Theses and Dissertations Collection

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    Effect of pruning on yield and quality of selected indeterminate tomato (solanum lycopersicon L.) Lnes
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture., 2011) Mbonihankuye, Cyrille
    Preliminary evaluations at Sokoine University of Agriculture have shown that indeterminate tomato breeding lines are tolerant to late blight and produce high yield of large fruits. These large fruits are least accepted by the local consumers in Tanzania. Pruning system has been reported to regulate tomato fruit size, overall yield performance and foliar disease incidence. A study to evaluate the effect of pruning levels (non pruning, single stem, two stems and three stems) on yield, quality and late blight disease incidence of five breeding lines of indeterminate tomato and one commercial variety was conducted from November 2009 to March 2010 at the Horticulture Unit of Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. The experiment was laid in a split-plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The collected data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), mean separation was done based on Student-Newman- Keuls using statistical software COSTAT6.4 (P<5%). Results showed that two stem pruned plants gave the highest number of marketable fruits per plant. The highest number of non marketable tomato fruits (damaged by pests, cracked or rotten) per hectare were observed in unpruned plants. Tomato lines differed in their performance, with the longest period of harvest, many flowers, higher percentage of fruit-set, the highest yield, high number of marketable fruits observed in lines P20-03 and SI 86-2(07) probably as a result of their genetic characteristic. Non pruned plants were more attacked by late blight disease whereas single and two stem plants were least affected by late blight. It is concluded that, the large fruit size of the new tomato breeding lines can be reduced to meet consumer’s needs without reducing yield by two and three stem pruning in lines P20-03 and SI 86- 2(07). It is therefore recommended that creation of awareness through demonstration trials is needed for further promotion of these new lines combined with two and three stem pruning in order to improve tomato production in terms of quantity and quality.
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    Livelihood struggle and environmental degradation in Tanzania: a case of Morogoro rural district
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2007) Mwangoka, Suzana Godwin
    The study was conducted in Morogoro Rural District Tanzania. It aimed at assessing the impact of livelihood struggle on the environment to obtain information for researchers. planners and decision makers to work upon. Six villages were purposively chosen to represent villages affected environmentally through livelihood struggle activities. A cross sectional design using household, stakeholders' questionnaires, participatory rural appraisal and focus group discussions were used to collect information intended to answer the main objective of the study. Cross tabulations and chi-square test were used to compare the relationship between study variables. Results showed that socio-economic activities undertaken in the area are small scale crop farming (practiced by 84.5% of the respondents), wage labour employments (4.8%), livestock keeping (4.2%), mining (2.8%), both farming and poultry keeping (1.7%) and petty trading in mining sites (1.2%). Farming near river banks (70% of respondents), cultivation on slopes (20%). continuous cultivation (5%). both poor mining and livestock keeping (4%) and shifting cultivation (1%) were found to be common activities that lead to environmental degradation. Out of all respondents. 17% grow trees and filled mined pits in degraded areas, while 83% took no precautions. Relationship between socio-economic activities and environmental degradation was mainly manifested through drying of water sources and water pollution. Results also showed that despite the ongoing livelihood activities that cause environmental degradation, majority of the respondents (87%) were aware of environmental degradation compared to 13 % of the respondents that were not. It was concluded that communities undertake such environmentally unfriendly activities because they have limited alternative means of livelihood because they have to rely on the available natural resources. It was recommended that a multi-sectoral land use planning strategy should be implemented for sustainable development through natural resources management and equal opportunity to all sectors competing for land and other resources.
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    Effect of conservation agriculture practices on maize yields and environmental conservation on steep slopes of Southern Uluguru mountains
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2015) Lushinge, Shida
    This study was conducted at Kolero village, on the footslopes of southern Uluguru Mountains in order to investigate the effectiveness of different Conservation Agriculture practices on soil moisture retention its implication on maize production and environmental conservation on the steep slopes. Two factors (tillage practice and cover crop) each at three levels were combined to form a 3 x 3 factorial experiment and tested in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications each. Levels for Tillage were shallow tillage, zero tillage and strip tillage and those for cover crop were slash and burn, lablab and cowpea. Moisture readings were taken at 0 - 30 cm, 30 - 60 cm and 60 - 90 cm soil depths. Data were analysed using GenStat Software 14th Edition. Results showed that there were significant differences among treatments on moisture retention at soil depth at 60 - 90 cm. Moisture retained within 0-30 cm, 30 - 60 cm and 60 - 90 cm ranged from 13.23% - 15.87%, 18.06% - 19.01% and 14.63% - 15.71%, respectively. There were significant differences (p<0.05) among treatments on maize yield, biomass produced and percentage of cover crop development. Conventional practice had high maize yield (4.5 t/ha) compared to the tested CA practices. Cowpea showed to be a good cover crop when combined with strip tillage, as it resulted in small reduction in maize yield (5%) when compared with conventional practice. Lablab provided good percentage cover later in the growing season than at the beginning. There was a little improvement on soil chemical properties caused by incorporating minimum tillage and cover crops as CA practices on maize production. Results showed that there is a need to incorporate maize and other crop residues for effective moisture retention.
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    Plant structure in relation to ease of physical breakdown in the mouth and rumen
    (University of Wales, 1993-09) Mtengeti, Ephraim Joseph
    Grassland species were grown in the field and glasshouse and research was carried out for two years to investigate plant vascular structure in relation to physical breakdown in the mouth and rumen. Plant part morphology, vascular structural proportion and arrangement, fresh plant diet eating rate by sheep and particle breakdown characteristics were recorded. Anatomical differences, especially vascular tissue arrangement, appeared to be a major cause of the differences in intake rate between legumes and grasses. Four legumes did not differ significantly in terms of intake rate but differed significantly in terms of the proportion of vascular tissues, neutral detergent fibre content and digestibility. Tropical grasses had a higher proportion of vascular tissues, higher neutral detergent fibre content, lower digestibility, lower intake rate and were chewed into smaller particles than temperate grasses. Legumes were eaten faster and had larger particles after chewing than grasses. Legume and grass particles had a similar number of perforations or ruptures per particle. Legume leaf petiole and stem particles were longer than leaflet particles and increased the overall mean particle length of the chewed material. Petioles and stems are, therefore, important in legume particle size reduction in the mouth and rumen. Regardless of grass species, the veins of the leaf sheaths were more widely spaced than those in leaf blades, but the two plant parts were chewed to a similar particle size. Despite having a high proportion of stem and neutral detergent fibre, lucerne and spurrey were eaten quickly, showing the advantage, in respect of intake rate, of having thin pliable and/or fragile stems. The results of the present project indicate that the physical structure of plants, especially the arrangement of the vascular tissue, and plant morphology have great influence on the physical breakdown of the plants in the mouth and rumen.
