Quantifying the effects of temperature and photoperiod on phenological development to flowering in rice.

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Michigan State University


Accurate prediction of crop phenology is important not only for modelling purposes but alsofor crop improvement and management actions The objective of this study was to develop a Methods for predicting phonological development to flowering in rice (Oryza saliva L). from the literature were analysed to evaluate a basic equation for crop development. Beta function, commonly used as a skewed probability density function in statistics, was used if' accurately describe responses of rice development rate to both temperature and Controlled-environmcnt experiments were then conducted for detailed understanding of the physiological basis of photothermal responses of preflowering development in rice Effects of day and night temperature on development to flowering were found to be different The plants did not respond to photoperiod throughout the entire preflowering period, instead, the photoperiod-sensitive phase was sandwiched by two photoperiod-insensitive phases. It appeared that responses to both day and night temperature were stronger during the photoperiod-sensitive phase than during the two photoperiod-insensitive phases The results also indicated that leaf appearance occurring simultaneously during the preflowering development had a different thermal response from that of the development perse. Based on the experimental results, a detailed model for photothermal responses of flowering in rice was developed, using the Beta function The model, referred to as the three-stage Beta (3s-Bcta) model, describes different photothcrmal responses during the photoperiod-sensitive phase and the photoperiod-insensitive phases of preflowering ontogeny. Using parameter values derived from controlled-environmcnt experiments, the 3 s-Bet a model adequately predicted rice flowering dates observed in field conditions. It performed better than several existing models over a wide range of environments. In order to assist new plant type design, the 3s-Beta model was applied to determine optimal preflowering phenological traits of rice for an increased yield potential in three different irrigated environments in Asia. The results of this thesis were discussed in view of the experimental findings, the methodology of phenology modelling and model applications



Flowering, Rice, Photoperiod, Temperature, Yield potential, Phenology, Developmental rate, Hermoperiodism, Oryza saliva L