Post conflict coping strategies and well-being of farmers and pastoralists in Kilosa and Kiteto districts, Tanzania

dc.contributor.authorSaruni, P. L. O.
dc.descriptionPhD Thesisen_US
dc.description.abstractNatural resource use conflicts are a global phenomenon and in Sub-Saharan Africa, such conflicts can be extreme leading to deaths of farmers and pastoralists. The most reported conflicts over natural resource use occur between farmers versus farmer, pastoralists versus pastoralists, ethnic groups and state and communities to mention a few. Farmers and Pastoralists conflicts are the concern of this study. However, the literature on the effects of conflicts on both well-being and coping strategies to manage the conflicts in Tanzania is rather scarce. The study explored the forms and drivers of conflicts; analysed the role of governance in natural resource use conflicts; determined the effects of conflicts on household well-being and explored conflicts coping strategies among farmers and pastoralists in Kilosa and Kiteto districts. A cross-sectional research design was used whereby 373 respondents were randomly selected. Primary data were collected through interviews, observations and focus group discussions. In addition, secondary data were collected from government reports and the media. SPSS and Stata software was used for both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. Content analysis was used for the qualitative data. Study findings show that the main form of conflict involved farmers-pastoralists over village boundaries. Drivers underlying the conflicts were crop damage by livestock and unwillingness of government officials to address the conflicts. Although there was inadequate knowledge among respondents on the regulatory framework governing land matters, both women and men had an equal opportunity for participation in land matters. Corruption was systemic in nature and it involves village leaders, district council officials and the police. There was a significant difference (p <0.01) in households well-being with regard to asset ownership, subjective well-being (happiness) and education. Generally, female-headed households were more likely to be happier (p <0.05) than their male counterparts who in most cases are in combat as women and children are left at home or hidden in the bush. Moreover, those affected with natural resource use conflicts were forced to buy food or rely on relatives and wider social networks to provide practical support. Emotional support from relatives and religious organisations were also important. Male-headed households were more likely to use coping strategies (p <0.05) than female-headed households. Land ownership is likely to increase the use of post-conflict coping strategies among households. Therefore, it is recommended that the Government of Tanzania through the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human Settlement Development prior to establishing any land use plan should undertake land suitability index and establish the livestock carrying capacity of areas intended for livestock keepersen_US
dc.publisherSokoine University of Agricultureen_US
dc.subjectKilosa districtsen_US
dc.subjectKiteto districtsen_US
dc.subjectConflict coping strategiesen_US
dc.titlePost conflict coping strategies and well-being of farmers and pastoralists in Kilosa and Kiteto districts, Tanzaniaen_US


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