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    Evaluation of baobab seed cake based diets for growth performance and carcass quality of pig in central zone, Tanzania
    (AJOL, 2021) Magonka, J. M.; Komwihangilo, D. M.; Malago, J.
    This study was carried out in Central Tanzania and aimed at evaluating the effect of Baobab seed cake (BSC) on growth performance and carcass quality of pigs. Twenty-four (24) weaners of both sexes were involved in the study which lasted for 84 days. Four diets were formulated with BSC replacing sunflower seed cake at four levels of 0, 7, 14 and 21% and allotted to four dietary treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively, in a completely randomized design. Results showed that the four levels of replacement had no significant effect on body weight gains although T2 outperformed the others in terms of weight gain with 23.19kg whereby T1 (20.54kg) and T3 (20.21kg) had almost similar weights and T4 had the lowest weight gain (15.52kg). The cost of production, carcass weights, and dressing percentages varied significantly (P≤ 0.05) whereby costs of production (in Tshs) were 151,643.28, 162,965.52, 150,820.03 and 117,646.74 for T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Carcass weight and dressing percentages were 23kg, 20.5kg, 18.50kg, 9.50kgs and 55.4, 53.9, 51.4 and 48.7% for T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Histopathology analyses of the carcasses indicated that there were no any detrimental changes resulting from an inclusion of BSC in pig diets thus the pork was fit for human consumption.
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    Circulating Brucella species in wild animals of the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania
    (Springer, 2021) Sambu, R. M; Mathew, C; Nonga, H. E; Lukambagire, A. S; Yapi, R. B; Akoko, J; Fokou, G; Keyyu, J. D; Bonfoh, B; Kazwala, R. R
    Background: Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonosis of public health and economic importance worldwide. It affects a number of domestic animals, wild animals and humans. Human brucellosis originates from either livestock or wildlife. The species of Brucella circulating in wild animals in Tanzania is largely unknown due to insufficient surveillance. This study was carried out to identify Brucella species found in selected wildlife hosts in the Serengeti ecosystem. Methodology: The study used a total of 189 archived samples that were obtained from cross-sectional studies previously conducted between 2000 and 2017 in the Serengeti ecosystem in Tanzania. Whole blood, serum and amniotic fluid collected from buffalos, lions, wildebeest, impala, zebra and hyena were available for DNA extraction. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. ovis and B. suis (AMOS PCR) and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) targeting the bcsp31 and IS711 genes for Brucella genus detection and the IS711 targets alkB for B. abortus and BMEI1162 for B. melitensis were used to detect Brucella strains. Results: Out of the 189 samples tested, 12 (6.35 %) and 22 (11.6 %) were positive to AMOS-PCR and qPCR, respectively. Most of the positive samples were from lions (52.6 %) and buffaloes (19.6 %). Other animals that were positive included: wildebeest (13.6 %), impala (13.6 %), zebra (4.5 %) and hyena (4.5 %). Out of 22 positive samples, 16 (66.7 %) were identified as B. abortus and the other six samples did not amplify for neither B. abortus nor B. melitensis. Conclusions: The detection of Brucella DNA in archived wild animal samples shows testing potential of samples collected from this population. The zoonotic species B. abortus and B. melitensis detected in wild animals have previously been reported in livestock and humans in the region. The findings suggest that, due to the contact network, some of the identified wild animal hosts in this study could be reservoirs for infections in domestic animals and humans within the Serengeti ecosystem while others are likely dead-end hosts. One Health control strategies and continuous surveillance programs in other wildlife reserved areas should be implemented to help predicting transmission in livestock and humans in the region.
