Contribution of microbiota to innate and acquired gut immunity during health and disease

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Nova Science Publishers, Inc


The contribution of intestinal epithelium to the innate immune system includes detecting luminal microbes, transducing signals, and activating inflammatory mediator release by epithelial and other cells of the immune system like the antigen presenting cells. Microbial antigens are detected by cells of the innate immune system through their pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The PRRs recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns and generate signals that activate transcription pathways like nuclear factor kappa B and mitogen activated protein kinases. This activation leads to production of inflammatory and growth mediators that drive the immune system to elicit tolerance or immune response designated at maintaining immune homeostasis. Key to this signaling is the gut microbiota. Intestinal epithelial cell sensing of optimally balanced microbiota favors immune homeostasis whereas sensing under disrupted microbiota impairs immune function and predisposes to disease. Understanding the PRR-microbiota signaling would be useful in designing therapeutics for various immune-mediated disorders caused by imbalances of microbiota.




Immune system, Microbiota pattern, Intestinal immunity, Immune homeostasis