Contribution of Heifer In-Trust schemes to smallholder households’ well-being in Highland area of Njombe Region, Tanzania

Thumbnail Image



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Livestock Research for Rural Development


Food insecurity and poor income is a big challenge in Njombe Region. The Heifer in-Trust Schemes (HIS) in this region aimed at reducing food and income insecurity. The study’s main objective was to determine the contribution of the HIS farming households’ well-being in the highland areas of Njombe, Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed at determining the contribution of the HIS to food security measured by number of meals and composition of these meals and at exploring the contribution of sales of milk, calves and pastures to household income. The study adopted a cross-sectional design and using HIS registers books, data were collected from 200 randomly selected HIS beneficiary households using a structured questionnaire. In addition 4 Focus Group Discussion (FDGs) were conducted to supplement information collected through the questionnaires. Results from the study show that dairy farming was the major source of food and income. Despite the variations in seasonality in this highland agro-ecological zone, HIS has enormously contributed to the improvement of smallholder famers’ well-being. Generally, smallholder households’ food was secured; an average of three meals daily with diversified nutrients was taken and income has increased.




Agro-ecology, Dairy farming, Food and income security, Heifer in-Rust Scheme