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    Correlation between type of adaptive immune response against porcine circovirus type 2 and level of virus replication
    (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 2005-06-01) Meerts, Peter; Gucht, Van S; Cox, Eric; Vandebosch, A; Nauwynck, H. J
    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) replication is characterized by high variation among infected pigs. This study investigated the role of immunologic responses in causing this variation. Twelve gnotobiotic pigs were inoculated with PCV2. Four of these pigs were treated with cyclosporin A (CysA) to monitor the effect of the adaptive immunity on the development of the PCV2 infection. Through lymph node biopsies at 10, 15, and 21 days postinoculation (DPI), PCV2 replication in lymphoid tissues was monitored. The production of total PCV2-specific and PCV2-neutralizing antibodies was followed, together with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood monocytes as a marker for cellular immunity. In general, the CysA-treated pigs showed the highest PCV2 titers, indicating that the adaptive immunity is necessary to restrain PCV2 replication. Three different PCV2 replication patterns were observed in …
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    Student and institutional achievements during an OIE veterinary education twinning project collaboration between Sokoine University of Agriculture and Kansas state University
    (AAVMC, 2022-04) Kipanyula, Maulilio J; Hamilton, Keith; Mosier, Derek A; Schmidt, Peggy L; Kazwala, Rudovick; Muhairwa, Amandus P; Sebhatu, Tesfaalem T
    This collaborative partnership aimed to enhance the quality of veterinary education at both Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (Tanzania), and Kansas State University (KSU), College of Veterinary Medicine (United States), by facilitating exchange of knowledge, experience, and ideas. One project objective was to integrate the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Guidelines on Veterinary Education Core Curriculum into the SUA education program so veterinary graduates would be equipped with the minimum competencies needed to support their National Veterinary Services (OIE Day 1 Competencies). Curriculum mapping revealed that partners addressed different OIE Day 1 Competencies to varying degrees and they had complementary strengths and weaknesses. The partners’ practical and educational experiences were also complementary, providing each opportunities to learn from the other and a solid basis for long-term mutually beneficial collaboration. Through structured exchanges, the collaboration allowed SUA and KSU students and faculty to broaden their perspectives by exposing them to veterinary medicine, culture, ecosystems, teaching environments, and farming systems in each other’s country. Visiting faculties and students from both universities were exposed to different livestock systems, varying dynamics at the human–livestock–wildlife interface, different teaching systems, and a veterinary profession with a different culture and focus than that in their own country. Students and faculty learned about the relative social and economic importance of different types of animal production in each country and their influence on veterinary education priorities. Partnership outcomes include a continuing professional development course at SUA for private and public sector veterinarians and a clinical club to expose students at both colleges to a broader range of clinical cases and knowledge.
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    Effect of pond management on prevalence of intestinal parasites in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under small scale fish farming systems in Morogoro, Tanzania
    (Livestock Research for Rural Development, 2011) Mdegela, R H; Omary, AN; Mathew, C; Nonga, HE
    A cross-sectional study was conducted in small scale fish farming systems in Morogoro urban and rural area between December 2007 and February 2008 to determine the effect of pond management on prevalence of intestinal parasites in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Water physicochemical parameters in fish ponds and the risk factors for intestinal parasites were determined. Information on pond type and cleanness, feeding and general pond management was also gathered through questionnaires and participant observations during the sample collection. One fifty three adult O. niloticus from 13 ponds were examined. It was found that most ponds (69%) were small and of earthen type, 77% were clean and were using river water. Up to 92% of farmers changed pond water regularly and almost all farmers reported to use maize bran as the main feed for fish. Farmers used different types of animal manure to fertilize the ponds. The observed water physicochemical levels were within the normal range for fish water ponds as recommended by FAO. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 16.3%. Specifically, 15% of fish had Eimeria oocysts while 1.3% had unidentified flukes. Prevalence of parasites was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in ponds located in rural (18.7%) than in urban areas (6.7%). Significantly (P<0.05) higher prevalence of parasites was observed in fish ponds using river water (18.8%) than in ponds using rain water (0%). Pond type was also a risk factor as there was a significantly (P < 0.05) higher parasite infection rates in earthen ponds (20.9%) than in fish reared in concrete ponds (4.7%). It is concluded that earthen fishponds, keeping fish in rural areas and using river water in ponds predisposes fish to intestinal parasites. Good water quality management and proper fish husbandry techniques will eliminate most parasitic infection and improve fish production.
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    Serological and molecular evidence of brucella species in the rapidly growing pig sector in Kenya
    (BMC Veterinary Research, 2020) Akoko, J; Pelle, R; Kivali, V; Schelling, E; Shirima, G; Mathew, C; Kyallo, V; Bonfoh, B; Kazwala, R; Ouma, C; Machuka, E. M.; Fèvre, E. M.; Falzon, L. C.; Lukambagire, A. S.; Halliday, J. E. B.
