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    Factors influencing smallholder Farmer’s willingness to adopt sustainable land management practices to control invasive plants in northern Tanzania
    (Elsevier Inc, 2023) Malila, Barnabas P.; Kaaya, Omega E.; Lusambo, Leopold P.; Schaffner, Urs; Kilawe, Charles J.
    Efforts to mitigate the effects of invasive plant species (IPS) have not produced the desired results due to poor adoption of land management practices developed by scientists and introduced to the community through a top- down approach. Little is known about adoption of Sustainable Land Management (SLM) practices that have been co-developed by a diverse group of local stakeholders through a participatory process. In this study, we assessed factors influencing the willingness of smallholder farmers to adopt SLM practices for the control of Lantana camara, Clidemia hirta, Pteridium acquilinum, and Prosopis juliflora in northern Tanzania. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from 240 heads of households from eight villages affected by the four IPS. Binary logistic regression was applied to model the probability of factors that influence smallholder farmers’ willingness to adopt the SLM practices. We found that farming experience, household income and conservation awareness were positively associated with the willingness for adoption of SLM practices. Surpris­ ingly, the invasive species cover was negatively associated with the willingness for adoption of SLM practices for control of the IPS. We recommend that the extension service providers to continue raising awareness and edu­ cation among farmers with low farming experience and income, and those with fields heavily infested with IPS.
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    Comparison of multi-source remote sensing data for estimating and mapping above-ground biomass in the West Usambara tropical montane forests
    (Elsevier B.V., 2023-06) Madundo, Sami Dawood; Mauya, Ernest; Kilawe, Charles Joseph
    Above-ground biomass (AGB) estimation is important to better understand the carbon cy- cle and improve the efficiency of forest policy and management activities. AGB estimation models, using a combination of field data and remote sensing data, can largely replace traditional survey methods for measuring AGB. There are, however, critical steps for map- ping AGB based on satellite data with an acceptable degree of accuracy, such as choice of remote sensing data, the proper statistical modelling method, and remote sensing pre- dictor variables, at known field locations. This study sought to identify the optimal op- tical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing imagery from five sensors (Plan- etScope, Sentinel-2, Landsat 8 OLI, ALOS-2/PALSAR-2, and Sentinel-1) to model 159 field- based AGB values from two montane forests under semiparametric (Generalized Additive Model; GAM) and non-parametric (eXtreme Gradient Boosting; XGB) approaches using in- formation from four groups of predictor variables (spectral bands/polarizations, vegetation indices, textures, and a combination of all). The study’s results showed that PlanetScope (rRMSE = 69.19%; R 2 = 0.161) was the most precise optical sensor while ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 (rRMSE = 70.76; R 2 = 0.165) was the most precise amongst the SAR sensors. XGB mod- els generally resulted in those with lower prediction errors as compared to GAMs for the five sensors. Models having textures of vegetation indices and polarization bands achieved greater accuracy than models that incorporated spectral bands/polarizations and vegeta- tion indices only. The study recommends that PlanetScope and ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 remote sensing data using the XGB-based technique is an appropriate approach for accurate lo- cal and regional estimation of tropical forest AGB particularly for complex montane forest ecosystems.
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    The impact of the invasive tree cedrela odorota on the electric blue gecko (Lygodactylus williamsi) and its habitat (Pandanus rabaiensis) in Kimboza forest reserve, Tanzania
    (Elsevier B.V., 2022-01) Kilawe, Charles Joseph; Mchelu, Hadija Ahmad; Emily, Cosmas John
    Non-native plants are a major cause of habitat loss and fragmentation that lead to biodiversity loss. Geckos are particularly vulnerable to habitat alterations due to their small range and their restricted and specific terrestrial habits. However, our understanding of how introduced plants affect geckos, is poor. In this study, we investigate the potential effects of non-native and invasive neo-tropical tree Cedrela odorata on the critically endangered electric blue gecko, Lygodactylus williamsi, and its sole habitat, Pandanus rabaiensis. We used 107 square (10 m x 10 m) sample plots distributed systematically throughout the forest to assess the extent and effects of C. odorata on P. rabaiensis forest patches. We compared the abundance of L. williamsi on 125 P. rabaiensis trees growing in a mixture with C. odorata, native trees, and in pure stands and at three canopy cover categories (0–30%, >30–50%, and > 50%). We found an inverse relationship between the abundance of C. odorata trees (diameter at breast height (DBH)> 10 cm) and the abundance of P. rabaiensis. Spatially, the two trees dominated different parts of the forest. In contrast, the abundance of L. williamsi was not significantly affected by the presence of C. odorata. However, change in the canopy cover of the trees growing above the P. rabaiensis significantly affected the abundance of L. williamsi. The abundance of L. williamsi in a 0–30% cover was significantly higher than 30–50% and > 50% canopy covers. The findings of this study suggest that if left unmanaged, C. odorata could continue to take up the space that could be occupied by P. rabaiensis and other native plants, and thus limit the population size of an endangered species.