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    Impact of varieties and delinting methods on growth, yield and quality of cotton (GOSSYPIUMIIIRSUTUM L.) lint and seed
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2006) Msemo, Eliphas Abrahams Yoazar
    Two experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Institute Ukiriguru, Mwanza, Tanzania to evaluate the effectiveness of cotton varieties and cottonseed-delinting methods on seed quality, growth, yield and quality of lint and seeds. A completely randomised design (CRD) experiment with four replications to assess cottonseeds quality of three cotton varieties (UK77, UK 82 and UK 91) dclintcd mechanically, by using concentrated (98%) sulphuric acid, dilute (49%) sulphuric acid, Tanzania Cotton Lint and Seed Board [TCLSB] sulphuric acid methods and non-delinted seeds applied as a control giving 15 treatment-combinations was conducted. A randomised complete block design (RCBD), with a split-plot field experiment replicated four times with similar treatment-combinations was conducted to determine their effectiveness on cotton crop growth, yield and quality of lint and seeds. The crop was sown at two-rows, 45 cm apart on either side of a 1.5 m ridge with six seeds per hill 45 cm apart, which were later on thinned to two plants 35 days after planting. Data on seed quality, crop growth, yield, lint and fibre quality were collected and analysed. Laboratory experimental results obtained indicated that seed quality (germination percentage) was significantly affected (P <0.001) by the treatments applied; best quality being from the use of concentrated (98%) sulphuric acid. Growth and development variables were not significantly affected (P <0.05) by the treatments used, yield of seed­ cotton and lint were significantly affected by the cotton-varieties at P <0.05 and the interaction effects (P <0.001) of varieties x delinting methods used. Fibre quality was also significantly affected (P <0.05) by the treatment interaction-effects. Based on these results, for best cotton-seed quality, optimum seed-cotton and lint yield, and fibre quality, farmers should use delinted UK 91 and UK 77 cotton-seed varieties by using concentred (98%) sulphuric acid or TCLSB sulphuric acid methods.
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    The physiological performance of varietal mixtures of the common bean (phaseolus vulgaris, l.) grown under broadcast or conventional planting methods
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2002) Mhile, Oscar Mwashiuya
    A study was carried out at Mbozi and Morogoro Districts of Tanzania during the 2000/2001 cropping seasons. The main objective was'to determine the relationship between growth characteristics and economic yield of varietal mixtures of common beans grown by broadcast or row planting methods. The experiment was a split plot in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Different varieties were used at each location, which formed the main plots. Five varieties at the highland (kabanima. U-94. U-90. kigoma. and mixed variety), and four at the lowland (rojo. SUA 90. kablankeli. and mixed variety) were used. At each location one variety was a mixture of those varieties. The subplots were the planting methods. The results indicate that broadcast planting increased leaf area index (LAI). intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), crop growth rate (CGR). total dry matter (TDM), plant height, pods plant’1, and seeds pod’1, while row planting increased radiation use efficiency (RUE). TDM partitioning, branches per plant, and 100-seed weight. Among varieties at the highland location, the mixed variety produced the highest TDM. branches per plant, and grain yield m’?. Kigoma (indeterminate) was the tallest and accumulated the greatest PAR. Kabanima (determinate) was the shortest and performed poorly in dry matter (DM) accumulation, development of LAI. cumulative PAR. CGR. and RUE. At the lowland location, the mixed variety was superior in LAL light interception, and pods per plant. The mixed variety was the tallest and SUA-90 the shortest. At the highland location, row planting had higher grain yield than broadcast planting as compared to the lowland location. The differences were attributed to greater TDM and branches per plant at the highland location, and RUE and pods plant’1 at the lowland location. It is concluded that physiologically there was no difference between broadcast and row planting of common beans. Thus, farmers my use either of the methods. Also mixed varieties could be recommended under- subsistence agriculture but could be economically unsuitable where marketing require quality pure varieties for better prices.
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    Impact of varieties and delinting methods on growth, yield and quality of cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) lint and seed
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2006) Msemo, Eliphas Abrahams Yoazar
    Two experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Institute Ukiriguru, Mwanza, Tanzania to evaluate the effectiveness of cotton varieties and cottonseed-delinting methods on seed quality, growth, yield and quality of lint and seeds. A completely randomised design (CRD) experiment with four replications to assess cottonseeds quality of three cotton varieties (UK77, UK 82 and UK 91) delinted mechanically, by using concentrated (98%) sulphuric acid, dilute (49%) sulphuric acid, Tanzania Cotton Lint and Seed Board [TCLSB] sulphuric acid methods and non-delinted seeds applied as a control giving 15 treatment-combinations was conducted. A randomised complete block design (RCBD), with a split-plot field experiment replicated four times with similar treatment-combinations was conducted to determine their effectiveness on cotton crop growth, yield and quality of lint and seeds. The crop was sown at two-rows, 45 cm apart on either side of a 1.5 m ridge with six seeds per hill 45 cm apart, which were later on thinned to two plants 35 days after planting. Data on seed quality, crop growth, yield, lint and fibre quality were collected and analysed. Laboratory experimental results obtained indicated that seed quality (germination percentage) was significantly affected (P <0.001) by the treatments applied; best quality being from the use of concentrated (98%) sulphuric acid. Growth and development variables were not significantly affected (P <0.05) by the treatments used, yield of seed­ cotton and lint were significantly affected by the cotton-varieties at P <0.05 and the interaction effects (P <0.001) of varieties x delinting methods used. Fibre quality was also significantly affected (P <0.05) by the treatment interaction-effects. Based on these results, for best cotton-seed quality, optimum seed-cotton and lint yield, and fibre quality, farmers should use delinted UK 91 and UK 77 cotton-seed varieties by using concentred (98%) sulphuric acid or TCLSB sulphuric acid methods.