    Background: Brucellosis is an emerging yet neglected zoonosis that has been reported in Kenya. Epidemiological data on brucellosis in ruminants is readily accessible; however, reports on brucellosis in pigs remain limited. This study sought to detect Brucella infection in pig serum by both serological and molecular techniques. Serum from 700 pigs randomly collected at a centralized abattoir in Nairobi region, Kenya were screened in parallel, using both Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and competitive Enzyme-Linked Immuno-sorbent Assay (cELISA) for antibodies against Brucella spp. All sera positive by RBT and 16 randomly selected negative samples were further tested using conventional PCR targeting bcsp31 gene and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assays targeting IS711 and bcsp31 genes. Results: A prevalence of 0.57% (n = 4/700) was estimated using RBT; none of these samples was positive on cELISA. All RBT positive sera were also positive by both PCRs, while two sero-negative samples also tested positive on RTPCR (n = 6/20). Brucella abortus was detected in four out of the six PCR positive samples through a real-time multiplex PCR. Conclusion: The detection of antibodies against Brucella spp. and DNA in serum from slaughterhouse pigs confirm the presence of Brucella in pigs. Therefore, investigation of the epidemiology and role of pigs in the transmission of brucellosis in Kenya is needed. Further targeted studies would be useful to systematically quantify and identify the spp. of Brucella in pigs.
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    Detection of serum neutralizing antibodies to Simbu sero-group viruses in cattle in Tanzania.
    (BMC Veterinary Research, 2015) Mathew, C; Klevar, S; Elbers, A; van der Poel, W; Kirkland, P; Godfroid, J; Mdegela, R; Mwamengele, G; Stokstad, M
    Background: Orthobunyaviruses belonging to the Simbu sero-group occur worldwide, including the newly recognized Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in Europe. These viruses cause congenital malformations and reproductive losses in ruminants. Information on the presence of these viruses in Africa is scarce and the origin of SBV is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of antibodies against SBV and closely related viruses in cattle in Tanzania, and their possible association with reproductive disorders. Results: In a cross-sectional study, serum from 659 cattle from 202 herds collected in 2012/2013 were analyzed using a commercial kit for SBV ELISA, and 61 % were positive. Univariable logistic regression revealed significant association between ELISA seropositivity and reproductive disorders (OR = 1.9). Sera from the same area collected in 2008/2009, before the SBV epidemic in Europe, were also tested and 71 (54.6 %) of 130 were positive. To interpret the ELISA results, SBV virus neutralization test (VNT) was performed on 110 sera collected in 2012/2013, of which 51 % were positive. Of 71 sera from 2008/2009, 21 % were positive. To investigate potential cross reactivity with related viruses, 45 sera from 2012/2013 that were positive in SBV ELISA were analyzed in VNTs for Aino, Akabane, Douglas, Peaton, Sabo, SBV, Sathuperi, Shamonda, Simbu and Tinaroo viruses. All 45 sera were positive for one or more of these viruses. Twenty-nine sera (64.4 %) were positive for SBV, and one had the highest titer for this virus. Conclusions: This is the first indication that Aino, Akabane, Douglas, Peaton, Sabo, SBV, Sathuperi, Shamonda and Tinaroo viruses circulate and cause negative effect on reproductive performance in cattle in Tanzania. SBV or a closely related virus was present before the European epidemic. However, potential cross reactivity complicates the interpretation of serological studies in areas where several related viruses may circulate. Virus isolation and molecular characterization in cattle and/or vectors is recommended to further identify the viruses circulating in this region. However, isolation in cattle is difficult due to short viremic period of 2 to 6 days, and isolation in vectors does not necessarily reflect the situation in cattle.
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    Reproductive infections in cattle in Tanzania – lessons for control priorities
    (SOJ Microbiol Infect Dis, 2017) Mathew, C; Klevar, S; Løken, T; Mwamengele, G; Skjerve, E; Godfroid, J; Stokstad, S; Mdegela, R. H.
