Theses and Dissertations Collection

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    An analysis of consumption patterns of major food items in Morogoro district
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 1984) Mrema, May Joyce Nyakasero
    Response studies relating changes in food consumption patterns to relative changes in income and prices, and as influenced by sociodemographic factors are lacking in Tanzania. Food demand projections and the evaluation of the impact of alternative food policies on consumers and producers1 welfare, and the cost for complementing them require parameter estimates based on food demand studies. The study examines food consumption patterns of major food items, in Morogoro district for the year 1983. The influence of income, sociodemographic factors and government policies on food consumption patterns are considered. Budget shares, income elasticities, and marginal propensities to consume by income groups are determined. In addition to the analyses based on individual food items, an investigation based on aggregated classes is also conducted the aggregation being based on the nutritional value of the food items. The nutritional classes considered are (i) Energy (maize, rice, sorghum, wheat flour, cassava, bananas and sugar), (ii) Proteins (Milk, meat, beans and fish), (iii) Vegetables and (iv) Fats. The data was gathered from both primary sources (through a questionnaire administered to a sample of 120 households randomly selected from both the urban and rural areas), and secondary sources (Government reports, Population Census). regression and tabula analyses. The data was analyzed by The model used in the regression analysis evolved from the static theory of consumer behaviour. For per capita expenditure, on food income and education level, nature of employment and residential area are the factors considered. Four functional forms (i.e. linear, quadratic, semilog and double log) were identified for the analysis. The linear form was selected for subsequent analysis as most of its coefficients conformed to a priori expectation, it had the highest R , and relatively lower standard errors than the other functional forms. The study has established that lower income households have higher budget shares on food than the higher income households (84 per cent and 50 per cent respectively), whereas rural households and farmers have higher budget shares than urban households and non farmers (79 and 89 percent respectively, and 55 and 54 per cent respectively). This is because of lower incomes of the rural and farming households compared to the urban and non farming households. The lower income group spend a higher budget share on energy items (58 per cent), whereas the higher income groups spend a higher budget share on proteins (23 per cent). Households with 0-3 years of education spend 75 per cent of their incomes on food with 52 per cent being spent on energy items, whereas those with 15 - 25 years of education spend only 44 per cent on food and 20 per cent on protein. The study also shows that the total mean expenditure on food increases with an increase in the household size. Mean expenditure on food, increases with an increase in the age of head of household up to the age of 45 years and then declines thereafter. Qualitative analysis shows that the urban households prefer maize, rice, wheat flour, cassava and bananas,while the rural house­ holds prefer maize, rice, sorghum and cassava. Falling real income and cronic food shortages have resulted in below the required calorie and protein intake for all income strata, and has increased expenditure on cassava and bananas by the urban residents. Engel curve results indicate that per capita income was the only factor affecting per capita, total food expenditure significantly, it affected two food catagories (energy and protein) and three selected individual food items (maize, rice and meat) significantly. The level of education of the head of household affected significantly the vegetables category only, whereas area of residence was found to affect significantly the protein category (mainly meat) and sorghum. The nature of employment factor had no significant effect on the consumption expenditure of any of the food classes considered. Marginal propensities to consume (MPCs) and income elasticities decline with an increase in income level. The MPCs for the most preferred food items (maize, rice and meat) are higher than for the less preferred food items (sorghum, banana, and beans) Those MPCs for protein and energy food categories are higher than those for fats and vegetables. Income elasticities for maize, rice, meat and beans are generally higher than for sorghum and bananas, and those for energy and protein categories are higher than for vegetables and fats. This indicates that a one per cent increase in income will increase the expenditure on the more preferred food items by a higher percentage than the increase in the less preferred items. Maize., rice, meat and beans are luxury commodities for 20 per cent of the sampled households while meat is a luxury commodity for 80 per cent of the sampled households.
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    Challenges facing small and medium enterprises in marketing of the vegetables to the up markets: case of northern corridor of Tanzania Lushoto, Kilimanjaro and Arusha
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2008) Nganyagwa, Gema
    Tanzania’s climate and growing conditions are favourable for a wide variety of fruit, vegetables and flowers. Marketing of agricultural produce has become highly complex and difficult involving very large and long marketing channels, a larger number of middlemen. many types of physical, social, economic and marketing facilitating functions and services. Despite the fact that many efforts made by the government, NGOs and other stakeholders to improve SMEs viability, many challenges are still facing them in market of their vegetables and thus the essence of conducting this research. A purposive sampling procedure was use to choose 50 farmers and traders in the seven villages around the Northern corridor of Tanzania for the study. Key informants interview based on checklists and the question administering were used as tools for data collection. Direct observations as a method of data collection were also employed to evaluate vegetable production process and marketing activities focusing on producers and consumers. The findings show that the main problems facing farmers in marketing vegetable in the Northern corridor of Tanzania are: lack of farmers’ organization and flexibility to face competition in the free markets, high prices of inputs, high transport costs and postharvest losses. There are also different in priotized problems faced by the vegetable growers in Lushoto, Kilimanjaro and Arusha. In order to increase production of vegetables for domestic as well as export, the following should be considered by the government: efficient handling, grading and sorting, improved transport facilities, improving the vegetable marketing and export system. While the preceding is a pre-rogative of government in private sector, ought to provide support in strengthening farmers initiated infrastructure, and in organizing small fanners for efficient marketing of their vegetable produce.
