Effects of phosphorus levels on yield and yield components of drought resistant bean lines in Southern highlands of Tanzania

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The study on the effects of phosphorus (P) levels on yield components and yield of drought resistant common bean lines was carried out at Agricultural Research Institute- Uyole in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania, during the 2010/2011 cropping season. The institute is located at latitude 08o 56’ S, longitude 033o 06’ E and altitude of 1795 m above sea level. The overall objective of this study was to find out how to increase grain yield of drought resistant common bean lines through use of phosphatic fertilizers. This was done under screen house and field conditions. A split-plot experiment in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates was used. The main-plots were three drought resistant common bean lines: MR 14125-3, MR 14125-6-1 and MR 14215-9-2; and a drought susceptible check variety, Bilfa Uyole. The sub-plots included four levels of P: 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg P ha-1. Data were collected for growth, developmental and yield characteristics. The results revealed that P application of 60 and 90 kg ha-1 had significant effect on drought resistant bean lines compared to the control. However, application of 90 kg P ha-1 out-yielded the rest of the treatments producing 1972 kg ha-1. The same level also gave the highest growth rate 17.99 g m-2 day-1 under field conditions. Line MR 14125-3 gave the highest number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 100 seed weight, resulting to highest grain yield of 1292 kg ha-1. From the study it is concluded that, in areas with low soil fertility and terminal drought, application of P at 90 kg ha-1 in common bean line MR 14125-3 has a potential for escaping drought hence giving high yields.



Phosphorus levels, Phosphatic fertilizers, Yield components, Southern Highlands, Tanzania, Drought resistance, Bean yields