    Reproductive disorders have negative impact on performance in cattle worldwide. Studies on infections causing reproductive disorders in Tanzania are few and fragmented, which complicates targeted disease prevention. To investigate the prevalence of selected infections and their associations with reproductive disorders and risk factors in cattle under different management systems, a cross-sectional study was conducted in two bordering regions in the southern highlands in Tanzania. Herd and individual animal level data were collected by direct observation and a semistructured questionnaire interview of the farmer. Sera from 658 cattle from 202 herds were analyzed using a commercial ELISA kits for antibodies to Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Brucella spp. and Neospora caninum. The logistic regression model identified herd size (odds ratio (OR): 14.5), location (OR: 23.1) and management system (grazing strategy) (OR: 22.7) as risk factors for Brucella spp. The same risk factors were also identified for BVDV herd size (OR: 2.8), location (OR: 12.7) and management system (OR: 2.9). History of abortion was associated with seropositivity for Brucella spp. (OR: 4.6). No risk factors, including location and presence of dogs, nor any association with reproductive disorders were identified for N. caninum. In one region the herd level sero-prevalence was 66.7% for BVDV and 36.1% for Brucella spp., while in the other it was 6.5% for BVDV and 0.6% for Brucella spp. In total, BVDV specific antibodies were found in 15.2% of the animals in 17.9% of the herds, and Brucella spp. specific antibodies were detected in 5.4% of the animals in 7.4% of the herds. Anti- N. caninum antibodies were found in 4.5% of animals in 8.4% of the herds. In conclusion, prevalence and impact of BVDV and Brucella spp. differed significantly between geographically closely related areas, most probably due to differences in management system that affects the potential for survival of the agents in the population. This shows that all control measures must be based on accurate epidemiological knowledge of the occurrence of the infection. Low-prevalence areas are highly susceptible for introduction of infection, while in the high-prevalence areas control measures must be implemented to reduce the impact and the risk of transferring Brucella spp. from livestock to humans.
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    Prevalence and mean intensity of ectoparasite infections in pond reared Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Morogoro Tanzania.
    (Tanzania Veterinary Journal, 2014) Mathew, C; Mwamengele, G; Mdegela, R. H.; Kassuku, A. A.
    cross sectional study was carried out between September 2007 and September 2008 to investigate the prevalence and mean intensity of ectoparasite infections on the gills and skin of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Morogoro, Tanzania. A total of 229 fish from 19 ponds were studied. Trichodina spp. and Monogeneans were the only ectoparasites observed. Overall prevalence of ectoparasites in the study area was 68% and the average mean intensity was 5.3. Trichodina spp. were more prevalent (P<0.05) than Monogeneans. Gills were more affected with parasites than the skin (P<0.05). There was no strong relationship between water quality and prevalence and mean intensity of parasites. Prevalence and mean intensity varied in different ponds due to different management practices and the knowledge of fish husbandry. Parasite infection was significantly higher in urban than in rural areas (P<0.05). There is a need for farmers to be trained on proper fish husbandry and pond management in order to reduce the risk of parasite multiplication in the ponds and hence infection rate.
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    Seroprevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants and related risk behaviours among humans in different husbandry systems in Mali
    (PLoSONE, 2021) Traore, S; Coulibaly, K; Mathew, C; Fokou, G; Bonfoh, B; Yapi, R. B.; Kazwala, R. R.; Alambedji, R. B.
    Mali has a high pastoral potential with diverse coexisting production systems ranging from traditional (nomadic, transhumant, sedentary) to commercial (fattening and dairy production) production systems. Each of those systems is characterised by close interactions between animals and humans, increasing the potential risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases. The nature of contact network suggests that the risks may vary according to species, production systems and behaviors. However, the study of the link between small ruminants and zoonotic diseases has received limited attention in Mali. The objective of this study was to assess brucellosis seroprevalence and determine how the husbandry systems and human behaviour expose animal and human to infection risk. A cross-sectional study using cluster sampling was conducted in three regions in Mali. Blood was collected from 860 small ruminants. The sera obtained were analysed using both Rose Bengal and cELISA tests. In addition, 119 farmers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire in order to identify the characteristics of farms as well as the risk behaviors of respondents. Husbandry systems were dominated by agro-pastoral systems followed by pastoral systems. The commercial farms (peri-urban and urban) represent a small proportion. Small ruminant individual seroprevalence was 4.1% [2.8–5.6% (95% CI)]. Herd seroprevalence was estimated at 25.2% [17.7–33.9% (95% CI)]. Peri-urban farming system was more affected with seroprevalence of 38.1% [18.1–61.5 (95% CI)], followed by pastoral farming system (24.3% [11.7–41.2 (95% CI)]). Identified risk behaviors of brucellosis transmission to animals were: exchange of reproductive males (30.2%); improper disposal of placentas in the farms (31.1%); and keeping aborted females in the herd (69.7%). For humans, risk factors were: close and prolonged contact with animals (51.2%); consumption of unpasteurized dairy products (26.9%); and assisting female animals during delivery without any protection (40.3%). This study observed a high seroprevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants and also identified risky practices that allow cross transmission between the two populations. This calls for control strategy using a multi-sectoral and multidimensional approach.