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    Value chain analysis for coffee in Tanzania: a case study of association of Kilimanjaro specialty coffee growers at Mbeya chapter, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2008) Ng’webesa, Juliana Emmanuel
    Coffee has been a mainstay of Tanzania’s agriculture based economy since its introduction as a cash crop about 100 years ago. It contributes between 15-17 percent of the total GDP. However in the mid 1990s the industry has fallen into steady decline. In 1994 there was coffee liberazation whose immediate effect include increased in the nominal prices for coffee. In 2003, new regulations were enacted allowing for direct export of coffee. This has had a very big impact in the participation of the private sector in the coffee industry where farmers have a wide range of choices for markets. Coffee has the merit that the value chain is relatively simple but highly concentrated at the processing stage. The value chain analysis extends traditional supply chain analysis by locating value to each stage of the chain. The value of coffee has been increasing upwards of the market chain from the producers to the final consumers in Europe. This shows that roasters get higher percentage of retail coffee price leaving the producers receiving low price sometimes below production costs. The explanation of declining producer shares is that processing, marketing and distribution costs incurred in the consuming countries have tended to increase over time while production costs in the countries of origin have declined. This study show how KILICAFE, which is an association of farmer business groups in the Arabica producing regions of the North and South of the country with technical assistance from TechnoServe, has promoted the production and processing of high quality specialty coffee to improve its access to international and local markets in order to boost the incomes of its members. It also shows the main actors in Tanzania coffee value chain and KILICAFE coffee value chain, and describes the role of each key actor along the chain. It also shows how KILICAFE chain differs from alternative coffee channels.
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    Analysis of the tomato value chain in Mvomero District, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2008) Ng’atigwa, Adella Albert
    This study was conducted to examine tomato value chain in Mvomero district. The main objective of the study was to generate information that would inform policies and strategies for adding value to the existing value chain for tomato in Mvomero district. Specifically, the study aimed at evaluating the profit margins accrued by different actors in the tomato value chain; examining the factors that influence profit margins accrued by different actors in the tomato value chain; assessing the tomato marketing performance in the study area and providing recommendations for improvement and value addition in the existing tomato value chain in the study area. The data were collected from secondary and primary sources. Farm owners from Nyandira, Tchenzema and Langali villages were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion. A total of 90 chain actors were sampled involved application of descriptive statistics, profit margin, marketing margins and regression analysis. The results showed that, tomatoes were delivered through assemblers, middlemen, wholesalers, retailers, and exporters to consumers. These market participants play different roles at different market levels in tomato trading such as assembling, grading, packaging and transporting of the produce. Tomato trading was found to be profitable at different market levels as evidenced by positive gross margins. Also there was a positive correlation between market margin and selling price, which indicated the stability of buying and selling prices at the assembling, middlemen, wholesale and retail levels. At the wholesale level, however, buying prices were unstable. This means that traders could not control either buying or selling prices which results into an unstable market. Tomato production and marketing face some problems. These include diseases and expensive pesticides. water scarcity, lack of organizations for farmers and traders and limited access to market information. Regarding the problems of diseases and expensive pesticides. farmers / traders should be sensitized to form organizations. The organizations can purchase inputs in bulky and sell them to farmers at reasonable price as well as improve their bargaining power. To improve water supply, rainwater harvesting and modern technology all should be promoted. Market information system should be improved by promoting telecommunications infrastructure.
