Livelihood struggle and environmental degradation in Tanzania: a case of Morogoro rural district

Thumbnail Image



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Sokoine University of Agriculture


The study was conducted in Morogoro Rural District Tanzania. It aimed at assessing the impact of livelihood struggle on the environment to obtain information for researchers. planners and decision makers to work upon. Six villages were purposively chosen to represent villages affected environmentally through livelihood struggle activities. A cross sectional design using household, stakeholders' questionnaires, participatory rural appraisal and focus group discussions were used to collect information intended to answer the main objective of the study. Cross tabulations and chi-square test were used to compare the relationship between study variables. Results showed that socio-economic activities undertaken in the area are small scale crop farming (practiced by 84.5% of the respondents), wage labour employments (4.8%), livestock keeping (4.2%), mining (2.8%), both farming and poultry keeping (1.7%) and petty trading in mining sites (1.2%). Farming near river banks (70% of respondents), cultivation on slopes (20%). continuous cultivation (5%). both poor mining and livestock keeping (4%) and shifting cultivation (1%) were found to be common activities that lead to environmental degradation. Out of all respondents. 17% grow trees and filled mined pits in degraded areas, while 83% took no precautions. Relationship between socio-economic activities and environmental degradation was mainly manifested through drying of water sources and water pollution. Results also showed that despite the ongoing livelihood activities that cause environmental degradation, majority of the respondents (87%) were aware of environmental degradation compared to 13 % of the respondents that were not. It was concluded that communities undertake such environmentally unfriendly activities because they have limited alternative means of livelihood because they have to rely on the available natural resources. It was recommended that a multi-sectoral land use planning strategy should be implemented for sustainable development through natural resources management and equal opportunity to all sectors competing for land and other resources.


Masters thesis


Environmental degradation, Tanzania, Morogoro rural district