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    Detection, characterization and control of Xanthomonas spp., causal agents of bacterial leaf spot of tomato in Tanzania.
    (University of Copenhagen, 2011) Mbega, Ernest Rashid
    Tomato (Solatium lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important cash and dietary vegetable crops grown by small and medium scale farmers in Tanzania. Demand for fresh market and canning for tomato is high, however, the national average yield remains low mainly due to insect pests and diseases. Bacterial leaf spot (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas spp. is considered to be a devastating disease of tomato worldwide and reported to cause yield losses of up to 45% in Tanzania. Diagnosis of BLS disease and differentiation of the different species and strains of the pathogen involved is usually complicated due to similarities of symptoms expression in tomato plants. The problem is further complicated by presence of other bacterial pathogens associated with tomato, such as Pseudomonas spp., which can induce similar leaf spot symptoms. The BLS disease management in Tanzania has been primarily limited to foliar applications with copper based compounds. However, their efficacy can be limited due to inefficient control once disease symptoms are observed, the rapid development of pathogen resistance to these compounds, risk of polluting the environment, lack of available resistance in comercial cultivars, and sometimes unavailability of suitable commercial products to small scale farmers. document the presence of the causal agents of BLS in seed and plant material in Tanzania develop and apply a PCR based tool for detection of xanthomonads associated with BLS of tomato and evaluate plant extracts and essential oils applied as seed treatment in order to provide an alternative to chemical management of BLS. Therefore, the main focus of the present PhD study was to: To document the presence of the causal agents of BLS in tomato in Tanzania, two surveys were conducted in the Northern, Central and South Highlands of Tanzania between 2008 - 2010. The first survey was conducted in May-July 2008 and aimed at assessing the identity, genetic relationship and pathogenic potential of bacterial leaf spot-causing xanthomonads (BLSX) and other yellow pigmented, Xanthomonas-Vike bacteria (XLB) in tomato seeds from 52 samples of 15 cultivars collected from 45 locations. Characterisation of the BLSX and XLB isolates was based on morphological characteristics on semi-selective agar substrates. Biolog identification system, 16S rRNA sequence analysis and pathogenicity tests on tomato and sweet pepper plants. The
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    On the introduction of genetically modified bananas in Uganda: Social benefits, costs, and consumer preferences.
    (Wageningen University, 2010-03-19) Kikulwe, Enoch Mutebi
    Agriculture is the mainstay for the great majority of rural people in most African countries and is essential for poverty reduction and food security. The role of agriculture towards poverty reduction, however, has not been realized in Africa, despite advances in development of technologies such as improved varieties suitable to local conditions and resistant to pests, diseases and droughts stresses. Plant breeding using modem biotechnology and genetic modification in particular has the potential of speeding-up crop improvement. However, the central issue in agricultural biotechnology particularly in Africa is to achieve a functional biosafety system to ensure that a country' has the capacity to assess risks that may be associated with modem biotechnology. Several countries have designed and implemented policies to address the safely concerns of consumers and producers, including environment and food safety. One of the requirements, as proposed in Article 2 of the Cartagena Protocol, is the inclusion of socioeconomic considerations in the biosafety assessment process. Many developing countries, including Uganda, have not determined whether and how to include socioeconomic considerations. Specifically, at what stage of the regulatory' process should they be included, the involved scope, as well as the nature of the decision-making process within the biosafety regulations. The aim of my thesis is to examine potential social welfare impacts of introducing a GM banana in order to illustrate the relevance of socioeconomic analyses for supporting biotechnology decision-making and in particular the importance of consumer perceptions but also for contributing to the development and implementation of biosafety regulations. I present a general approach using GM banana as an example, while assuming the GM banana has passed standard food and biosafety safely assessments, i.e. can be considered to be safe. I explore the benefit-cost trade-offs of its introduction and the farmers' and consumers’ willingness to pay for the technology and the end product. In the study I present a framework for considering concents about genetically modified crops within a socioeconomic analysis of GM crops, using real options and choice experiment approaches. The approaches relate the economic benefits to consumers' concents. The results show that the introduction of GM bananas would be desirable for the Ugandan society as a whole, mainly benefit poor rural households and would merit policy support. Nevertheless, if such a GM banana is introduced its introduction may result in strong opposition from the opponent segment of the population, which is composed of mainly urban consumers with an on average higher education and income. Interestingly and in contradiction to common wisdom only providing additional information about the technology and its safety will not result in higher acceptance. Based on this case study biosafety regulators would need to consider these socioeconomic effects before a decision to introduce a GM banana is made. However, the decision to consider socioeconomic impacts for other GM crops elsewhere depends on the crop and the country'. The research methodology in this thesis provides the basis for assessing other GM crops as well.