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    Marketing of quality declared bean seeds in central northern zone of Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2016) Mvungi, Hussein Aziz
    Bean crops represent an important component of legume food crops consumed in developing countries. However, production of bean crops has been limited by lack of quality seeds. Tanzania adopted Quality Declared Seeds (QDS) production system in order to promote quality seeds, yet QDS accounts for relatively very small amounts of seeds sales in the country. The overall objective of the study was to generate evidences that will contribute towards sustainable distribution of QDS bean seeds. Specifically the study identify profit obtained by QDS bean seed producers; compare gross margins obtained by QDS bean seed users and non-users; identify factors that influence profitability of bean grain producers; determine factors which influence purchase decision of QDS seeds. Gross margin analysis was used to evaluate profit obtained by QDS bean seed producers and bean grain producers. Furthermore, regression analysis was employed to identify of factors that influence profit obtained by bean grain producers and it was also employed to determine factors that influence the purchase of QDS been seeds in the study area. The gross margin of QDS bean seeds sells obtained by producers of QDS bean seeds was Tsh 383 256 per acre which gives 54% of the value of sales on average. There was significant mean different in gross margins among QDS bean seed users and non-users at p<0.01 were by QDS bean seed users obtained higher margins than QDS bean seed non-users per acre. Regression analysis indicate that agricultural training, gender and kind of bean seed used were the major factors influencing profitability of bean grains production (p<0.1). Agriculture training, extension service contact, income and membership on credit society were the factors influencing purchase decision of quality declared bean seeds (p<0.05). The study recommends improvement of agriculture training, extension service, availability of the market information and introduction of Irrigation schemes
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    Economics of climate change adaptation in smallholder rice production systems in Wami-Ruvu Basin, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2013) Mugula, Victoria Jovin
    The aim of this study was to assess the economics of climate change adaptation in smallholder rice production systems. The study covered three smallholder rice production systems including irrigation, rainwater harvesting system and upland rainfed rice systems in Mvomero and Morogoro rural Districts. The specific objectives were: (i) To assess the perceptions of farmers on climate change impacts in different rice production systems, (ii) To analyse the determinants of rice productivity and profitability on land; (iii) To estimate the impact of climate change on net revenue from rice enterprise under different emission scenarios and iv) To estimate the costs and benefits of adaptations strategies in different rice production systems. The data for this study were collected using a structured household questionnaire that was administered to a random sample of 150 households composed of equal sub-samples from the three rice production systems. average production function based on Ordinary Least Square (OLS) estimation approach, Regression-based prediction and cost-benefits analysis were used in data analysis. Results indicated that smallholder farmers were aware of the impact of climate change by contributing to crop infestation and diseases, higher food costs and low yields. Irrigation was identified as the most preferable adaptation having higher net present value of Tshs 12 491 951/ha followed by rainwater harvesting Tshs 2 665 769 /ha and rainfed Tshs 1 199 253/ha. The cost-benefit ratios were 1.22; 1.14 and 1.16 in irrigated, rainfed and rain water harvesting systems, respectively. Therefore, the government and other private institutions should invest more in irrigation as it tends to boost up production during drought period or when there is low rainfall. Descriptive and quantitative methods were used to analyze the data. Likert scale, an average production function based on Ordinary Least Square (OLS) estimation approach, Regression-based prediction and cost-benefits analysis were used in data analysis. Results indicated that smallholder farmers were aware of the impact of climate change by contributing to crop infestation and diseases, higher food costs and low yields. Irrigation was identified as the most preferable adaptation having higher net present value of Tshs 12 491 951/ha followed by rainwater harvesting Tshs 2 665 769 /ha and rainfed Tshs 1 199 253/ha. The cost-benefit ratios were 1.22; 1.14 and 1.16 in irrigated, rainfed and rain water harvesting systems, respectively. Therefore, the government and other private institutions should invest more in irrigation as it tends to boost up production during drought period or when there is low rainfall.
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    Revival and diversification of the sisal industry, a case of Katani limited Tanga, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2008) Mwajasho, Ally I.
    The study was conducted at Katani Ltd in Tanga region with the objective of compiling some key information on revival and diversification of sisal industry. Five estates owned by Katani Ltd were visited; these arc Hale, Magoma, Mwelya- Usambara, Ngombezi and Magunga. Katani Ltd headquarters, TSB and TANCORD (1998) Ltd which is a subsidiary of Katani Ltd were also visited for the same purpose of obtaining key information for this case study. Results show that there are vivid efforts in reviving and diversifying the sisal industry in Tanzania, which arc done by Katani Ltd in collaboration with other key players in sisal industry. Different strategies were instituted by Katani Ltd since 1998 after Katani Ltd acquired assets from Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA). These strategies were; increasing commercial utilization of the resources already available in the company, undertaking accelerated research and development of the products and markets, empowering farmers by establishing SACCOS groups in all of its estates and broadening ownership of the sisal industry, by establishing smallholders and out grower’s scheme. The study also revealed problems facing Katani Ltd and the sisal industry in general, these problems are; lack of aggressive and massive promotion for the plant and its products, low fibres availability, higher cost charges for electricity and fuels, inadequate communication and information technology, inadequate long term loans with affordable interests, underutilization of the available resources, inadequate working capital, Value Added Tax (VAT) and slow change in peoples mindset and attitudes towards agriculture. This study concluded that, the revival and diversification of the sisal industry mark the beginning of the new era of the sisal industry which has a vision of producing more of the industrial products and engaging in sustainable energy production and thus recommended for tax relief, whole plant utilization, commercial bio-energy production and further researches on sisal farming.
