Analysis of farmers’ adaptation to climatic change in Kilimanjaro region

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Sokoine University of Agriculture


This study aimed at assessing farmers’ adaptation mechanisms to climate change in Kilimanjaro region. Specifically, attention was devoted to examine farmers’ awareness and perception towards climate change; adaptation measures used and their influence on crop yield as well as factors which influence adoption of those strategies. The data were collected through household surveys and focused group discussions. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 175 farming households in twelve villages from Moshi Rural, Hai and Rombo Districts. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Cobb-Douglas production function and linear regressions. Results confirm that farmers are quite aware of climate change and adaptation options. Seasonal drought, temperature change and outbreak of diseases in plant and animals were the most perceived consequences of climate change. The adaptation strategies used included change of farm management practices and adoption off-farm employment. Timing of farm operations, water harvesting, mulching, change of crop varieties, irrigation and agro-forestry were the major farm-copping strategies. These strategies were observed to have positive and significant influence on maize and banana yield. Also the study found out that household assets; household size; education level; extension services; owned land size and access to irrigation are the major factors which influence adoption of adaptation strategies. Moreover, lack of capital and information on climate change as well as reliable weather forecast information were indicated to be the core constraints in adaptation. The relevant policy recommendation from these results is that enhanced access to credit and information can significantly increase frames’ adaptation. Government policies should support research and development on appropriate technologies to help farmers adapt to changes in climatic conditions.



Climate change, Farmers’ adaptation, Crop yield, Kilimanjaro region


Adeline,A. (2010) Analysis of farmers’ adaptation to climatic change in Kilimanjaro region : Morogoro. Tanzania.