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    Responses of compact coffee (coffea arabica) clones to coffee berry disease and leaf rust under varied environmental condmons in Tanzania.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2013) Kilambo, D L
    Sixteen (16) compact coffee genotypes (Coffea arabica L.) were tested fbr their response to coffee berry disease (CBD) and coffee leaf rust disease (CLRD), to determine yield potential, and the effects of soils and climatic conditions on bean grades and beverage quality. Commercial Arabica coffee hybrids N39-6 and KP423-2, N39 and PNI088 were included as standard checks. CBD and CLRD tests under varied environmental and controlled conditions showed significant level of variability (P>0.05) of the coffee genotypes. Compact coffee genotype CVT14 showed resistance under natural and controlled conditions. In this study, compacts were shown to have yield potentials as high as 7000 Kg/ha. N39 produced the lowest yields ranged 470 to 1493 Kg/ha. Correlation (r values of 0.104, -0.14 and -0.15; 0.44 at 0.05 and 0.56 at 0.01; n-2 df n=20) and regression (tb values of 0.40, -0.53 and -1.95; 2.1 at 0.05 and 2.8 at 0.01; n-2 d.f, n=20) analysis indicated non consistency on yield performance of the genotypes across locations. Significant yield performance (P>0.05) of the compact hybrids were detected within locations. Correlation of yields of coffee genotypes with CBD and CLRD (r value for CBD 14.44, CLRD 18 504; 0.482 at 0.05 and 0.606 at 0.01; n-2 d.£ n=17), indicated strong evidence that yields of coffee clones are affected by the two diseases. Non significant variations were found on bean grades and mineral composition of the compact coffee genotypes (P<0.05; 0.01). CVT10 had the highest proportions of AAs (41-43%) and CVT5 the lowest (4-6%). Two genotypes CVT6 (17-34%) and CVT15 (28-29%) had a higher proportions of pea berries. Pea berries have special coffee market because they produce pleasant aroma upon roasting. Out of 16 compact coffee genotypes, 15 scored class 5-6 values for export, and one (1); CVT6 scored class 4 described as specialty coffee. Rainfall of 1500 mm average per annum, sunshine 4-5, hrs/day and radiation of 110 to 14 kj per day during ripening stage influence positively bean size and cup taste of compact coffee genotypes. Characterization of H. vastatrix revealed seven (7) new races: XLII, XLI, XXX, XXXIII, XV, XXXIV and XXXIX. Four C. kahawae strains: 2006/14, 2010/2, 2006/7 and 2010/1 were less pathogenic to six compact coffee genotypes; CVT2, CVT4, CVT5, CVT7, CVT8 and CVT13.
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    Evaluation of performance of Kagera region herds of cattle
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2006) Mwatawala, Hija Walad
    This study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Kagera region herds of cattle. Both indigenous and crossbred dairy cattle were studied. Also a survey was conducted on the production environments of Kagera herds of crossbred cattle. Average number of heads of cattle, weaning age and milk yield per cow per day were 4.1, 3.6 months and 9.5 litres, respectively. Farmers that used bulls and artificial insemination (Al), as breeding techniques, were 53.6% and 14.4%, respectively. Mean calf, heifer, cow and bull mortality rates in the indigenous herds were, 24.1, 3.4, 3.2 and 5.4 %, respectively. Calf mortality was remarkably (P < 0.001) influenced by production system, zone, year and Farmers Extension Centre (FEC). The overall calving rate was 37.0%. The mean birth weight of calves was 23.8 ± 0.07 kg. There was notable (P < 0.001) effect of sex, age of dam, season and year on birth weight. The average age at first calving (AFC) was 38.3 ±0.16 months. The influences of season, year and genetic group on AFC were significant. The overall mean calving interval (CI) was 483.4 ± 1.7 days. Year, parity, district and genetic group significantly (P < 0.001) influenced CI. Partial correlation coefficients between mean daily milk yield (DMY) and 100-day milk yield, 305-day milk yield and lactation milk yield (LMY) ranged from 0.51 to 0.92, 0.46 to 0.89 and 0.38 to 0.75, respectively. All correlations were significant. The overall mean 100-day MY, 305-day MY and LMY were 758.7 士 4.1 kg, 2014.0 ± 12.1 kg and 2275.0 ± 11.9 kg, respectively. Parity, year and the interaction between genetic group and district significantly (P < 0.001) affected these traits. The mean lactation length (LL) and dry period (DP) were 355.6 土 1.1 days and 128.8 ±1.4 days, respectively. The mean persistence indices for the middle third (Pi) and the last third (P2) were 0.87 ± 0.01 and 0.79 ±0.01, respectively. Heritability estimates for 100-day MY, 305-day MY, LMY, LL, DP, AFC and CI were 0.33, 0.39, 0.38, 0.01, 0.12, 0.11 and 0.12 respectively. Repeatability estimates for 100-day MY, 305-day MY, LMY, LL, DP and CI were 0.37, 0.41, 0.33, 0.14, 0.18 and 0.12, respectively. Predicted genetic progress in milk yield based on progeny testing and young bull schemes were 84.2 kg and 20.7 kg per year, respectively. It was concluded that the % Friesian crosses were better off in all traits studied compared to other genetic groups and that up-grading should not exceed that 1evel. F2 crosses performed poorly compared to F1 for all traits studied.