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    Bambara groundnuts and cowpeas for farmers’ livelihood in the Semi Arid Regions of Tanzania: a case of Dodoma Region
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2007) Msangi, Ramadhani Juma
    The study on assessment of the role of bambara groundnuts and cowpeas for farmers' livelihood in the semi arid regions of Tanzania, was carried out in Dodoma region. Specifically the study aimed at (i) analyzing bambara groundnuts and cowpeas cropping system, (ii) estimating yield of different varieties of bambara groundnuts and cowpeas under farmers' condition, (iii) assessing the role of bambara groundnuts and cowpeas on food security, (iv) assessing the gender roles in bambara groundnuts and cowpeas production (v) assessing the socio - economic factors that influences the production and marketing of bambara groundnuts and cowpeas in Dodoma region and (vi) quantifying the contribution of these crops to the household income. One hundred and twenty (120) of bambara groundnuts and cowpea growers were sampled basing on their wealth for primary data collection. Secondary data were collected through a desk review of publications from key organizations. Pre-tested questionnaires were used to interview farmers. Both descriptive and quantitative analysis techniques were used. Descriptive analysis included the use of means, percentages, ranges and other summary was done by using the Statistics Package for Social Science (SPSS). The same software was used for quantitative analysis. The results revealed that bambara groundnuts is grown as sole crop, inter cropping is done but very rarely, while on the case of cowpeas, inter cropping is a common practice in the study area. The study also reveled that bambara groundnuts yield higher (880kg/ha) in the study area than average yield in Sub-saharan Africa (858.5kg/ha) and cowpeas yield an average of 500kg/ha. The results also revealed that 42% and 43% of the household depend on bambara groundnuts and cowpeas for food during hunger periods respectively. The results indicates that bambara groundnuts and cowpeas are mainly produced by women, on average 97% and 95% of bambara groundnuts and cowpeas respectively are women. Regression analysis reveals that bambara groundnuts and cowpeas production is highly influenced by area under bambara groundnuts, area under competing crop, price of input. and market access and for cowpeas the production is influenced by cowpeas price, area under cowpeas, price of intercropped crop and market access. Lastly the result revealed the crops are important sources of house hold income, 73% of the respondent earn income from bambara groundnuts production while 37% of respondents earn income from cowpeas production.
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    Assessment of pigeon pea export oriented market in Babati and Karatu districts
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2013) Mbapila, Shadrack Jacob
    The objective of this study was to carry out an assessment of pigeon pea export market. Specifically to: (i) identify profitability or gross margins of investing in pigeon pea production for export (ii) evaluate the pricing structure, costs and margins along the pigeon pea value chain (iii) identify the constraints facing different actors within the value chain and (iv) identify the key actors in the pigeon pea export value chain. The average gross margin for pigeon pea was 210 860 Tshs for Babati and 484 630 Tshs for Karatu. Costs, prices and margins received by actors in pigeon pea value chain increased downstream. Traders were incurring high cost as moving downstream. This cost resulted into high prices received by consumers and increased in marketing margins downstream. Collectors had the marketing margin of 1.94% for Babati and 4.04% for Karatu. Retailers had the marketing margin of 12.14% for Babati and 28.74% for Karatu. Wholesalers had the marketing margin of 11.21% for Babati and 29.04% for Karatu. Exporters had the marketing margin of 16.70% for Babati and 41.36 for Karatu. Some costs were not revealed by exporters like Tax/Tanzania Revenue Authority for fear of disclosing their business information. Collectors faced a lot of marketing constraints like price fluctuation, competition with big companies, low price, and poor quality of pigeon pea, lack of market and lack of marketing information, followed by retailers wholesalers and least marketing constraints to exporters. Key actors identified in pigeon pea export oriented value chain includes, input suppliers, farmers, brokers, collectors, wholesalers, retailers, consumers, exporters and processing industries. Input suppliers for pigeon pea in Babati and Karatu were research institution for experimental purposes, Exporting companies who interred contracts with farmers and stockist. These stockist were also exporting companies like Dodoma transport an exporting company found in Arusha and Babati.