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    The extent of adoption of agroforestry systems and practices and conservation implications in Kilombero district, Tanzania
    (East African Journal of Forestry and Agroforestry, 2022-07-25) Nnko, Lazaro Elibariki; Kashaigili, Japhet Joel; Monela, Gerald Cladius; Munishi, Pantaleo; Lyimo, Paul John; Nyemo, Chilagane
    Agroforestry systems and practices are perceived to improve livelihood and sustainable management of natural resources. However, factors influencing their adoption in various regions require further investigation as they differ in biophysical conditions and societal characteristics. This study was conducted in Kilombero district to investigate factors influencing the adoption of different agroforestry systems and practices in agro-ecosystems and farming systems. Household surveys, key informant interviews and focus group discussions were used in data collection. Descriptive statistics and Multinomial Regression Analysis in SPSS were used for data analysis. Results show that Agrosilvopasture and Agrosilviculture systems were the dominant agroforestry systems while the home garden and Mixed Intercropping were the dominant agroforestry practice. There is a potential in agroforestry systems and practices in terms of product diversification and biodiversity conservation though their adoption differed given the influence of different factors. Different factors were statistically significant as predictors of the adoption of agroforestry systems and practices. Resident period, availability of extension education/services, resident type and gender were the dominant factors influencing the adoption of agroforestry systems and practices. Farmers' oriented factors were critical in the adoption of agroforestry systems and practices. The study concludes that the practice of agroforestry will be more successful if the local priorities including socio- economic characteristics of the society are considered in designing systems and practices. Socio-economic characteristics of the communities that factor in conservation priorities should be addressed in the process of expanding the adoption of agroforestry systems and practices. The study recommends that productive systems and practices that contribute to household food and income are better adopted.
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    Detecting and predicting forest degradation: a comparison of ground surveys and remote sensing in Tanzanian forests
    (Plants, People, Planet (PPP), 2021-01-08) Ahrends, Antje; Bulling, Mark T.; Platts, Philip J.; Swetnam, Ruth; Ryan, Casey; Doggart, Nike; Hollingsworth, Peter M.; Marchant, Robert; Balmford, Andrew; Harris, David J.; Gross-­Camp, Nicole; Sumbi, Peter; Munishi, Pantaleo; Madoffe, Seif; Mhoro, Boniface; Leonard, Charles; Bracebridge, Claire; Doody, Kathryn; Wilkins, Victoria; Owen, Nisha; Marshall, Andrew R.; Schaafsma, Marije; Pfliegner, Kerstin; Jones, Trevor; Robinson, James; Topp-­Jørgensen, Elmer; Brink, Henry; Burgess, Neil D.
    Tropical forest degradation is widely recognised as a driver of biodiversity loss and a major source of carbon emissions. However, in contrast to deforestation, more gradual changes from degradation are challenging to detect, quantify and monitor. Here, we present a field protocol for rapid, area-­standardised quantifications of forest condition, which can also be implemented by non-­specialists. Using the ex- ample of threatened high-­biodiversity forests in Tanzania, we analyse and predict degradation based on this method. We also compare the field data to optical and radar remote-­sensing datasets, thereby conducting a large-­scale, independent test of the ability of these products to map degradation in East Africa from space. • Our field data consist of 551 ‘degradation’ transects collected between 1996 and 2010, covering >600 ha across 86 forests in the Eastern Arc Mountains and coastal forests. • Degradation was widespread, with over one-­third of the study forests—­mostly protected areas—­having more than 10% of their trees cut. Commonly used opti- cal remote-­sensing maps of complete tree cover loss only detected severe im- pacts (≥25% of trees cut), that is, a focus on remotely-­sensed deforestation would have significantly underestimated carbon emissions and declines in forest quality. Radar-­based maps detected even low impacts (<5% of trees cut) in ~90% of cases. The field data additionally differentiated types and drivers of harvesting, with spa- tial patterns suggesting that logging and charcoal production were mainly driven by demand from major cities. • Rapid degradation surveys and radar remote sensing can provide an early warning and guide appropriate conservation and policy responses. This is particularly im- portant in areas where forest degradation is more widespread than deforestation, such as in eastern and southern Africa.
