainable land management in Lushoto District. It intended to explore three major objectives: To identify and characterize local institutions involved in agriculture or natural resource management that; to assess roles and capacity of local institutions in sustainable land management. Data were collected using a structured questionnaires with open ended and closed ended questions, research guide and interview checklist. A representative sample of 60 respondents from different farmers' groups and 5 key informants were drawn and interviewed. The Statistical Package for Social Science Software (SPSS) was employed for data analysis. From the findings it was observed that farmers’ groups or local institutions play a great role on management of natural resources and increase production through the use of different land management technologies. It was also observed that farmers’ groups have different roles that they perform in order to ensure the sustainability of their activities such as supporting training to the farmers, formulation of capital accumulation systems such as SACCOS etc. Different ways of scaling up these local institutions were recommended during the study by the farmers themselves, one of them being providing working equipment to farmers.
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    Land use planning and quantitative modelling in Tanzania with particular reference to agriculture and deforestation: Some theoretical aspects and a case study from the west Usambara mountains
    (Agricultural University of Norway, 1993) Kaoneka, A R.S.
    Land use planning in Tanzania is an important issue due to serious land use problems caused by a host of factors. One of the reasons causing the general land use problem is stiff competition between forestry and agriculture. In the forest sector per se we find problems related to competition between the production of wood products, watershed protection, tourism, nature conservation, deforestation through encroachment, both legal and illegal logging activities. All these activities very much influence the future prospects of natural forest reserves. In agriculture land use problems emanate basically from inefficient farm management practices caused by socio-economic factors. The broad objective of this study has been to improve on the body of knowledge related to land use planning, modelling and management of the land use in Tanzania with particular relevance to an integrated management of forestry, agriculture and nature conservation. The more specific objectives are to: (i) present an overview of major land use planning problems in Tanzania in general and in the Usambaras in particular, (ii) evaluate some of the existing planning models regarding their suitability for application in multiple land use planning in Tanzania and discuss the optimal balance between quantitative modelling and qualitative aspects in land use planning and multiresource management; (iii) develop linear programming and compromise programming models for analyzing fanning systems at the village level in the West Usambaras. This has been done in the enclosed four reports: Report 1: Forest related land use in Tanzania: some policy and socio-economic aspects. Report 2: Land use in the West Usambara Mountains: analysis of ecological and socio­ economic aspects with special reference to forestry. A theoretical review and application of some land use planning models with Report 3: relevance for application in Tanzania. Application of economic analyses and mathematical programming in land use Report 4: planning at the village level in West Usambara Mountains. The application of quantitative modelling in Tanzania has been fairly limited, yet this study has indicated that there are considerable prospects for increased scope of application. The analysis of this study, inter alia, indicates that the present farming systems in the West Usambaras are not sustainable for more than about 30 years, and that the pressure from agriculture on forest lands would be high. This suggests that, in order to make the existing farming systems sustainable, it is important to improve farming technology which could increase crop production through improvements of land productivity and increase income from other sources. The government has failed to provide adequate measures to counter-balance the effect of population increases, thereby setting in motion a devolutionary cycle of increasing population densities and declining welfare. Therefore, as a matter of policy, it is important to redress this downward trend through a combined effort of politicians, extension workers and the farmers themselves. The overriding strategy should be to ensure long-term maintenance and improvement of the welfare of the local populace.My interest in land use planning, especially from farming and forestry point of view, is based on the fact that I was bom and brought up in a peasantry society. Our village lies in the immediate environs of a natural forest reserve from which we obtain a variety of materials. During my childhood I grew up with increasing realization of the importance of forests and farming activities. Therefore it is not by chance that I took interest in analyzing farming systems in this study. In pursuit of this study I received assistance and cooperation from various institutions and individuals. The Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) provided financial sponsorship for the study. The Department of Forestry, Agricultural University of Norway, accepted me as a Dr. Scient. student and provided logistical support I spent one year (1990/91) doing course-work at the School of Forestry, Northern Arizona University, U.S.A., where I received academic and logistical support from both faculty and administrative staff. Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, granted me study leave to pursue the Ph.D programme. Professor Dr. Birger Solberg, The Norwegian Forest Research Institute, initiated, inspired and guided me diligently throughout the study period, and has read and commented on all four reports. Dr. Prem Sankhayan, Senior Economist at the Centre for Sustainable Development, Agricultural University of Norway, encouraged me in mathematical modelling, and has read and commented on Report Number 4 of this study. Prof. Dr. Aaron S.M. Mgeni, Department of Mensuration and Management, Sokoine University of Agriculture, has read and commented on Reports 1 and 2. Mr. Gerald C. Monela, Lecturer, Department of Forest Economics, Sokoine University of Agriculture, has read and commented on Reports 1 and 2 as well as chapter 3 of Report Number 4. Dr. Stein T. Holden, Associate Professor, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, has read and commented on Reports 1 and 2. Prof. Dr. Aku O’Kting’ati, Head, Department of Forest Economics, Sokoine University of Agriculture provided logistical support during field work in Tanzania. Ms. Grethe Delbeck typed and retyped Report Number 3 of the study. Ms. Kari Solberg, as a true mother, gave me moral support during the course of the study. Finally my family has had to tolerate my long absence from home. I missed my mothers sweet porridge! Prof. Shabani A.O. Chamshama took great care of the family during my absence. To all these institutions and persons I wish to say SHUKRAN.
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    Contribution of youth development fund in creating youth employment opportunities in Kilosa district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2022) Sehaba, Lightness Bigvai
    Youth unemployment is a worldwide challenge. Tanzania is among the Sub-Saharan African countries which face the problem of unemployment. Lack of capital to venture in informal income generating activities is among the causes of youth unemployment. Youth Development Fund (YDF) was introduced in Tanzania with the aim of reducing youth unemployment through providing soft loans to youth. This study aimed at investigating how YDF contributed to the performance of youth IGAs and employment creation. The specific objectives were: i) To assess loan utilization practices and the types of youth enterprises/ investments after accessing loans from YDF, ii) To assess the non-financial support services and youth economic activities performance and iii) To examine the youth who managed to employ themselves or employ others as a result of YDF. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A survey was used to collect data from 100 respondents. The study held 10 focus group discussions and 6 key informant interviews. Inferential and descriptive statistics were analysed through IBM-SPSS and STATA software. Association between YDF and youth employment creation was determined through a multiple linear regression model which was run using STATA. Content analysis was used in the analysis of qualitative data. Findings indicate that 89% of the respondents managed to employ themselves and employ others while 11% managed to employ themselves. Age of respondents, amount of capital invested, business experience had significant influence on youth employment at P ≤ 0.05 level while marital status, income generated per year had significant influence at P ≤ 0.01 level on employment creation. Loan from YDF was utilized for establishment of new businesses (59%) while the income generating activities mentioned were agriculture and livestock keeping (50.8%), transporyouth were training and business linkages. The study concludes that YDF loan has positive contribution towards employment creation in terms of self-employment to youth and other youth in the established business enterprises. Therefore, it is recommended that the Ministry of Labour, Youth, Employment, and Persons with Disability in Tanzania should strengthen youth support through YDF loan and other non-financial support services. Also, the programme should continue with coaching and monitoring of YDF beneficiaries so as to improve business performance hence a reduction in youth unemployment.t (16.7%) and petty business (32.6%). The non-financial support services provided to the
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    Contribution of agroecological practices to household food availability: experience from Farmer Research Network (FRN) project in Singida district
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2022) Kanjanja, Sauda Mbwiga