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    Farmers’ perception on cotton production under liberalized market economy: a case study of eastern cotton growing area
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2011) Mpagama, Remijo John
    The objective of this study was to analyze farmers’ perception on cotton production in the Eastern Cotton Growing Area. Specifically, the study aimed to (i) study the status of cotton production, (ii) establish farmers’ perception on cotton production, (iii) establish the relationship between farmers' perception on cotton production, farm resources and household characteristics and (iv) determine the needed changes in institutional support to revive cotton production in ECGA. A cross section survey of 160 farmers from Morogoro Rural and Kilosa districts using structured questionnaire was done. Secondary data were collected from various sources. Descriptive analyses were used to describe the respondents’ characteristics. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to establish perception index. Then, perception index was used in probit regression as dependent variable to determine the intensity of relationship between farmers’ perception, farm resources, and household characteristics. Results show that cotton production decreased from 15 734kg in 2007 to 13 156kg in 2009 in Morogoro district and 21 895 kg to 6 650 kg in Kilosa district in the same years. Furthermore, 92.5% and 93.8% of respondents in Morogoro and Kilosa districts respectively perceived that cotton production has decreased. Also, 10.3% of land was allocated for cotton, 25.2% for maize, and 17.4% was allocated for paddy. On establishing farmers’ perception on causes of low cotton production; low selling price, unreliable market, lack of credit, lack of proper private sector setup and little government involvement were found to be significant at 0.00 level. In addition, accessibility to extension services, insecticides use and gender were found to have significant influence on perception of farmers in both districts at P<0.01 and P<0.05 levels. Moreover, it has been found that there are significant differences in perception between the two settings. The study found that there were problems hindering cotton production in the study area. This included lack of reliable market, lack of processing machines, lack of credit and inadequate extension services. This can be solved by improving institutional support in the cotton sub-sector.
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    Financing agricultural marketing in Tanzania: a case study of small scale millers in Dar es Salaam and Morogoro regions
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2007) Moshi, Arbogast Bernard
    The purpose of this study was to identify the sources of finance available to small scale maize and paddy millers in Dar es Salaam and Morogoro regions. Specifically the study aimed at identifying different sources of finance to small scale millers and describing the mode of financial arrangements, analyze the main factors that influence small scale millers access to credit and compare their performance. Structured questionnaire was used to collect information from the sampled millers. Checklist was used to obtain information from financial institutions. Major tools for analysis were descriptive statistics including means, standard deviations and cross tabulations. Logistic and linear regressions w-ere used to determine factors that influence small scale millers access to formal loans and size of loan respectively. Descriptive results show both formal and informal credit to be used in the study area. However formal loans were found to be more used by maize millers than paddy millers. These results provide an indication of the difficult in accessing formal sources of credit, forcing enterprises to rely more on their savings and informal sources. Quantitative results indicate education and experience in business to influence access to credit at P<0.05. The gross margin analysis of the milling operation was positive for both maize and paddy millers. Furthermore the gross margin between millers with access to formal credit and without access was significant different at P<0.05 for maize millers. However for paddy millers the test was insignificant. The study recommends that there is a need for policy measures to increase access of SMEs to formal credits. This can be achieved through the establishment of credit insurance schemes protecting the financial institutions against default risks, which could result in credit rationing. Similarly it was observed that very few entrepreneurs joined SACCOs. It is recommended that there is still a need for more sensitization to join and form SACCOs
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    Performance of the national honey show to the beekeeping industry in Tanzania: a case study of the national honey show limited
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2008) Mmasi, Sigisbert Mathias
    This research paper presents a case study centered on the start and success of a giant private company called National Honey Show Limited. The case study focuses on starting of the company, performance assessment, challenges and experience, conclusion and recommendations. The case study first provides the Company's background information including the origin of the company idea and the composition of the company's board of directors. In addition, the case study also presents a discussion of the resources for which the company's flagship project has been successful in achieving financial resources mobilization, planning and implementation of the idea. The company's performance is assessed along the lines of sales, use of financial resources, supplies of equipment, quality improvement and construction of collection centre as well as honey bank. The results of analysis show that Tshs 24 million, was obtained by selling 20 tones of honey; Tshs 48 million came from the sales of 10 tones of beeswax; and Tshs 6.5 million was obtained through the sales of beekeeping equipment in a year 2007. The total net profit increased from Tsh 48.2 million to 81.3 million from February 2006 to December 2007. Low operating and working capital that can not meet the Company's operating and working obligations and seasonal availability of raw materials were identified as some of the major challenges facing the company. The findings presented in this report are intended to help the practitioners and regulators in the beekeeping industry in Tanzania to design appropriate institutional models in their effort to boost the effectiveness of the beekeeping sector in the country.