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    From local scenarios to national maps: a participatory framework for envisioning the future of Tanzania
    (Resilience Alliance Inc, 2016) Capitani, Claudia; Mukama, Kusaga; Mbilinyi, Boniface; Malugu, Isaac O.; Munishi, Pantaleo K. T.; Burgess, Neil D.; Platts, Philip J.; Sallu, Susannah M.; Marchant, Robert
    Tackling societal and environmental challenges requires new approaches that connect top-down global oversight with bottom-up subnational knowledge. We present a novel framework for participatory development of spatially explicit scenarios at national scale that model socioeconomic and environmental dynamics by reconciling local stakeholder perspectives and national spatial data. We illustrate results generated by this approach and evaluate its potential to contribute to a greater understanding of the relationship between development pathways and sustainability. Using the lens of land use and land cover changes, and engaging 240 stakeholders representing subnational (seven forest management zones) and the national level, we applied the framework to assess alternative development strategies in the Tanzania mainland to the year 2025, under either a business as usual or a green development scenario. In the business as usual scenario, no productivity gain is expected, cultivated land expands by ~ 2% per year (up to 88,808 km2), with large impacts on woodlands and wetlands. Despite legal protection, encroachment of natural forest occurs along reserve borders. Additional wood demand leads to degradation, i.e., loss of tree cover and biomass, up to 80,426 km2 of wooded land. The alternative green economy scenario envisages decreasing degradation and deforestation with increasing productivity (+10%) and implementation of payment for ecosystem service schemes. In this scenario, cropland expands by 44,132 km2 and the additional degradation is limited to 35,778 km2. This scenario development framework captures perspectives and knowledge across a diverse range of stakeholders and regions. Although further effort is required to extend its applicability, improve users’ equity, and reduce costs the resulting spatial outputs can be used to inform national level planning and policy implementation associated with sustainable development, especially the REDD+ climate mitigation strategy.
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    Bird flight initiation distances in relation to distance from human settlements in a Tanzanian floodplain habitat
    (Springer, 2014-09-26) Bjørvik, Linn M.; Dale, Svein; Hermansen, Gudmund H.; Munishi, Pantaleo K. T.; Moe, Stein R.
    Human activity affects wildlife in many ways, but there have been few studies of how wildlife behav- ioural responses to human disturbance vary with distance from centres of human activity. Theory suggests that fear responses may be either higher in areas with high distur- bance (disturbance avoidance) or lower in such areas (e.g. due to habituation). We used flight initiation distance (FID) to study how fear responses of 16 bird species varied with distance from villages (range 0.1–11.6 km) within the Ramsar site of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. A linear model indicated that FID was not related to distance from villages, but varied between habitats. However, a piecewise linear model (linear response up to 2 km, flat response [2 km from villages) provided a better fit and suggested that there may be a small decrease in FID close to human settlements, in particular for the Common Bulbul (Pycn- onotus barbatus) and a few other species, although the majority of species still showed little change in FID with distance from human settlements. Our results suggest that a few species may respond to human disturbance with a decreased FID, whereas the majority of species showed little variation in FID in relation to distance from human settlements, and may therefore be negatively affected by increasing frequency of human disturbance.
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    Rainfall interception and partitioning in afromontane rain forests of the Eastern arc mountains, Tanzania: implications for water conservation.
    (Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 2003-05) Munishi, P. K. T.; Shear, T. H.