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    Molecular epidemiology of Brucella species in mixed livestock-human ecosystems in Kenya
    (Nature scientific Report, 2021) Akoko, JM; Pelle, R; Lukambagire, AS; Machuka, EM; Nthiw, D; Mathew, C; Fèvre, EM; Bett, B; Cook, EAJ; Othero, D; Bonfoh, B; Kazwala, R; Shirima, G; Schelling, E; Halliday, JEB; Ouma, C
    Brucellosis, caused by several species of the genus Brucella, is a zoonotic disease that affects humans and animal species worldwide. Information on the Brucella species circulating in different hosts in Kenya is largely unknown, thus limiting the adoption of targeted control strategies. This study was conducted in multi-host livestock populations in Kenya to detect the circulating Brucella species and assess evidence of host–pathogen associations. Serum samples were collected from 228 cattle, 162 goats, 158 sheep, 49 camels, and 257 humans from Narok and Marsabit counties in Kenya. Information on age, location and history of abortion or retained placenta were obtained for sampled livestock. Data on age, gender and location of residence were also collected for human participants. All samples were tested using genus level real-time PCR assays with primers specific for IS711 and bcsp31 targets for the detection of Brucella. All genus positive samples (positive for both targets) were further tested with a speciation assay for AlkB and BMEI1162 targets, specific for B. abortus and B. melitensis, respectively. Samples with adequate quantities aggregating to 577 were also tested with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT). A total of 199 (33.3%) livestock and 99 (38.5%) human samples tested positive for genus Brucella. Animal Brucella PCR positive status was positively predicted by RBT positive results (OR = 8.3, 95% CI 4.0–17.1). Humans aged 21–40 years had higher odds (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.2–6.6) of being Brucella PCR positive compared to the other age categories. The data on detection of different Brucella species indicates that B. abortus was detected more often in cattle (OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.6) and camels (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.3–6.3), while B. melitensis was detected more in sheep (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 2.0–6.7) and goats (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.0–3.1). Both B. abortus and B. melitensis DNA were detected in humans and in multiple livestock host species, suggesting cross-transmission of these species among the different hosts. The detection of these two zoonotic Brucella species in humans further underpins the importance of One Health prevention strategies that target multiple host species, especially in the multi-host livestock populations.
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    Performance characteristics and costs of serological tests for brucellosis in a pastoralist community of northern Tanzania
    (Nature scientific Report, 2021) Lukambagire, AS; Mendes, AJ; Bodenham, RF; McGiven, JA; Mkenda, NA; Mathew, C; Rubach, MP; Sakasaka, P; Shayo, DD; Maro, VP; Shirima, GM; Thomas, KM; Kassanga, CJ; Kazwala, RR; Halliday, JEB; Mmbaga, BT
    The control of brucellosis across sub-Saharan Africa is hampered by the lack of standardized testing and the use of tests with poor performance. This study evaluated the performance and costs of serological assays for human brucellosis in a pastoralist community in northern Tanzania. Serum collected from 218 febrile hospital patients was used to evaluate the performance of seven index tests, selected based on international recommendation or current use. We evaluated the Rose Bengal test (RBT) using two protocols, four commercial agglutination tests and a competitive enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, Youden’s index, diagnostic accuracy, and per-sample cost of each index test were estimated. The diagnostic accuracy estimates ranged from 95.9 to 97.7% for the RBT, 55.0 to 72.0% for the commercial plate tests, and 89.4% for the cELISA. The per-sample cost range was $0.69–$0.79 for the RBT, $1.03–$1.14 for the commercial plate tests, and $2.51 for the cELISA. The widely used commercial plate tests performed poorly and cost more than the RBT. These findings provide evidence for the public health value of discontinuing the use of commercial agglutination tests for human brucellosis in Tanzania.