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    Economic analysis of smallholder’s cashew nuts production and marketing under market liberalization: a case study of Coast region
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2003) Mkude, Charles Dennis
    This study investigated the effect of market liberalization on smallholder cashew nuts production and marketing. Specifically the study aimed at assessing the effect of market liberalization on cashew nuts production, analysing the relative profitability of crop enterprises competing with cashew nuts in resource use, studying the marketing practices of traders, evaluating market efficiency and examining the effect of export price, exchange rate and amount of cashew nuts produced on cashew export. Multistage and simple random techniques were employed for selecting farmers. For traders, systematic and simple random techniques were used. Both descriptive and quantitative techniques were used. Descriptive analysis included the use of means, percentages, and other summary statistics. Quantitative analysis involved the use of regression analysis, gross margin, buyer’s concentration ratio, market integration and co-integration and error correction method. A regression result shows that lagged cashew nuts price, farm size, credit availability and amount of labour used had significant positive influences on cashew nuts output (P< 0.05). While, sulphur price and price of competing crops had significant negative influences on cashew nuts output (P< 0.05). Amount of sulphur used and area under competing crops had no significant influence (P> 0.05). Pineapple was found to have highest gross margin per hectare followed by cassava and cashew. However, cashew was found to have highest return to labour. The degree of market transparency was found to be poor due to lack of proper market information. Lack of capital and higher market fees act as barrier to entry in cashew nut trading activity. This results to lack of competition a tendency towards oligopolistic market as indicated by strong level of concentration ratio. Overall, only 180 Tshs was realized as marketing margin and 55 Tshs was realized as profit margin. This situation is caused by high marketing fees and transport cost as they account for 33 and 16.7 % respectively of the marketing margin. Export and domestic markets are highly integrated in the long run but the rate of adjustment to equilibrium is low. The quantity of cashew nuts exported was determined by exchange rate, nation income (GDP) and amount of domestic cashew nuts production.
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    Economic analysis of sesame production and marketing performance: a case study of Babati district, Manyara
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2012) Mkenge; Tumaini Elibariki
    This study analyzed production and marketing performance of sesame in Babati district. Specifically the study aimed at: (i) explaining major factors characterizing sesame production and marketing performance in the study area, (ii) examining how resources utilization affects production of sesame and (iii) evaluating the efficiency of existing sesame marketing system as well as suggesting strategies to improve production and marketing of sesame in the study area. Data were collected from 132 farmers and 18 traders randomly selected from the study area through direct observation, questionnaire survey and discussions with district officials. Descriptive statistics were used to describe major factors characterizing sesame production and marketing performance. Regression and structure-conduct-performance analyses were employed to appraise the economics of sesame production and marketing. It was revealed that sesame production was positively influenced by resources or input utilization. It was also observed that low input utilization was associated with low production which was well below the potential average. The computed CI value indicated a strong monopolistic behavior among sesame sellers. Analysis of the major four market participants in sesame industry demonstrated that CR4 of 100% was an indication of extremely concentrated oligopoly market. HHI value of 4168 had further revealed that the sesame market was highly concentrated and hence was likely to enhance market power. Moreover, the study found that although middlemen occupy large volume of sesame share in the sesame market, wholesalers were enjoying higher marketing margin of about 47.7% of the consumer price than other market participants. Based on the overall results, it was concluded that the sesame marketing system was not efficient in Babati district. The study recommends for promotion of sesame by ensuring increased production of the crop. It is also recommended that entrepreneurial skills among farmers and traders and accessibility to credits should be improved.
