Women related factors influencing Household Socio- Economic status in selected areas of Morogoro district, Tanzania

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Sokoine University of Agriculture


In Tanzania, households in rural areas are characterized by low socio-economic status (SES). Although contribution of women on household economy is essential, the relationship between women’s socio-demographic and reproductive factors and SES of rural households regardless the sex of household head, have not been fully explored. This study aimed to examine the relationship between women’s socio-demographic and reproductive factors on SES of households in Morogoro district in Tanzania. A cross- sectional study was conducted in six randomly selected villages of Morogoro Rural District. A total of 542 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) and their respective households were studied. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 22 software. Socio-demographic factors that include being older age (≥35 years) [OR 1.26 (95% CI: 1.82-2.94) and residing in villages with better road access [OR 4.08 (95% CI: 2.40-6.94)] relate with higher household SES. Having under five children [OR 0.34 (95%CI: 1.033- 2.502] associated with low household SES. Likewise, reproductive factors, the desire to have many children [OR 0.31 (95%CI: 1.17-2.06] associated with less likelihood to attain higher SES of household. Furthermore, being pregnant at >19 years of age was associated with a higher household SES ([OR 1.76; 95% CI: (1.48-3.83), but more than half (56.5%) of the women had their first conception at the age of ≤ 18 years. It was also noted that, there was significant difference in time spent in economic production and family care activities between men and women (p<0.01), with women spending 2.23 hours less per day in economic production compared to their male counterparts. This study concluded that women’s age, road accessibility to the locality of residence, age composition in households, number of children desired by women and the age at first pregnancy are important factors to be considered for improving household SES in rural areas. Findings from this study calls for economic empowerment of young women and improving the roads to increase connectivity and transportation thus enhance women engagement in a diverse of economic activities consequently contribute to improving SES of households. Furthermore, sexual and reproductive health education, including use of family planning measures should be strengthened to discourage early pregnancies to promote growth of SES of households. In the other hand, the time spent by women in family care giving activities during economic productive hours should be reduced by improving technology for performing domestic activities. Likewise, access to social services such as clean water and electricity should be improved to easy care giving activities.




Women, Household, Socio- Economic status, Household economy, Morogoro-Tanzania