    The aboveground components of the hydrologie cycle of rain forest are important processes that determine the hydrologie behaviour and dynamics of these ecosystems. Precipitation, throughfall, stem flow, canopy interception and streamflow were measured and modelled in two afromontane rain forests of the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. Measurements were made daily for 50 months in the Ulugurus and 56 months in the Usambaras. Throughfall was 76% of the gross rainfall in the Usambaras and 79% in the Ulugurus. Stemflow was less than 2% of rainfall. Both parameters were correlated with gross rainfall (r2 = 0.97, 0.99, 0.86 and 0.94). Canopy interception was 22% of rainfall for the Usambaras and 20% for the Ulugurus. Streamflow was best modelled using five months running mean rainfall in the Ulugurus (r = 0.67) and three to four months in the Usambaras (r = 0.72). A high proportion of the gross rainfall is delivered as net precipitation. There is effective partitioning of rainfall on the forest canopy providing reasonable dumping effect of rainstorms. The slow response in streamflow to rainfall events shows the efficiency of the forests to mitigate storm water impacts and thus ensuring continuous water supply. Further studies in effects of forest harvesting on water yield are pertinent to enable adequate planning of forest utilization.
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    Climate change adaptation in Africa: fostering resilience and capacity to adapt
    (Springer International Publishing AG, 2017) Filho, Walter Leal; Simane, Belay; Kalangu, Jokasha; Wuta, Menas; Munishi, Pantaleo; Musiyiwa, Kumbirai
    It is widely known that Africa is one of the most vulnerable continents to climate change. As the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has shown, climate change is expected to have widespread impacts on African societies and Africans’ interaction with the natural environment. There are also signs that the impacts of climate change are already being felt, not only in terms of increases in temperature, but also in respect of agriculture (with lower crop yields) and the availability of water resources, among others. The links between climate change and the incidence of diseases such as malaria are also becoming clearer. The above state of affairs illustrates the need for a better understanding of how climate change affects African countries, and for the identification of processes, methods and tools which may help African nations to adapt. There is also a per- ceived need to showcase successful examples of how to cope with the social, economic and political problems posed by climate change in Africa. It is against this background that the “Symposium on Climate Change Adaptation in Africa” was organised by Manchester Metropolitan University (UK), Addis Ababa University, the Research and Transfer Centre “Applications of Life Sciences” of the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (Germany) and the International Climate Change Information Programme (ICCIP). The Symposium, held in Addis Ababa in February 2016, was a truly interdisciplinary event, mobilising African and non-African scholars undertaking research and/or executing climate change projects in the African continent. This book, which contains a set of papers presented at the Symposium, focuses on “Fostering African Resilience and Capacity to Adapt”, meaning that it will serve the purpose of showcasing experiences from research, field projects and best practice in climate change adaptation in African countries, which may be useful or implemented in other countries in the continent. Consistent with the need for more cross-sectoral interactions among the various stakeholders working in the field of climate change adaptation in the African continent, this book aims to: i. provide research institutions, universities, NGOs and enterprises from Africa and those working in Africa with an opportunity to display and present their works in the field of climate change adaptation; ii. foster the exchange of information, ideas and experiences acquired in the execution of climate change adaptation projects, especially successful initia- tives and good practice across the African continent; iii. introduce methodological approaches and experiences deriving from case studies and projects, which aim to show how climate change adaptation may be implemented in practice; and iv. to network African and non-African experts, and provide a platform so they can explore possibilities for cooperation. Last but not least, a further aim of this book is to document and disseminate the wealth of experiences available today. This book is divided into two parts: • Part 1 contains papers that describe the adaptation methods and approaches. • Part 2 entails institutional experiences on adaptation, as well as case studies, examples of projects and of good practice We thank the authors for their willingness to share their knowledge, know-how and experiences, as well as the many peer reviewers, which have helped us to ensure the quality of the manuscripts. Thanks are also due to Magdalena Salewski for her valuable support for the manuscripts. Enjoy your reading!
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    The effect of shortening fallow length on recovery of plant species richness, composition and growth in shifting cultivation landscapes of Kilosa district, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2018-06) Kilawe, C. J; Silayo, D. A; Maliondo, S. M; Birch-Thomsen, T; Mertz, O.