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    Farming systems and indigenous technologies of finger millet (Elusine coracana) production in Southwestern Tanzania
    (Kyoto University, 2006) Msuya, Dastun Gabriel
    Vaiinas pioduction practices for finger millet are found in Southwestern Tanzania even today when staple food has changed Io maize in many pails ol lan/ania. Demand for brewing has made tingei millet an impoilant cash ciop in Mbo/i. Ileje, Sumbawanga and Nkasi Dishii'ts under present rnaikel oriented socio economic environment. louml wavs ol llicii innovating indigenous technologies to balance the I*'armeis household l'1'OIIOIIiy. these practices and all influencing factors characlcii/e the farming, systems of Hie an-.is Despite inherent eiiviionmenlal degradation and almost exclusive use of li.idilional technology, the Inline ol finger millet production is still promising, socio i idfiii.dlv ami in specific situations technological!y. b'or these reasons, research has been can icd out wit h the aim Io: I) identity ami classily the divcisc linger millet production systems in Southwestern I in ama Ihioiigh (aiming systems appioach that includes various components analysis ami inteiaetions. liml out socio cultural ami socio economic backguitinds associated with the systems. i) figinc out tingei millet production systems as an innovative process (hat has been developed through hisloiical and environmental interactions. I) claiily (he iide of indigenous technologies in the light of agronomic sciences throng,h on laim experimentation at laimcis’ field, and extract the basic strategies embedded in (he system. Ixlcnsive suivcys in Rnkwa and Mbeya Reg,ions and intensive survey in Mbo/i District were conducted to collect information on finger millet production systems dining 2000 and .*00.’. On farm field experiments were conducted to clarify agronomic significance of indigenous technologies ami farmers' practices riming, (wo crop seasons in 2001 and .’00.*. Through the suivcy, nine land preparation techniques were identified in (he field, namely: slash and burn (iitemcle and nkoimniji/ti variants), mounds (nttimbti), ox­ ploughing with cultivated fallow, ox-ploughing with un-cultivated fallow, burnt mounds (iikule), ridg.es with cultivated fallow, ridg.es with un-cultivated fallow and hand-hoe cultivation, and with consideration of intensity of rotation, they were grouped into I) shifting, cultivation, ii) fallow and iii) continuous cultivation farming systems; and further, iiififteen cultivation systems were categorized. The “’cultivated fallow” or kuvuiidika practice was found to be a common characteristic of all finger millet cultivation systems in the study area except slash and burn, nkule and continuous cultivation. 1 his practice is a very important indigenous farmers’ strategy for soil fertility and good physical structure assurance via decomposition and rainwater infiltration, and manpower management during critical period. Finger millet in Southwestern Tanzania is usually planted as an opening crop and essentially as a monocrop in different cultivation systems. Livestock keeping has been found to be particularly important for households that practice ox-ploughing. Among socio-economic parameters, household size, available workforce and possession of cattle were strongly related with the level of finger millet cultivation. Ox-ploughers cultivated more acreage and produced more of the crop, thus also obtaining more cash out of it. When coupled with “cultivated fallow” (kuvuiidika') practice, ox-ploughing has become almost insatiable in household labour saving. Particularly during planting, labour saving is of un-parallelcd importance, because of erratic rainfall of the period. Other cultivation practices also focus on reducing manpower requirements during peak period, such as kuvuiidika cultivation during previous crop season accompanied later with very easy re-cultivation (breaking of iitumba, nkule mounds, ridges or re-cultivating ox- ploughed fields) prior to sowing, or absolutely no ploughing with slash-and-burn cultivation. Ox-ploughing and kuvuiidika practice indicate evolutionary trends in cultivation technology in response to diminishing woodland through slash-and-burn cultivation. Another environmentally sensitive issue is an expansion of crop fields associated with ox-ploughing as a way to counteract declining soil fertility when ash-based fertility of slash-and-burn system cannot be practiced. Thus, cultivation technology seems to follow the reverse order of woodland preservation from Fipaland (origin of iitumba cultivation) and Nyihaland where break-down of slash-and-burn cultivation evolved the nkule system to Nyamwangaland where there are still comparatively rich woodlands. Great diversity ivof the cultivation systems found in Mbozi District is associated with the adoption of ntumba system from Fipaland, and nkule system from Nyihaland. Introduction of ox­ ploughing in all research areas after 1950s helped increase the importance of maize as a staple food, but did not wipe out the motivation of cultivating finger millet. This signifies the importance of indigenous technological innovation, and calls for re- evaluation of indigenous systems as sustainable development pathways. On-farm experimentation was conducted in 2001 and 2002 in Mbozi District for comparative examination of different cultivation systems in terms of crop performance and change in soil characteristics. Crop growth and yield increased remarkably with slash-and-burn and nkule cultivation. Yield component analysis revealed that yield of linger millet is composed mainly of plant density and panicle weight. The experiments demonstrated that the main aim of indigenous cultivation is to increase plant establishment by improving soil condition particularly soil nutrients and pH. Yield increase in 2001 slash-and-burn (nteniele} plots was associated with decreasing plant density and increased panicle weight per plant. This shows that plants start to compete for nutrients and sunlight after certain level of crowdness, if nutrient supply is sufficient. The importance of early stage of growth (seedling vigour) was demonstrated by a strong correlation between seedling growth and panicle size. All cultivation systems investigated had remarkable influence on seedling vigour as a result of improved soil fertility and physical characteristics. Unique to some of the areas of this research and most unlikely to be found anywhere else world-wide is the submersion and soaking processing techniques practiced on finger millet after harvest. Practical and physiological significance of this technology was experimentally validated. Farming systems analysis of finger millet cultivation in Southwestern Tanzania thus facilitates not only to understand indigenous technologies on scientific basis, but also to clarify the basic strategics embedded in the systems. Unlike modern farming systems, maximizing healthy growth of individual plants under regulated plant population is not the main idea in the indigenous finger millet production. Rather, main effort is made in increasing the number of plants to survive until harvest by producing favorable Vconditions first for seedling emergence and establishment, then plant growth, within available resources and technologies. The evolution of indigenous finger millet farming systems in Southwestern Tanzania gives an example of an agricultural development pathway even today when staple food has shifted to maize, for socio-culturally oriented indigenous way of thinking is a base for future sustainable resource management.