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    Challenges facing beekeepers in Tanzania: a case study of the National Honey Show
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2008) Mawalla, Lydia Johnson
    This study was mainly conducted in Iringa aiming at assessing challenges facing beekeepers that practice beekeeping known as apiculture. Apiculture is the art, science and or business of managing honey bees or the purpose of producing honey, beeswax and other bee products for personal consumption and industrial use. The national GDP is also increased by this practice. A company was established known as the national Honey show limited in 2006 as a company it received support from the Small and Medium Competitiveness Facility (SCF), under matching grant National Microfinance Bank (NMB) and Celtel scheme for social enterprises through a mix of grants, the company mainly supports farmers in rural areas as they face man challenges including finance for purchasing equipment and machines needed for production process. Its is estimated that the production potential for bee products in the country is 138,000 tones of honey and 9,200 tones of beeswax annually from an estimated 9.2 million honeybee colonies. The cost of production using tradition beehive is between TZS 7,500/= and TZS 10,000/= but considering that it leads to serious deforestation. The cost of constructing a Tanzania standard top bar beehive varies from TZS 25,000/= to TZS35, 000/=while the Kenya top bar costs TZS 40,000/= The Langstroth costs between TZS 75,000/= and TZS 85,000/=. Honey produced in Tanzania is supposed to be subjected to testing to ensure that it meets the prescribed quality standards by the Tanzania Bureau of Standards (TBS). However, a standard for honey was developed and implemented in 2003 by TBS using the EAC treaty where quality factor, sugar content, water insoluble solids, contaminants, hygiene and label ling are looked upon. Marketing of honey includes domestic and export .world trade According to FAO (2005), production in tons per continent in 2004 was Asia 38.3%, Europe 23.3%, North America 13.2%, Africa 11.2%, South America 10.0%, Oceania 2.7% and Central America and Caribbean 1.2%. Ordinary beekeepers keep an average of 150 beehives that are capable of producing 10 kilograms of honey and 0.5 kilograms of beeswax per annum. Assuming a 50% cost of production is incurred from total revenue, a holding of 150 bee hives would give an extra income of not less than Tshs. 176,000 per annum (which is equivalent to more than US $ 200). Importers include morocco south Africa Zimbabwe, Rwanda (2% share), Angola (1% share), Mauritius (1% share), Mozambique (1% share), Angola (1% share), Mauritius (1% share), Mozambique (1% share). Thus, only 19% of honey is sold in Africa. Being proactive in finding market information from available sources within and outside the country. Prices varies in some retail outlets visited range from TZS 1, 800/= to TZS 3,600/= per 500g bottle and TZS 4,500/= to TZS 5,500/= per liters of plastic bottles. Many challenges face beekeepers due to the poverty that our country has financially and experts, the way forward such as quality assurance is looked upon as the way to meet export market.
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    Analysis of seed value chain in Tanzania: a case of sorghum and millet in Singida region
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2010) Maseki, Salome Godwin
    The general objective of this study was to identify value chain factors that affect the utilisation of improved sorghum and millet seeds in Tanzania. Data from sorghum and millet farmers were collected using a structured questionnaire, focus group discussions (FGDs) and interviews with key informant were conducted to solicit specific information from value chain actors including breeders from Ilonga (ARI), certifiers from TOSCI, multipliers from ASA. Msimba seed farm, stockists and traders from Singida. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. Results show that there are many problems that affect seed production. certification and uptake. The main constraint faced by the seed breeders were low fund to undertake research. Constraints faced by multipliers were production shocks, especially weather variability that hampers. Farmers’ constraints were unwillingness to produce these crops as they were perceived to be hunger relief crops meant for poor people. The main problem facing certifiers was the overlap of activities (e.g. undertaking both field and seed inspections) that undermined efficiency, especially when understaffed. The main constraints faced by seed dealers were low purchase of improved seeds and poor transport infrastructure. Traders indicated that they lacked sufficient capital to engage effectively in seed trade and were equally affected by dealers’ problems. Many value chain actors were not aware of new market opportunities for sorghum utilisation and this information needs to be communicated to seed value chain actors including farmers. Farmers and extension providers have low levels of awareness and knowledge of the advantages of improved seed varieties and they need to receive training on the advantages and use of improved sorghum seed. An alternative to relying on the private sector for improved sorghum seed development and distribution may be to initiate community based seed production, which would reduce costs and improve availability.
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    Economic analysis of potentials of mango fruits for local and export markets in Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2013) Masanja, Habibu Robert
    The study was conducted in three regions of Tanzania which are fairly large producers of mango fruits namely Pwani, Dar es salaam and Morogoro located in coastal Tanzania. The main objective was to evaluate the expanded demand of Tanzanian grown mango fruits in domestic and export markets, which stimulate income generation at household level. Specifically the study aimed at identifying expanded production trends of mango for domestic and export markets in Tanzania; identifying the present major local and export marketing channels and roles played by various marketing participants; and to estimating the market demand for mango both local and export. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS computer programme. The standard formula for the annual percentage growth rate indicates that the aggregate national mango production grew at the annual rate of 20% between 1991/1992 and 2001/02 and at the growth rate of 9% per annum between 2001/02 and 2006/07. The study also identified three major marketing channels for mango which are: shipping point markets, wholesale markets, and retail markets. The Concentration index (CI) of 82% was obtained, implying oligopolistic characteristic which is a tendency toward monopolistic market behavior. Constraints that hinder the expansion of mango for export marketing include lack of capital, inadequate suitable varieties for export, pests and diseases particularly the Mango fruit fly. It is recommended that; (i) Measures should be taken to improve the financial investment capital and distribution of suitable mango cultivars (ii)Market channels should be improved more efficient and commercialized.