    There is insufficient knowledge on the effects of shifting cultivation on vegetation change, especially in situations of land use intensification. This study investigated the effects of shortening fallow length on recovery of small (Dbh < 5 cm) and big (Dbh ≥ 5 cm) plant species richness, composition and height growth in a dry Miombo woodland in East Central Tanzania. Vegetation sampling was conducted on 40 (10 m x10 m) plots and 80 (5 m x 5 m) sub- plots from adjacent sites under fallow for 3, 5, 7 and 15 years and a control secondary forest. Results showed that shortening fallow length to not less than 7 years did not have a significant negative effect on recovery of plant species richness and height growth for both small and big sized plant species. However, there was a remarkable shift in composition of dominant species when fallow length was less than 15 years. Results showed that big size Miombo woodland defining species such as Brachystegia bussei, B. boehmii, and B. spiciformis were deprived in fallows younger than 15 years but dominant in secondary forest. Non-Miombo woodland defining species such as Cassia burtii and Dombeya shumpangae were instead dominant in younger fallows. These results imply that if the fallow length is shortened to 3 years as required by Village Land Use plans in Kilosa District, the sustainability of the shifting cultivation systems will be threatened, affecting ecosystems services offered by landscapes under shifting cultivation. It is therefore recommended that fallow length be prolonged to at least 7 years and that communities are encouraged to retain some of the Miombo woodland defining species in the fields under cultivation.
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    A tree girdling beetle in Korogwe district: its potential risk to eucalyptus plantations and woodlots in Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2017-06) Lyimo, Paulo J
    A study was conducted to identify and assess damage of an insect pest girdling young Eucalypts in Korogwe Forest Plantation, Tanga. Purposive sampling was employed to establish 10 plots of 10m by 10m. A total of 90 trees were sampled. Insect pest specimens were collected and girdled trees counted in each plot. The insect pest specimens were identified using reference resources at the Department of Ecosystems and Conservation, SUA. The mean number of girdled stems was computed. Results showed that the girdling insect pest was Paranaleptes reticulata. The pest was girdling Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. terecticornis. It was found girdling up to 150 stems/ha of Eucalyptus stems. Removal and burning of girdled branches material especially dry ones keeps in check the population density of P. reticulata below economic injury level. The pest is a potential risk to Eucalyptus plantations and woodlots in Tanzania. Therefore, there is a need of immediate interventions to control P. reticulata.
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    Influential environmental parameters contributing on tree Species distribution in two forests of the eastern Afromontane hotspot, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2020) Chitiki, A.K.
    Understanding the influence of environmental parameters in determining tree species distribution and how it might change over time is a vital issue for species distribution modeling (SDM), yet it is poorly addressed in most of tropical forests and has not been addressed in the Eastern Arc Mountains (EAMs). This study was conducted with the objective of identifying most influencial environmental parameters contributing on tree species distribution in East Usambara Forests (EUF) and Udzungwa Mountain Forests (UMF) of the EAMs, Tanzania. Novel modelling method called Maximum Entropy Distribution (Maxent, version 3.3.3k), was used to model the distribution of eight most dominant tree species based on the frequency of occurence and 11 uncorrelated environmental variables. The drivers of species distribution in EUF and UMF are mainly climatic and edaphic factors. Climate change effects were driven by all climatic variables followed by edaphic variables while topographic factors had no effect. Soil factors have shown stronger effects in the UMF than in the EUF while the effects of temperature and precipitation were strong in both sites. Further studies on physiological responses and range shifts of selected species to environmental change (e.g climate change) within the EAMs are recommended.
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    The silviculture of woodlots of smallholder forest producers in Mufindi District, Tanzania: knowledge and treatments
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2021) Mwambusi, J.N; Kapp, G; Chamshama, S.A.O
    Smallholder forestry is experiencing many challenges like limited understanding of silvicultural treatments to impact the quality and performance of woodlots. This study determined the silvicultural treatments of smallholders in Mufindi district by interviewing 78 respondents then assessing the silviculture of 78 woodlots in 13 sampled villages. The study found out that more than 80% of smallholders had a certain level of understanding of some treatments like weeding and pruning. A major source of knowledge was personal experiences from fellow farmers and Sao Hill Forest Plantation. Based on market demand, P. patula and E. grandis were the most planted species in the woodlots. Smallholders reported planting trees at a spacing of 3 x 3 m without clear knowledge on factors to consider for initial spacing. Also, reported harvesting trees for sawn timber at 8 - 13 years and transmission poles at 6 - 8 years. Contrary to knowledge, the assessment found out that majority of woodlots had a spacing of 2.5 x 2.5 m. Many woodlots were poorly pruned and surrounded by shrubs which affected timber quality. Generally, woodlots management was unsatisfactory due to insufficient technical knowledge. Thus, more training is needed to strengthen smallholder forestry to ensure sustainable tree farming.