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    Assessment of germination stimulants from non-host leguminous crops for control of striga asiatica (L) kuntze in semi - arid areas of Tanzania.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2005) Mgonja, Fridaii Nnekia Mbazi
    Striga axiatica is one of'the most destructive parasitic need species in the Semi Arid Zone of Tanzania. In an effort to come out with an appropriate and sustainable method of controlling the weed species, two laboratory/screen house and one field experiments were conducted to identify leguminous crop species/cultivars that are suitable for use as trap crops in the control of.S’rr/qr? asiatica. Effectiveness of root exudates of 56 cultivars from six leguminous species on germination of .S’, axiatica seeds were assessed in vitro using Petri Dish (PD) technique. A split plot design replicated four times was used The second laboratory- experiment, aimed at eyaluating the effect of seed coat colour and different plant parts of selected leguminous species/cultiyars on stimulating germination of the parasitic yveed seeds was done used A Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with four replications yvas Both experiments were repeated three times In addition, a 2-years field experiment was conducted to eyaluate the efficacy in situ of the species/ cultivars identified in vitro A Completely Randomised Block Design (CRBD) was used and the experiment w as replicated four times. Results indicated that effectiveness of root exudates depends on Strtga seed population, and cultivars within species differed in their capacity to stimulate germmation of .S’ axiatica seeds. Pigeon pea cultivars ICEAP 00020 and ICEAP 00040; groundnut ex-Bukene; cowpeas white black eyed; bambara groundnut cultivars Nyandani spotted cream and Red ex- Makutupora were found to stimulate significantly (P < 0.001) higher germination percentages of 5. axiatica seeds compared to the other tested cultivars within their respective species. hence were selected for further evaluation in field. Seed exudates from black seededii bambara groundnut stimulated 66.8% germination of .S’, asiatica seeds, which was significantly (P < 0 001) higher compared to percent germination induced by the positive control (41 3%) Germination of Striga seeds exposed to exudates from dill'erent plant pans (roots, shoots and seeds) of bambara groundnuts, cowpeas and groundnut ranged from 15% to 63 4%. which was significantly higher compared to percent germination induced b\ the negative control (2 4%). Rotating legume trap crops with sorghum resulted into 38 - 48% reduction of.S'/r/gfl seeds in the soil as well as reduction of Stnga infestation bv 50% compared to continuous sorghum cropping anti weed free fallow - sorghum rotation. Yields of sorghum grow n after legumes ranged between 0.75 - 2 28 tons/ha. while yields from sorghum after weed- free fallow and sorghum continuous cropping were 0.53 tons/ha and 0.61 tons/ha respective!} Except for cowpeas, all other legume - sorghum rotations resulted into significant!} (P < 0 001) higher yields compared with the weed free fallow and continuous sorghum cropping It is concluded that crop rotation with pigeon pea cultivars ICEAP 00020 and ICEAP 00040; groundnut ex-Bukene. and bambara groundnut cultivars Nyandam spotted cream and red ex- Makutupora can serve as elTective trap crops which would reduce .S' asiatica seed bank and infestations. By inference, rotating sorghum with any of these legumes would boost yields, thereby sparing farmers limited resources, which would have otherwise been spent for other expensive Striffa control measures
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    Host resistance mechanisms and cultural practices for control of gray leaf spot (cercospora zeae rnaydis) of maize in Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2011) Lyimo, Herman John Faraji
    Studies were carried out in selected villages of the Southern and Eastern Maize Agro- ccological Zones to assess the potential variations in isolate aggressiveness, nature and genetics of host resistance and explore cultural methods suitable for the management of gray leaf spot. Southern Zone isolates (Mbcya and Iringa) grew 0.25 mm per day faster (9.3%), formed 1.1 cm longer lesions (25.9%), produced 1.1 x 104 more spores per cm2 of the lesion (13.6%), formed symptoms 1 day earlier, caused 21.2% more disease and produced more toxins than the Eastern Zone isolates. Significantly (P<0.05) more germlings of C. zeae mayclis were established after penetration on susceptible than on resistant and moderate resistant maize genotypes. Histological studies suggest the possible involvement of inhibitory substances in host cell, a possible resistance mechanisms against C. zeae maydis in maize. Heritability and gene effect estimates for components of partial resistance to gray leaf revealed significant differences between generations, crosses and generation x cross and generation x location interactions. Results have shown that lesion size, lesion length, lesion numbers and disease severity could be used for selection of partial resistance to gray leaf spot based on field measurements. Composted cattle manure lowered gray leaf spot compared to CAN by 29. 4% at 60 kg N ha'1 and by 32.2% at 90 kg N ha’1 followed by composted poultry manure 24.5% and 22.9% and urea 17.6% and 18.2% at 60 kg N ha’1 and 90 kg N ha respectively. Grain yield in composted cattle manure, composted poultry manure and urea fertilization was 1.41 ha’1, 0.91 ha’1, 0.6 t ha1 and 4.2 t ha’1, 3.7 t ha’1, 3.4 t ha’1 higher compared to CAN and none fertilized (control) treatments respectively. There was an overall yield increase of about 41 % in the intercropping compared to non-intercropping on susceptible maize cv ‘Pannar (PAN 6549). It is recommended that breeders should consider the most aggressiveiii isolates (MBY1, MBZI, IGAW1 and NJB1) and (DOMI, MKI1 and MGTl) when screening and breeding for resistance cultivars to gray leaf spot in the Southern highlands and Eastern agro-ecological Zone respectively.
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    Community’s perception towards women’s participation in Bongo flavour music industry: a case of Kinondoni district, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2022) Kitomari, Elinuru Elias
    This study was conducted to examine community perceptions towards women participation in Bongo flavour music in Tanzania, due to the existing problem of low participation of women in the Tanzanian music industry. Specifically, the study aimed at assessing the level of knowledge of community on the benefits acquired from music; to assess community attitude towards women musicians; and to assess factors affecting women participation in Bongo flavour music. Kinondoni District was selected to be the study area. Cross- sectional research design was adapted in this study. A questionnaire with open and close ended questions was prepared to get information from 120 respondents. Community members of Kinondoni was regarded as the unit of analysis. Purposive and simple random sampling methods were used to select wards, streets, respondents, key informants and FGDs. A pilot study was undertaken in two wards (Kawe and Magomeni) aimed to pre-test the interviews’ schedule aimed at testing the cogency and consistency of the tools in terms of relevancy, accuracy and objectivity. Both primary data (survey method using questionnaire) and secondary data (reviewing of published reports, books, journals and web site) were collected. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used for data collection. Structured questionnaire for respondents while checklist were administered to guide the discussions during key informants’ interviews and FGDs. Female musicians were ten and other sixteen music industry structures i.e producers, DJs’, music teachers, music promoters, distributors and leaders from BASATA were the key informants. In each of the selected wards, two FGD’s were formed by a maximum of six to ten participants for collection of qualitative data. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) program version 20 was used to make descriptive statistics including; frequencies, percentages and means as well as inferential statistics (Chi square). Qualitative data was analyzed through content analysis. A Likert scale was used to measure community attitude towards female musicians. In order to identify variables associated with women participation in Bongo flavour music, a model summary was discussed and a binary logistic regression model was used in this section. Overall, the community was knowledgeable on the benefits acquired from music (male 72% & female 52%, youth’s 68.9% & elders 55.8%). The findings showed that, 58% of the respondents had negative attitude towards female musicians due to their poor dressing and dancing styles, themes of their songs as well as the situation of exposing their personal life including their relationships to the public. On the other hand, the remaining 42% had positive attitude. In addition to that, the results from binary logistic regression indicated that participation of women in music industry is influenced with peer group (p=0.001), religion (p=0.002), poor dressing style (p=0.000) and age (found to be statistically slightly significant at p=0.066 at 10% level of significance). Low participation of women in Bongo flavour music was influenced by negative attitude from the community, lack of capital and exposure. The recommendation was that the community and government have to increase the support towards female musicians morally and financially from the family and schooling perspective. This is because a female musician has the potential to contribute in the national development if her music talent is properly utilized.
