Role of community-based institutions, partnerships and practices in enhancing climate change adaptation in Mwanga district, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

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Sokoine University of Agriculture


Local communities in Tanzania have been struggling to adapt to climate change and variability and have already adopted use of different local knowledge and practices under various adaptation mechanisms to respond to climate change impacts in different ecological zones and livelihoods. The role of local knowledge and practices in enhancing adaptation are not well studied and documented. This study aimed to assess roles of community-based institutions, partnerships, networks and practices as measures to enhance climate change adaptation (CCA) in Mwanga District. Primary and secondary data were collected using Participatory Rural Appraisal techniques and Household surveys. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis while quantitative data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. Social Network Analysis analyzed interactions of family networks, community-based institutions and partnership networks. The study identified community-based formal and informal institutions and partnerships that enhanced CCA. Informal institutions included households, sacred forests (Mphungi), village communal work conferences (Misalagambo), and traditional water sources (Ndiva). Formal institutions included Village Government (VG), Faith Based Organizations, and smallholder irrigation farmers groups. Institutions enhanced community climate change adaptive capacity through common pool resources conservation, ownership, access and use. The VG regulated community adaptations and resolved resource use conflicts. Informal partnerships included finance saving groups. Formal partnerships included finance saving and credit groups, cooperative banks and societies. Partnerships formed sources of knowledge, financial capital and communal access to resources. Networks included food, cash and work relationships within and outside study areas. Internal and external networks increased households‘ adaptive capacity. Households adopted multiple adaptation practices. The study concludes that community-based institutions, partnerships, organizations and networks enhance adaptive capacities at an individual, household, and community level. The study recommends these be well facilitated to effectively enhance CCA at micro scale.


Masters Thesis