    This study assessed the contributions of agroecological practices to household food avail- ability in Singida district. Specifically, the study intended to: (i) determine the extent of implementation of agroecological practices among FRN farmers and non-FRN farmers in Singida district; (ii) examine the contribution of agroecological practices to household food availability by comparing FRN and non-FRN farmers; (iii) assess farmers’ percep- tions towards implementation of agroecological practices as a means of improving food availability; and (iv) determine factors influencing farmers in implementing agroecolo- gical practices in the study district. Using the "With and Without" approach, a sample size of 160 respondents was selected, 80 from two villages where farmers were trained on agroecological practices (the "With FRN group") and the other 80 from two villages where farmers were not trained on agroecological practices (the "Without FRN group"). Both quantitative and qualitative primary data were collected for triangulation purposes. A structured questionnaire was administered to 160 household respondents and a checklist used in and in-depth interviews with eight key informants (KIIs). Besides, four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), one in each village were conducted. Quantitative data was analysed through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer soft were, while qualitative data analysed using content analysis. Descriptive statistics involving the calculation of means, frequencies and percentages were computed. A chi-square test was used to determine associations between the extent of im- plementation of agroecological practices and membership of the household in the FRN. A multiple linear regression model was used to determine possible determinants influencing the implementation of agroecological practices. Content analysis was used to Analyse qualitative data. The findings showed that the overall extent of implementation of agroecological practices was moderated (73.8%). Most FRN farmers had more food than non-FRN farmers be- cause they were trained in agroecological practices and imparted knowledge and skills that influenced FRN farmers to implement the practices, eventually contributing to increased crop yield and thus food availability in households. The finding from the Chi-square Test revealed that the implementation of agroecological practices had a significant contribution to households (p-value = 0.000). The FRN farmers had adequate food available to their families than non-FRN farmers. In terms of perception, farmers had a positive perception towards the implementation of agroecological practices as a technology to enhance food availability. In contrary, farmers had a negative perception of the ease of implementation of agroecological practices, indicated that it was a cumbersome task to practice some agroecological technologies such as contour ridges and nine seeded holes. Furthermore, the findings of the multiple regression model indicated that household income, training on agroecological practices, age, benefits from practising agroecology, land ownership, farm distance and education level of the household head had significantly influenced the imple- mentation of agroecological practices at a p-value = 0.05 level of significance. Based on the findings, the study concluded that farmers in the study district implementa- tion of agroecological practices at moderate level. This was likely due to the intensiveness of most agroecological practices; however, the FRN project's training influenced small- holder farmers to implement agroecology. Also, agroecological practices have a signific- ant contribution to household food availability. Farmers who were moderately involved in the implementation of agroecological practices had adequate food availability. The posit- ive perception of farmers towards agroecological practices to enhance food availability is an indication that farmers have the possibility to be familiar with and implement agroeco- logical practices so as to improve soil fertility and increase crop productivity, thus leading to food availability. The study also concludes that household income, training attainment, benefits obtained from practising agroecology, land ownership and the education level of the household head are important determinants for agroecological practices implementa- tion in Singida district. As these factors increase, the implementation of agroecological practices also increases. While the age of the household head and farm distance had an in- verse relationship, as the farmer aged, the implementation of agroecological practices de- creased. Also, the longer the distance in which the farm is located, the more difficult it is to implement agroecology. Therefore, farmers whose farms are located far from homesteads find it difficult to implement agroecology since it is easy to manage them. The study recommends that the FRN project, in collaboration with other development agents, should put more emphasis on promoting agroecological practices in order to in- crease the level of their implementation. This can be done in different ways, including the provision of specialised equipment to reduce the intensiveness of some of the practices and other inputs. Because agroecological practices contribute significantly to household food availability, farmers who implemented agroecological practices had adequate food availability compared to their counterparts. Therefore, there is a need to scale up training agroecological practices to reach a wider community, including farmers outside FRN vil- lages. Farmers had a positive perception of the implementation of agroecological prac- tices, so local government authorities and other stakeholders should promote agroecolo- gical practices transformation to encourage farmers to continue implementing agroecolo- gical practices. The Government and other stakeholders should insist more on improving training services to increase the implementation of agroecological practices. Training will help to increase farmers’ awareness, knowledge and benefits associated with implement- ing agroecology. Also, the study recommends diversification of income sources on the farmers’ side by engaging in both on-farm and off-farm activities such as petty business to increase income, which in turn will enable them to invest in the implementation of agroe- cology practices.