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    Assessment of root knot nematodes (meloidogyne spp.) preferences to commonly grown tomato varieties in Mvomero district
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2022) Ombaeli, Samweli
    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are among serious biotic constraints to tomato growers in Tanzania but relatively overlooked. This necessitated to conduct a survey to capture pre- existing knowledge of growers on RKN in Mvomero Disrict, Morogoro, Tanzania. Multistage sampling procedure was used to obtain respondents for interiew. Semi- structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 100 randomly selected respondents in Mlali (33), Doma (33) and Dakawa (34). Data were collected on socio- economic status, awareness of respondents on RKN, tomato varieties grown, seed sources and yield. Results indicate that there was a significant variation (p = 0.01) in awareness on RKN across categories of respondents. However, 59% of respondents were not aware of RKN. There was a significant correlation between farming experience and yield of tomato (p < 0.001), Farming experience and awareness of RKN (p < 0.001) and between yield and knowledge on RKN resistant tomato varieties (p < 0.008). Popular tomato varieties grown by farmers were Rio Grande (14%), Cal J (18%), Roma (10%) and Tanya (16%) while hybrids were Imara F1 (19%), Assila F1 (15%), Jarrah F1 (2%), Zara F1 (3%), Kipato F1 (2%) and Anna F1 (2%). Seventy five root and 75 soil samples of tomato plants at flowering/fruiting stage showing stunting, chlorosis and wilting signs were collected from fields located at least 1km apart in Mlali, Doma and Dakawa. Samples were collected about 25 cm deep using a shovel, packed in sterile plastic bags, labelled and transported to TARI Kibaha Nematology laboratory for RKN analysis. Results revealed the significant prevalence (p = 0.002) and incidence (p < 0.001) of RKN. Despite the occurrence and damage caused by RKN in tomato in the study areas, only one percent of respondents recognised RKN as a serious problem. Awareness campaign on RKN will facilitate farmers’ consciousness of their existence and management.
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    Assessment of germination stimulants from non-host leguminous crops for control of striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze in semi - arid areas of Tanzania.
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2005) Mgonja, Fridah Nnekia Mbazi
    Sin^u asiatica is one of the mosl deslructix e parasitic weed species in the Semi And Zone of Tanzania In an efibrt to come out with an appropriate and sustainable method of conlrolling lhe weed species, two 1 aboralor\7screen house and one field experiments were conducted to identify leguminous crop species/cullivars that are suitable for use as trap crops in lhe control of Stnga asiatica. Eflectiveness of root exudates of 56 cultixars from six leguminous species on germination of S. asiatica seeds were assessed in vitro using Pein Dish (PD) technique. A split plot design replicaied four times was used. The second laboratory experiment, aimed at exaluating lhe effect of seed coat colour and different plant pans oT selected leguminous species/cullivars on stimulating germination of the parasitic weed seeds was done used. A Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with four replications was Both experiments were repealed three limes. In addition, a 2-\ears field experiment was conducled to exaiuate lhe efficacy in situ of the species/ cultivars identified in vitro A Completely Randomised Block Design (CRBD) was used and lhe experiment w as replicated four times. Results indicated that effectiveness of root exudates depends on Striga seed population. and cultivars \\ ithin species differed in lheir capacity to stimulate gennination of S. asiatica seeds. Pigeon pea cultivars ICEAP 00020 and ICEAP 00040; groundnut ex-Bukene: cowpeas white black eyed; barnbara groundnut cultivars Nyandani spotted cream and Red ex- Makutupora were round lo stimulate significantly (P < 0 ()01) higher germination percentages of S. usianca seeds compared lo lhe other tested cultivars within their respect!\e species. hence were selected for further evaluation in field. Seed exudates from black seeded bambara groundnut stimulated 66.8% germination of S. asiatica seeds, which was significant!} (P < ()001) higher compared to percent germination induced by the positixe control (41 3%). Genninaiion of Sfn^a seeds exposed lo exudates from dilTerent plant pans (roots, shoots and seeds) of bambara groundnuts, cowpeas and groundnut ranged from 15% lo 63.4%. which was significantly higher compared to percent germination induced by the negative control (2.4%). Rotating legume trap crops with sorghum resulted into 3X - 48% reduction of Stnga seeds in the soil as well as reduction of Sirica inlesiaiion by 50% compared to continuous sorghum cropping and w eed free fallow 一 sorghum rotation. Yields of sorghum grow n after legumes ranged between ().75 — 2 28 tons/ha. while \ ields from sorghum after weed- free fallow and sorghum continuous cropping were 0.53 tons/ha and 0.61 tons/ha respeclixely Except lor cowpeas, all other legume - sorghum rotations resulted into significant^ (P < () 0()1) higher yields compared with the weed free fallow and continuous sorghum cropping It is concluded that crop rotation with pigeon pea cultivars ICEAP ()0020 and ICEAP 00040: groundnut ex-Bukene; and bambara groundnul cultivars Nyandani spoiled cream and red ex- Makutupora can serve as efTectixe trap crops which would reduce S. asiatica seed bank and iniestations. By inference, rotating sorghum with any of these legumes would boost yields, thereby sparing farmers limited resources, which would have otherw ise been spent for other expensixe Stn^a conirol measures.
