Evaluate the implementation of Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs)

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Sokoine University of Agriculture


A study to evaluate the implementation of Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) with reference to Twatwatwa pilot WMA Kilosa district was conducted from October 2007 to December, 2007. Specifically the study assessed the involvement of local communities in the pilot WMA, assessed the capacity and ability of communities in the process required for the implementation of pilot WMA, identified the benefits and damages to local communities as a result of pilot WMA implementation and found out the contribution made by facilitators towards WMA implementation. A cross sectional research design was adopted. Data collection process involved the use of structured questionnaire. Sampling intensity was set at 10% for Twatwatwa , Mbwade and Rudewa villages while a 5% sampling intensity for Msowero village was adopted. A total of 280 respondents were involved in this exercise. To supplement the information obtained from questionnaire, key informants and focus group discussion were used. The data collected by questionnaires were analyzed using Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) computer software. Chi square (χ 2 ) was used to test the association between respondents’ level of education and their involvement in pilot WMA activities. Results showed that there was a significant association between the two variables (p<0.01) Results for education level indicate that 67.9% of respondents had primary education, 3.6% secondary education, 19.6% had no formal education while 8.9% had adult education. The results indicate that the highest number of the respondents (51.1%) was aged between 31 and 45 years. Most of respondents (93.6%) were males while 6.4% were females. A significant number of the respondents (76.6%) were married. Results showed that 85.0% of respondents were engaged in agriculture while only 15.0% were engaged in livestock keeping. The majority of villagers (95.0%) were not involved in pilot WMA activities ever since the implementation of WMA became stalled. The highest number of respondents (97.1%) indicated that villagers were not capable to implement WMA on their own. Most of the respondents (71.0%) had no benefits from pilot WMA. Contributions made by facilitators towards WMA implementation were not enough. The study concludes that implementation of Twatwatwa WMA stagnated mainly due to conflict between peasants and livestock keepers as well as due lack of funds that was supposed to come from the Government and NGOs. Furthermore, villagers were no longer involved in pilot WMA, had no capacity and capability to implement the WMA on their own owing to lack of expertise, had fewer benefits than costs and had received inadequate contributions from the Government and NGOs for the purpose of WMA implementation. The study recommends that the Government must help member villages to permanently resolve their conflict. Government should assist villagers to acquire funds for WMA implementation process. Villagers need to be educated on WMA issues as this will enable them to become involved in the daily running of the WMA.



Wildlife Management


Kalimba, A.F (2010)Evaluate the implementation of Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) . Morogoro;Sokoine University of Agriculture.