Socio-economic and conservation effects of banning live wild animals trade: the case of communities bordering Nilo nature forest reserve, Tanzania

Thumbnail Image



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Sokoine University of Agriculture


The Live Wild Animals Trade Ban (LWATB) has been imposed temporarily by the Tanzania government since March 2016. The ban implied a national revenue loss of about 1.83 billion Tanzanian Shillings (TZS) per year. One among the reasons for such a ban was a breach of the Wildlife Conservation Act (WCA) No. 5 of 2009 by some of the actors. Subsequently, the government has been thinking of imposing a total ban. However, the social-economic and conservation effects of the ban on the communities are not well known. This study was conducted in the villages found adjacent to the Nilo Nature Forest Reserve (NNFR) in the East Usambara Mountains. The objectives were to ascertain the effects of LWATB on income, poaching, and communities’ coping mechanisms post LWATB. Household questionnaires and key informant interviews were used for data collection. Both inferential and descriptive statistical analyses were conducted. Findings revealed that the LWAT contributed TZS 709 057 400/= of the total income to local communities, whereas other Income Generating Activities (IGAs) contributed TZS 192 455 000/= yearly. This showed a significant difference between the income earned from LWAT and other IGAs (t=21.455, p < 0.05) before the ban. Furthermore, the ban has contributed to decreasing poaching incidences by 38.4%. These results commensurate with secondary data that showed that there was statistically significant difference on poaching incidences before and after the ban (z = -2.938, P < 0.05). Moreover, 98% of respondents who were engaging in the trade before the ban have shifted to the other IGAs. Ultimately, LWATB has negative impacts to the income of the local communities and positive impacts on conservation through reducing income and poaching incidences after LWATB by 78.7% and 38.4% respectively. Therefore, it is recommended that the government should uplift the ban on non-threatened species and facilitate local communities to conduct their activities sustainably.




Nature Forest Reserve, Socio-economic - conservation effects, Wild animals trade, Tanzania, Poaching