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    Relationships between tree species diversity with soil Chemical properties in semi-dry miombo woodland ecosystems
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2021) Bulenga, G.B; Maliondo, S.M.S; Katani, J.Z
    In Miombo woodland ecosystems, soil nutrients play an important role in the formation of plant communities. This study hypothesized that soil nutrients have an influence on tree species richness and diversity in Miombo woodland ecosystems. Important Value Index (IVI) and Shannon Wiener diversity index (H′) were used to indicate tree species dominance and diversity respectively. Soil properties were determined using laboratory standard methods. Pearson correlation analyses were performed in R software. Pterocarpus tinctorius, Pterocarpus angolensis, Brachystegia spiciformis and Julbernardia globiflora were the dominant tree species in terms of IVI. We recorded 123 tree species with H′ value of 4.23. Tree species richness was significantly (p < 0.05) direct correlated with total N, available P, Mg, Na and cation exchange capacity (CEC); and inversely correlated with Ca. Tree species diversity was significantly (p < 0.05) direct correlated with K, Na and total exchangeable bases (TEB); and inversely correlated with CEC. Kitulang’halo semi-dry Miombo woodland ecosystem is a typical miombo woodland and it is rich in tree species diversity. Its soil nutrients are also intact, suggesting that the woodland is not so much subjected to disturbances due to the current effective management measures imposed. Therefore, further studies in other ecosystems are recommended.
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    The current status of wildlife captive facilities in Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2023) Mng’ong’o, Z.G; Mbije, N.E; Kitegile, A
    Wildlife captive facilities (WCFs) are accommodations for ex-situ conservation of wild animals, they include wildlife ranches, farms, breeding facilities, orphanage centers, sanctuaries and zoos. Tanzania harbours a number of these facilities, however, information on exact number, types, functioning status, size, composition and health is limited. This study employed key informant interviews, participatory observations and counts to generate information on the status of WCFs in Tanzania. Descriptive statistics and Gross Profit Margin were used to analyze data on WCF status and cost-benefit analysis respectively. Results showed that Tanzania has 28 active and 42 dormant WCFs. Most of WCFs were established mainly for business and community services. About 182 species from 33 families and 14 orders are housed in these facilities, attracting both local and foreign visitors. The visiting fees are the main source of income in WCFs. Generally, the active WCF meet the purpose of their establishment by having satisfactory species richness, diversity and abundance and good health. However, there is need to improve the overall standard. Reliance on fees make most WFC run under significant loss, especially zoos. Thus, this study recommends provision of education for both communities and investors, establishment of Private-Public Partnership investment mode and WCF consultancy.
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    Effects of thinning on growth, yield and stem quality of pinus patula at Sao hill forest plantation, Mufindi district, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2022) Nguyeje, P.C; Chamshama, S.A.O.; Mugasha, W.A
    Pinus patula is one of the most important plantation species grown in Eastern and Southern Africa. Its growth rate and yield vary considerably depending on site conditions, management techniques and genetic quality of the trees. It has been suspected that thinning of softwood plantations in Tanzania has been neglected resulting in lower standing volume being distributed into many small trees of poor form. This study assessed the effects of thinning on growth, yield and stem quality of Pinus patula at Sao Hill Forest Plantation located in Southern Highland part of Tanzania. In a systematically established plots; diameter of all trees, a total height of three trees and stem quality of four classes were recorded. An independent t-test was used to test for significant difference in stand parameters and Mann-Whitney U test was used to test stem quality between thinned and unthinned stand. Results showed that thinning significantly increased growth and yield of Pinus patula. Thinning improves stem quality by 9% resulting in trees having straight and good stem form. Thinned stands yielded higher volume than unthinned stands. Therefore, this study recommends that pine plantations should be timely thinned as per used thinning schedule to ensure that more volume is attained.
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    Assessment of the effects of uranium exploration on wildlife, vegetation and tourism in Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2023) Mariki, S.B.; Azihou, A.F; Assede, E.P.S; Sengelela, M; Byamungu, R.M.
