The role of institutions in mitigating natural resource- based conflicts between farmers and pastoralists in Kilosa and Mvomero districts, Tanzania

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Sokoine University of Agriculture


Recurrent conflicts between farmers and pastoralists have brought significant impact on both groups and the society at large in Kilosa and Mvomero districts. Mitigation of conflicts between farmers and pastoralists, with the intention of bringing up peace and tranquility in the community is important for empowering farmers and pastoralists in terms of skills in modern farming without encroaching other land, keeping livestock without disturbing others and arbitration mechanisms applied to mitigate conflicts with little success. This study (i) examined drivers and consequences of recurrent conflicts, (ii) determined mitigation strategies that would ameliorate recurrent conflicts arising between farmers and pastoralists in Kilosa and Mvomero districts and (iii) assessed the role of formal and informal institutions in mitigating conflict. A sample size of 203 farmers and pastoralists was chosen using a simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using interview, a questionnaire survey, documentary review and focus group discussions (FGDs) methods. Collected data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively using content analytical and binary logistic regression approaches respectively. The findings show that it would be effective to use a conflict resolution model which is solely based on social order in four main stages: developing expectations for win-win solutions, defining each party's interests, brainstorming creative options, and combining options into win-win solutions. Importantly, the findings revealed that weak governance structures associated with unethical behaviour, regulatory deficiencies, socio-economic and environmental factors are responsible for the recurrence of conflicts between farmers and pastoralists. Consequently, the recurrent conflicts have resulted into major socio-economic impacts that include loss of lives and property to both farmers and pastoralists. Drawing from conflict and conflict resolution theories, which advocate use of coercive power and participatory approaches to restore peace, respectively; this thesis concludes that no single strategy fits all conflicts given the complexity in which such conflicts occur. In the light of the results, this thesis recommends that the effective way to address farmers- pastoralists conflicts: should twofold i.e. use both coercive and participatory approaches. Therefore, the choice of the appropriate strategy will depend on the context since no single approach fits all types of conflicts. Also the study recommends that various stakeholders such as the local government and civil societies should encourage pastoralists to establishing pasture land. In addition, the LGA should regulate the number of animals per area by formulating bylaws for controlling livestock populations in areas with limited land in order to match its carrying capacity, controlling migration of other ethnic groups and guaranteed water right for farmers and pastoralists for the sake of bringing peace and harmony between farmers and pastoralists. More importantly, the land policy has some deficiencies and contradictions because it does not guarantee security of tenure to some users, especially smallholder groups. Unsecured land tenure system in Tanzania has accounted to the underdevelopment of the land resource in the country. Therefore, the situation has resulted into unethical practices such as corruption. For instance, some village leaders have been receiving bribes from pastoralists thus allowing them to enter in the villages which ... loads to conflicts with crop producer This also creates enmity between farmers and pastoralists. The study recommends that there is a need for the government to effectively establish a transparent and accountability committee whose obligation will be to critically observ rules, regulations as far as land tenure is concerned. Additionally, the study recommends that there should be investigation conducted by relevant authorities such as the Prevention and Combating of Corruption Bureau (PCCB) in order to identify the sources of these vices and institute legal procedures/actions against the offenders.


A Thesis 2019


Natural resource, Conflicts, Farmers-pastoralists, Kilosa-Mvomero districts, Tanzania