Community’s perception towards women’s participation in Bongo flavour music industry: a case of Kinondoni district, Tanzania

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Sokoine University of Agriculture


This study was conducted to examine community perceptions towards women participation in Bongo flavour music in Tanzania, due to the existing problem of low participation of women in the Tanzanian music industry. Specifically, the study aimed at assessing the level of knowledge of community on the benefits acquired from music; to assess community attitude towards women musicians; and to assess factors affecting women participation in Bongo flavour music. Kinondoni District was selected to be the study area. Cross- sectional research design was adapted in this study. A questionnaire with open and close ended questions was prepared to get information from 120 respondents. Community members of Kinondoni was regarded as the unit of analysis. Purposive and simple random sampling methods were used to select wards, streets, respondents, key informants and FGDs. A pilot study was undertaken in two wards (Kawe and Magomeni) aimed to pre-test the interviews’ schedule aimed at testing the cogency and consistency of the tools in terms of relevancy, accuracy and objectivity. Both primary data (survey method using questionnaire) and secondary data (reviewing of published reports, books, journals and web site) were collected. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used for data collection. Structured questionnaire for respondents while checklist were administered to guide the discussions during key informants’ interviews and FGDs. Female musicians were ten and other sixteen music industry structures i.e producers, DJs’, music teachers, music promoters, distributors and leaders from BASATA were the key informants. In each of the selected wards, two FGD’s were formed by a maximum of six to ten participants for collection of qualitative data. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) program version 20 was used to make descriptive statistics including; frequencies, percentages and means as well as inferential statistics (Chi square). Qualitative data was analyzed through content analysis. A Likert scale was used to measure community attitude towards female musicians. In order to identify variables associated with women participation in Bongo flavour music, a model summary was discussed and a binary logistic regression model was used in this section. Overall, the community was knowledgeable on the benefits acquired from music (male 72% & female 52%, youth’s 68.9% & elders 55.8%). The findings showed that, 58% of the respondents had negative attitude towards female musicians due to their poor dressing and dancing styles, themes of their songs as well as the situation of exposing their personal life including their relationships to the public. On the other hand, the remaining 42% had positive attitude. In addition to that, the results from binary logistic regression indicated that participation of women in music industry is influenced with peer group (p=0.001), religion (p=0.002), poor dressing style (p=0.000) and age (found to be statistically slightly significant at p=0.066 at 10% level of significance). Low participation of women in Bongo flavour music was influenced by negative attitude from the community, lack of capital and exposure. The recommendation was that the community and government have to increase the support towards female musicians morally and financially from the family and schooling perspective. This is because a female musician has the potential to contribute in the national development if her music talent is properly utilized.




Women’s participation, Bongo flavour music, Kinondoni district, Tanzania, Music industry