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    Bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis in livestock at the Greater Ruaha Ecosystem
    (The Tropical Veterinarian, 2020) Medardus, J. J.
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and the seroprevalence of brucellosis in livestock at the Greater Ruaha Ecosystem in Tanzania. The study further characterized the Mycobacterium spp. from the slaughtered livestock. Survey conducted to assess potential herd-level risk factors for BTB and brucellosis revealed that the respondents’ ethnicity and herd mixing were the significant risk factors. Twenty-eight percent of 102 cattle herds had at least one positive or suspect BTB reactor. The overall prevalence of BTB infection in the cattle was 1.32% (18/1368). Forty-two percent of 93 flocks of the small ruminants had at least one brucellosis seropositive animal. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in the cattle and small ruminants was 6.6%. Although the prevalence of both diseases was relatively low for individual animals, herd-level prevalence was high, suggesting that infection is widespread in the study area and a significant number of households are at risk. Mycobacterium bovis strain identified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was confirmed by spoligotyping as spoligotype SB0133. This cattle strain of M. bovis was similar to previously reported involving wild animals in adjacent protected areas. Isolation of identical M. bovis from the wildlife and livestock and the demonstration of Brucella spp. seroprevalence in livestock in the same interface, strongly suggest livestock-wildlife interspecies sharing of these pathogens. Occurrence of the microorganisms poses a serious challenge to disease management strategies in pastoralist communities in the interface area.
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    A 12- year retrospective study on pattern and relative frequency of preventable canine diseases in Morogoro
    (Tanzania Veterinary Journal, 2018) Raymond, R.; Matondo, A. B.
    A retrospective study was undertaken to determine the occurrence and relative frequency of canine cases admitted at the University Animal Hospital located at Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA). The study involved examination of canine cases recorded for the past 12 years starting from 2005 to 2016. A total of 2,288 canine cases were evaluated and grouped based on disease condition matching with the hospital records. The top five most frequently admitted cases were found to be worm infestation (19%), parvo viral diarrhoea (15%), wound (13%), canine distemper (7.7%) and bacterial diarrhoea (7.6%). Worm infestation showed a high and steady occurrence; parvo viral diarrhoea and canine distemper cases were on the increasing trend whereas rabies and canine transmissible venereal tumour were on the decreasing trend. Interestingly, majority of cases reported were those which can be prevented through adequate veterinary care such as vaccination, routine deworming, and sanitation. The findings in this study call for further follow-up studies and re-assessment of the current strategies used in disease control in order to have a comprehensive understanding in the existing gaps which limit progress in the control of some diseases identified in this study.
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    Severe ulcerative dermatitis in a Captive African Lion
    (Tanzania Veterinary Journal, 2019) Chuma, I. S.; Matondo, A. B.
    Free ranging wild animals are known to be capable of co-existing with a wide range of parasites without experiencing significant health effects. Interstingly, the same parasites can cause severe health deterioration to animals under captivity. An investigation was therefore conducted following a report of a captive lion with unusual skin appearance coupled with increased fly activities. Physical and laboratory investigation revealed severe ulcerative dermatitis, moderate hematological changes and the presence of intracuteneous and gastrointestinal parasites. Furthermore, inappropriate use of antihelmitics was observed that was not protective against worm infestation. The use of parenteral ivermectin and other supportive therapy alleviated the condition. It is expected that this report will enrich the existing body of knowledge and stimulate constructive discussions among professionals managing captive wild animals for the purpose of improving animal health and welfare.
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    Evidences of declining rabies: A retrospective study of cumulative clinical data at Sokoine University Animal Hospital, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Veterinary Journal, 2019) Matondo, A. B.
    Rabies remains one of the public health threats with annual deaths approximated to be up to 1500 in Tanzania and 59000 globally. Despite of its importance, there is a significant gap in surveillance especially for Canine rabies partly due to insufficient reporting system. The aim of this study was to analyze pre-existing clinical data on Canine rabies for the past 21 years starting from 1995 to 2015 and investigate the dynamics of suspected and confirmed Canine rabies recorded during the studied period. The study discovered that over 91% of all rabies suspects registered at Animal Hospital and Pathology Laboratory, Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) originated from Morogoro district partly because the Hospital and Laboratory are located within the district. The remaining cases came from Mvomero, Iringa, Kilosa, Kilombero, Mpwapwa and Gairo districts respectively in the decreasing order. Interestingly only 7.4% of the 87 confirmed rabid dogs had vaccination history against rabies. Furthermore, the study revealed gradual decrease in number of suspected and confirmed cases of rabies from early 2000s onwards. Finally, the higher number of rabid dogs with no vaccination history underscores the importance of vaccination in rabies control. The overall decreasing number of rabid dogs should serve as a motivation for continued concerted rabies control efforts towards total elimination.