    Mineral resources are potential for economic development of any endowed country. However, mining is generally associated with serious negative impacts on existing ecosystems where operations are carried out. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of uranium exploration on wildlife population, vegetation, and tourists’ visitation in Selous ecosystem in Tanzania. Data collection took place in different periods from 2016 to 2017 through household questionnaire surveys, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, direct observations, nested plots, and secondary data reviews. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics in SPSS version 20 software. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis through systematic coding and theme identification. Findings show that poaching was a leading illegal activity (55%) in the area. Further effects reported and observed were habitat fragmentation, introduction of alien species, and noise pollution. About 478.57 trees (with dbh greater than 5 cm) per ha were removed to expand the main road to the mining site. However, the number of tourist visitation in the area was almost constant. This study recommends that the government, through its ministries, should address the weakness identified and put measures in place that will reduce adverse impacts during mining process.
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    Effects of different pre-sowing treatments on germination of pericopsis angolensis seeds of Tabora miombo woodlands, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2023) Mbailwa, Y.S; Chamshama, S.A.O; Mwendwa, B.A; Mwambusi, J.N
    Pericopsis angolensis species survival is reported to be low in nurseries. Given the high dormancy tendency of Legume family, it is speculated that, pre-sowing treatment of Perocopsis angolensis seeds may result in improved germinability. Different attempts of breaking the dormancy to enhance germination have been done. However, the difference in environmental conditions - soil pH, temperature, and water availability - which parental plants experienced during their growth and seed maturation, have an impact on seed germination patterns. This study assessed the effects of pretreatments (soaking in cold and boiling water at different time intervals) on the germination of Pericopsis angolensis seeds collected in Tabora, Tanzania. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was done to show differences in seed germination parameters under different pretreatments. Results show that, there was significant (P<0.001) difference in germination parameters between the control and pretreated seeds except for the Mean Germination Time (P>0.05). The highest Germination Value, Germination Percent and Germination Capacity were found under control. The findings prove that pretreating Pericopsis angolensis seeds by soaking in cold and hot water have no additional effect on germination. Thus, the study suggests that the restoration of the forests using Pericopsis angolensis species can be achieved even without seed pretreatments.
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    Woody species diversity, composition, structure and carbon storage of Esilalei village land forest reserve in North - Eastern Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2023) Mwakalukwa, E.E; Mwakisu, A; Madundo, S; Maliondo, S.M
    The biodiversity status of most forests found in village land area is lacking. This creates challenges in planning for sustainable management of these forests. This study therefore assessed woody species diversity, composition, structure and carbon stocks of Esilalei Village Land Forest Reserve located in Monduli district in the North-Eastern Tanzania. Vegetation data was collected from 20 concentric sample plots of 5m, 15m, and 20m radius laid out systematically in the forest of 2,800 ha. A total of 29 plant species were identified. Diversity indices indicated the forest to have moderate diversity of woody species. Stand structure comprised 77 ± 52 stems ha - 1 , basal area of 1.82 ± 1.42 m 2 ha -1 and volume of 8.42 ± 6.96 m 3 ha -1 while the mean above ground and below ground carbon stocks were 9.71 ± 8.03 Mg C ha -1 and 0.98 ± 0.79 Mg C ha -1 respectively. Despite the observed low structural attributes including carbon density, it is very important to legally protect this area as village land forest reserve to serve as a corridor and dispersal area for wild animals when moving between the surrounding national parks. Quantification of other carbon pools such as soil, dead wood and surface litter should be considered.
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    Napier (penisetum purpureum) agronomic response under desmodium (desmodium intortum) influence at ubiri village Lushoto district, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2022) Lissu, C.S; Lulandala, L.L; Tsere, T.B; Babili, I.B
    The scarcity of high-quality forage to animals is one of the major limiting factors to dairy productivity improvement in Lushoto District. This is attributed to soil fertility losses due to soil erosion, deforestation and the decrease or abandonment of the use of mineral fertilizer. The objective of the present study was to assess the Napier Agronomic response under Desmodium influence for dairy producers in Ubiri Village, Lushoto District. Two treatments were used; Desmodium and number of harvests established using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Data collected included counting the number of tillers per bunch, measuring the height of tillers (m), leaf area indices and biomass yield (tha -1 ) in each treatment in their respective replications. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance in R software. The results show that, during the third harvest (28 weeks) Desmodium significantly (P<0.05) increased the tiller number, leaf area index (LAI) and the biomass yield (tha -1 ) of the grasses by 41%, 76%, and 73% respectively. It was concluded that, Desmodium had positive influence on the agronomic performance of hybrid Napier grass. For sustainable provision of benefits to livestock keepers, we recommend that, integration of forage crops and Desmodium should be promoted.