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    Marketing and processing constraints that affect agrofood exports: a case study of cashewnut in Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2008) Marwa, Fahari
    This study aims to examine the processing and marketing constraints that affect exports of cashewnut sector in Tanzania. The overall objective was to examining marketing and processing constraints that affect cashewnut exports. The specific objectives were to assess the cashewnut situation before and after cashewnut sector reform in relation to the market demand, identify marketing and processing constraints that affects cashewnut exports and finally, suggest possible measures to overcome marketing and processing constraints affects cashewnut exports. The study used time series data for 24 years on cashewnut production, producer price, export price of raw nuts, exports of raw nuts and processed kernel. The data were collected from CBT, various publications were also reviewed and informal interview were held to obtain qualitative information. The data were analysed using SPSS, correlation coefficients of variables under study were estimated using Bivariate-Pearson method whereby relationships between variables before and after sector reform were established. The study revealed that export quality, producer and export price are factors that mostly affects exports. The results shows a negative and insignificant (P>0.05) correlation between producer and export price of raw cashewnut before and after the reform. Lower correlation (about 6%) existed between producer price and total production before the reform. However, correlation between the same variables were fortified (about 12%) after the reform (P>0.05). Negative correlation between export price of raw cashewnut and total exports before the reform existed, however, a positive and insignificant (P>0.05) correlation existed between the same variables after the reform. Based on the findings, measures should be taken to develop strategies to encourage formation of farmers’ groups. This is a priority for the following reasons: improved marketing of raw nuts, price and input supply; potential processing activities; convenient and efficient points of entry for extension; and credit availability/accessibility and assurance of good export quality.
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    Economic coordination of urban milk value chain: the case of Tanga city
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2013) Makoye, Grace Ronald
    This study was conducted to examine coordination of milk value chain in Tanga City. Specifically the study (i) characterizes the milk value chain in the Tanga City (ii) examines existing governance structures in the milk value chain in the Tanga City (iii) examines chain efficiency and competitiveness in Tanga City and (iv) carries out the institutional review of Tanga urban dairying. Cross-sectional research design was used to collect primary data from 80 dairy farmers, 30 milk traders and 15 consumers. The data were analyzed using SPSS and STATA. The findings show that the key players in the milk value chain in Tanga City were producers, cooperatives, processors, input suppliers, traders and retailers. Five major milk marketing channels were identified. Urban dairying was observed to be governed by institutional arrangements embedded in the national Urban Farming Regulation of 1992 (revision 2003) and City by-laws and regulations on livestock keeping. The analysis of chain governance structures indicated incidences of contract failure between primary dairy cooperatives and the Tanga Dairy Cooperative Union (TDCU) and between TDCU and the major processor Tanga Fresh Ltd. Basing on the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, the dairy industry in Tanga City was found to be highly concentrated making it inefficient and uncompetitive. The Gini coefficient for market share between the actors was 75.43% indicating a high level of inequality. GM analysis indicates that producers in the formal channel are less profitable than those in the informal channel, though the difference is not statistically significant. It is recommended that the concerned governmental and non-governmental bodies review the price setting mechanisms in the industry to make ensure that offered producer price is cost-effective, an intervention that will also enhance competitiveness of milk marketing in the city and in other urban dairying centres countrywide.
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    Analysis of coffee marketing system in Arumeru district of Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2007) Mbise, Mirau
    This study assesses the capacity of co-operatives in reducing the transaction costs in Arumeru district, Arusha region. The objectives were to describe the coffee marketing system in the study area in particular, to assess the perception of farmers toward co-operatives, to asses the factors for adopting coffee marketing channels and to compare transaction costs between users and non users of co-operatives and to recommend the appropriate marketing system. Data were collected using structured questionnaire, which was supplemented by field observations. A total of 279 farmers from five villages namely Nkoaranga, Poli, Imbaseni, Ndatu and Ngyani were interviewed. Snowball sampling technique was adopted to get the respondents. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression analyses and independent sample t-test were used to analyse the data. Results of the study showed that 50% of respondents have negative perception on co-operatives and 48% have positive perception while 2% do not know if co-operatives are beneficial or not. Level of education was found to be the most important factor that influences farmers’ perception. In logistic regression analysis only information on market price and traders’ trustworthy was found to influence adoption of various market channels significantly. From independent sample t-test, the results revealed that the transaction costs incurred by members and non-members of co-operatives do not differ significantly. Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were put forward: Policies formulated need monitoring and evaluation to insure good performance of coffee production and marketing. Further reform and changes need to be done in co-operative organizational and institutional to take advantage of the challenges and opportunities opened up by globalization and technological changes. Lastly, the new research on analysis and comparison of transaction costs between co-operative and private traders is recommended.