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    Case report: Suspected Piscine Chlamydia like infection in Tanzania
    (Tanzania Veterinary Journal, 2019) Matondo, A. B.; Mtalika, M. I.; Mdegela, R. H.
    Ten moribund fish were received at pathology laboratory to establish the cause of sponteneous mortalities of farmed tilapia recorded in Kilosa District, Morogoro region. Post-mortem examination revealed macroscopic mucous bands connecting gills and operculum; and oval to round grey-white cysts on the gill lamella. Gill samples were collected for microscopic and bacteriological investigation. Histopathological investigation revealed gill epithelial hyperplasia and characteristic enlargement of epithelial cells infected with pale and basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions. The gross pathological changes coupled with histopathological findings recorded in this case are typical features of epitheliocystis. Furthermore, fish mortalities ceased in the farm after water replacement and reconnection of all fish ponds with direct supply of fresh water from the source. This is the first report in Tanzania describing characteristic epitheliocystis lesions. Furthermore, this report re-affirm previous findings that epitheliocystis can be managed through routine management of water quality.
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    Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) outbreak in southern, Tanzania
    (RUFORUM, 2012) Muse, E. A.; Matondo, R. B.; Karimuribo, E. D.; Misinzo, G.; Mellau, L. S. B.; Msoffe, P. L. M.; Albano, M. O.; Gitao, G. C.
    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was first confirmed in Tanzania in 2008, however description of clinical or pathological signs was not carried out although this is important to assist quick identification and reporting of PPR cases by both livestock keepers and field-based animal health workers. A study was therefore conducted to investigate and describe clinical signs and pathological lesions associated with suspected PPR cases in southern Tanzania. It involved history taking and clinical examination of suspected cases of 25 goats and 3 sheep. Post- mortem examination of some cases was performed followed by collection of specimens for histopathological examination. Swabs were also collected for confirmation of PPR by detecting ribonucleic acid using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Serum samples were analysed using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Severe depression, high fever, anorexia, muco-pulurent nasal discharge, erosive and necrotic stomatitis, mild diarrhoea and skin nodules were major signs suggestive of PPR. Post mortem examination showed evidence of pneumonia including lung congestion and consolidation. RT-PCR confirmed presence of the PPR virus in samples and serum antibodies showed seroprevalence of 31%.
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    Parasitic and non-parasitic conditions affecting farmed and wild cichlids in Tanzania
    (Tanzania Veterinary Journal, 2018) Matondo, A. B.; Mtalika, M. I.
    Infectious fish diseases are among the known contributing factor in reduced productivity of fish farming enterprises. Despite of the growing importance of global fish farming industry, research in fish and other aquatic stocks relevant to Tanzania is limited. This paper presents preliminary results of the ongoing investigation on fish mortalities which occurred in fish farm located in Kibaha District. The paper also present preliminary results of formalin fixed samples received from other parts of Tanzania. In all the samples; branchitis, gill deformity, and intracellular chlamydia like organisms were the major findings regardless of the source. Other findings include encysted trematode metacercaria in different anatomical locations accompanied with variable pathomorphological changes to the host tissues. Interestingly, mortalities ceased in the affected farm after replenishment of water supply suggesting that either poor water quality was the main predisposing factor or aggravated the observed disease conditions. Therefore maintenance of water quality and or water replacement is recommended as the first intervention measure where poor water quality is strongly suspected to be associated with mortalities in fish farms. Further studies on the pathobiological characteristic of the observed infectious organisms will provide more insights on the suspected relationships between the environmental factors in one hand and progression of the observed pathological changes in fish.
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    Contribution of microbiota to the innate and acquired gut immunity during health and disease
    (Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2015) Malago, J. J.