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    Influence of minjingu phosphate rock application on tephrosia vogellie fallow productivity and subsequent maize response on a ferralsol in morogoro,Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2004) Mkangwa, Chaboba Zaid
    The objectives of this study were to quantify the response of /'. vogelii fallow to Minjingu Phosphate Rock (MPR) application at establishment on quantity and quality of biomass produced. P availability, total inorganic-N. maize yields, and pH and Ca changes on an acidic. I’ deficient Ferralsol. The data w'ere collected from pot. incubation and field experiments. The pot studies were used to assess response of T. vogelii seedlings to MPR. P and Ca applications, and that of maize to 7'. vogehi biomass and MPR applications Incubation experiments were used to evaluate the influence of MPR application on decomposition of 7'. vogelii biomass and N release. and the effects of combined application of MPR and T. vogelii biomass on Pi-P. The field experiments were used to evaluate the effects of MPR application at fallow­ establishment on /' vogelii performance, maize response to fallow' biomass and MPR applications, and to residual MPR and fallow biomass and fresh biomass applications. In soil of pH 5.9. the quantity, quality and Nz-fixing capacity of T vogelii seedlings were significantly improved relative to pH 5.0. Application of MPR improved these parameters at both values of soil reaction. The quality and quantity of 7'. vogelii biomass depended on P application. Combined application of T. vogelii biomass and MPR significantly increased maize DM yield in the pot and field studies, but depressed Pi-P in the incubation study. Decomposition of T. vogelii biomass was significantly increased only in the first 28 days by MPR application and was not effected thereafter. Minjingu PR application at fallow establishment significantly increased the quantity and quality of T. vogelii biomass, total inorganic- N and Pi-P in the fallow's. Subsequent to fallows, application of T. vogelii fallow'Ill biomass or combined with MPR significantly increased total inorganic-N. The Pi-P. earleaf N and P concentrations, soil pH. exchangeable Ca and maize yields were significantly increased by application of MPR at fallow establishment and by combined MPR with fallow biomass It is concluded that application of MPR on a strongly acid P deficient Ferralsol improves the quantity and quality of T. vogelii fallows and subsequent maize yields
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    Etiology and control of stem rot of sunflower (helianthus animus l.)
    (Sokoine University Of Agriculture, 1988) Bujulu, Joel
    Surveys were curried out on the distribution in Tanzania of a new sunflower disease first observed in Morogoro Region. Experiments were conducted at the Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (T.P.R.I.) ana Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) to identify the causal agents, assess their pathogenicity to sunflower varieties commonly grown in Tanzania and other crops normally grown in association with sunt lower, and to determine biological activity of some selected fungicides to the disease causing organisms. Out of all eight surveyed regions, sunflower stem rot was confirmed only in Morogoro region. Fusarium moni liforme She Id and F. graminearum Schwabe were identified as the causal organisms inciting the new sunflower disease which was later named "sunflower stem rot". Sunflower- varieties namely Record, Jupiter, Gor 104 and Dwarf comet were found less affected by both Fusarium spp. while Giant 549, IS 894, IS 894 amd 6F5 were more susceptible. Groundnuts, simsim. cowpeas and greengram did not show symptoms upon artificial inoculations with the two Fusarium spp. while maize, sorghum, beans and garden peas showed necrotic symptoms in the areas inoculated. The fungicides Sisthane (fenapanil) and Ridomil (metalaxyl) were not effective against both fungi in laboratory culture tests while Benlate (benomyl) was effective. But Benlate proved inffective in controlling the disease in the field during field tests.iv Severity of sunflower stem rot was more apparent in fields planted a t ve ry close spacing whether it was a monoculture or interplanted with other crops resulting in more plant deaths. It is recommended that sunflower varieties which were found resistant be distributed to peasants in Morogoro Region and that only resistant ij Ten r. .1 be used in crops like groundnuts, simsim, cowpeas intercrop u- f lower and all other Wherever stem rot is endt intercrops should be planted at w’^nr tpacin which favour disease development. . *“het particularly on breeding for more ■e •’void overcrowding ”C se.i <_«> is being suggested t« nt van The suitability of fungicide «_or.- : -I cf .> s. in peasant grown sunflower appears remote an<" .‘:urrLe«r ;.r /e i.^vxuns on this aspect sl.nould be on large farms
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    Assessment of selected agrochemicals in wastewater from horticultural farms in Arusha and their removal by constructed wetlands
    (The Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, 2014) Lerna, Emmy Solomon
    Commercial horticulture has been growing rapidly and has a significant contribution to food security and economic growth in Tanzania. The growth of horticulture industry has been associated with an increase in consumption of agrochemicals on farms. 1 lowever. wastewaters containing agrochemicals are usually discharged from horticulture farms into the environment without proper treatment. Apparently, the effects of these agrochemicals on the environment are very complex, and therefore, their undesirable transformations can contaminate water, soil, sediments and biota and consequently cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. This study was aimed at investigating the levels of agrochemicals in wastewater discharged from selected horticultural farms in Arusha and their removal by constructed wetlands. The study reviewed literature on the use of agrochemicals in Tanzania and analysed wastewater discharged from horticulture farms for nutrients and pesticide levels. The literature review on agrochemical use showed that inorganic fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides and herbicides arc mostly used in horticultural fields. The analysis of wastewater from live horticulture farms detected NOj'. PO/\ BOD5 and permethrin in the wastewater discharged into the environment at concentration levels above the Tanzanian allowable limits for discharge. The mean concentration levels ranged from (4.5 - 64) ppm for NO.f, (3 - 48) ppm for POq3’. (57-119) ppm for BOD5 and (0.4 - 0.8) ppm for permethrin insecticide. This study investigated the influence of macrophyte type towards removal of Cu, Fe, Mn. Zn. Endosulfan, L-Cyhalothrin and Permethrin by using bucket experiments and influence of flow rate towards removal of Cu. Zn and Mn in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCWs). The results from the bucket experiments showed a significant positive effect of macrophytes on the removal of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. In the HSSFCWs experiments, the removal of heavy metals was as high as 95 % on the average and was found to be independent of flow rate and the difference was statistically insignificant (P>0.05). It w'as observed that regardless of the mechanisms involved in the removal of heavy metals in the HSSFCWs, the overall removal is not limited to transport processes within the wetlands. The conclusion drawn from this research is that agrochemicals are a problem in the environment and constructed wetlands can be used as treatment options for wastewater before it is discharged into the environment.