    The large number of microbials in the intestine that overrides the total human cells by ten folds alludes to significant contribution of the microbiota to human health. This is vivid in enteric and some systemic diseases emanating from disruption of the microbiota. The microbiota influences the development and functioning of both, innate and acquired immune systems for gut health. The effect of microbiota spills throughout the various components of the gut immune systems from “primitive” non specific pattern recognition receptors (PRR) to most specific adaptive T cell responses. To induce immune responses, commensal microbes are recognized by PRRs, which in turn regulate mucosal innate immunity and inflammatory responses. PRRs detect microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or "infectious non-self") or endogenous "danger signals" derived from stressed, damaged or infected tissue to stimulate the intestinal innate immunity that initiates adaptive immune responses. MAMPs include peptidoglycans, lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, teichoic acids, CpG DNA motif, double strand RNA and flagellin. In a balanced microbiota profile, PRR signaling ensures immune homeostasis and protects the host against enteral pathogens. Chapter one of this book will discuss the influence of the microbiota to PRR signaling during health and disease for intestinal immunity. Chapter two of the book focuses on a second level of innate immune system. This involves cells of the innate immune system that are responsible for driving non-specific innate immunity. They include natural killer cells, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils and the phagocytic cells including macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells. However, owing to the great commitment of macrophages and dendritic cells, a separate chapter for these two phagocytic cell types is allocated. Thus chapter two discusses the influence of microbiota on innate cells engendering intestinal immunity under health and disease. It concludes the innate immune system of the intestine. Macrophages and dendritic cells are professional antigen presenting cells. They sample antigens from the intestinal lumen, process, and present them to cells of the adaptive immune system. Despite of enormous types of enteral antigens ranging from harmful to beneficial, the antigen presenting cells are capable of efficiently discriminating them and driving respective responses to effector cells of the adaptive immune system. While dendritic cells are capable of priming T cell responses, macrophages do polarize the responses. As to how the microbiota influences the functioning of these cells, chapter three is devoted to discuss that phenomenon. The chapter links innate and adaptive intestinal immune systems since macrophages and dendritic cells lie in the interface between innate and adaptive immune systems. The acquired or adaptive immunity of the gut is split in humoral and cellular components. The humoral immune system is mainly geared by gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) whose components include effector (i.e. epithelial lymphocytes and lamina propria) and inductive (i.e. mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer’s patches, isolated lymphoid follicles, and cryptopatches) sites. It is interesting to note that microbiota influences GALT development and functioning during health and diseases. In germ free animals and those with disrupted microbita, GALT functioning is heavily compromised leading to diseases. Restoration of normal microbiotal profile to such individuals cures the disorders. Chapter four of this book will describe how the microbiota interacts with GALT and other components of the humoral immune system to maintain intestinal immunity under health and disease. The last chapter, chapter 5, focuses on the second part of the adaptive immune system which is cellular immune system. This system is dominated by several CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes that drive the cellular adaptive immune system. The main components are CD4+ cells which include T helper and regulatory T cells. Other T cells include cytotoxic T, memory, natural killer, and mucosa associated invariant T cells. While T helper cells drive most of the inflammatory responses, regulatory T cells downregulate these responses. As such, they are considered potential therapeutic agents of the future. Current knowledge indicates that the functioning of most, if not all, T cells is influenced by the microbiota. Chapter 5 is therefore devoted to discuss how the microbiota interacts with T cells during health and disease to foster intestinal immunity. In the past few years we have encountered mounting evidence showing that the microbiota plays essential role in regulating and maintaining host’s intestinal immunity. This is done through various ways including; regulation of mucin gene expression by goblet cells, modification of glycosylation of mucus to interfere with bacterial adhesion, colonization and invasion, induction of secretion of antimicrobial peptides by intestinal Paneth cells, regulation of alterations of intestinal permeability caused by infection, stress, and inflammation, and influences on development of mucosal and systemic immunity. It is becoming well comprehended that microbiota is pivotal to the intestinal immunity through crosstalk with the epithelium, immune cells and the immune system in general. Disruption of microbiota balance often leads to disease. This book explores recent findings on how microbiota influences the intestinal immune responses, both innate and adaptive, to foster the intestinal mucosal immunity. The insight gained could contribute to designing approaches suitable for treating gastrointestinal diseases caused by disruption of the microbiota.