Theses and Dissertations Collection

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    The potential of leucaena pallida and acacia angustissima fodder in improving the productivity of dairy cattle in Tabora region
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2005) Msangi, Rashid Badi Ramadhani
    Four experiments were carried out to evaluate the feeding value of L. pallida and A. angustissima and determine how these fodder materials could be managed and used for sustained dairy production in the farming system in Tabora Region, Western Tanzania. The first experiment involved assessing the yield and nutritive value of£. pallida and A. angustissima as related to cutting management. In experiment 2, the effect of post-harvesting treatment methods on the level of secondary compounds were evaluated. Experiment 3 was carried out to investigate the effect of supplementing L. pallida and A. angustissima leaf meals to lactating dairy cows fed grass hay on milk yield, quality and financial return of the rations. Experiment 4 was undertaken to determine digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows fed grass hay supplemented with dried leaf meals from L. pallida and A. angustissima. Results showed that the 3-months cutting interval had the highest fodder yield (3.44 and 5.41 tDM/ha for L. pallida and A. angustissima, respectively) while 1-month cutting regime had the lowest fodder yield (2.8 and 3.4 tDM/ha for L. pallida and A. angustissima, respectively). Nitrogen and mineral contents varied significantly (P < 0.05) between cuttings and edible fractions, which ranged from 27.1 to 47.7 for nitrogen, 2.37 to 8.49 for calcium, 1.40 to 4.90 for phosphorus and 11.6 to 23.1g/kg DM for potassium. Condensed tannins (CT) in the edible fractions ranged from 8 to 16 and 17 to 33mg/g DM for A. angustissima (AA) and L. pallida (LP), respectively. Mimosine content ranged from 26.8 to 63mg/g DM in edible fractions of L. pallida. In both species, In-sacco DM and N degradability at 48 hours of incubation were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in 1-month cuttings than in the other cuttings and ranged from 442 to 591g/kg for DM and 503 to 618g/kg DM for nitrogen. Soaking in water, sun drying, wilting and drying under shade of the edible fractions reduced 37 to 50%, 22 to 40%, 12 to 18% and less than 10% of CT content, while mimosine content was reduced by 74 to 91%, 41 to 55%, 20 to 40% and 22 to 26%, respectively. Milk yield was highest for cows supplemented with cotton seed cake (CSC) (9.94 kg/day) and lowest for cows supplemented with LP (7.78 kg/day). Supplementing mixture of the two browse leaf meals gave the highest net return (104.20 Tshs/litre) while CSC recorded the lowest net returns (66.60 Tshs/litre). Apparent DM and N digestibility were higher for cows supplemented with CSC (585g/kg and 931g/kg for DM and N, respectively) and lowest for cow supplemented with LP (466g/kg and 603g/kg DM for DM and N, respectively). The N absorbed was more efficiently retained (P < 0.05) with cows supplemented with CSC (21.8 g/day) and poorly retained with cows supplemented with AA (4.24 g/day). These results indicated that optimal yield and quality of edible fodder materials of the two browse species could be obtained at 2-months cutting interval. Soaking in water and/or drying in the sun could reduce tannins and mimosine content in the edible fractions to an acceptable level before feeding. The two browse species had high CP and mineral contents and were more economical than cotton seed cake as protein supplement. Agronomic strategies to maximize fodder production during the dry season should be given attention. Studies to determine the effect of tannins and other related polyphenolic compounds on protein availability and utilization by ruminant animals should be carried out.
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    Quality beef supply chain efficiency and consumption in Arusha and Dar es Salaam cities, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2015) Kamugisha, Proscovia Paschal
    This study investigated efficiency along quality beef supply chain and consumption of quality beef in Arusha and Dar-es-Salaam cities, Tanzania. Specifically the study investigated: (i) efficiency of supplying quality beef (QB) (ii) consumption pattern for QB (iii) consumers' preferences for QB and (iv) consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for QB. Added cost/kilogram and returns/shilling were used to indicate efficiency of QB supply. Almost Ideal Demand Systems was used to analyze consumption pattern of QB while Principal Component Analysis and Contingent Valuation Method were used to determine beef consumers’ preferences and WTP for QB respectively. Data were collected using questionnaires administered to two cattle fattening companies, three auction markets, 10 wholesale meat traders, 106 butchermen. six beef processors, 11 supermarkets, 34 tourist hotels, one beef importer and 278 households. Results showed that the cost of processing QB was almost 9 and 1.5 times the cost of producing and retailing QB, respectively. Electricity accounted for 84% and 73% of added cost for processing and distribution of QB respectively. Returns/shilling was highest (83%) and lowest (12%) at retailing and production nodes respectively. Only 9.5% of sampled households consumed QB amounted to 32.1kg/person/year priced at 14 250Tsh/kg. The average consumption of QB in tourist hotels amounted to 449kg/month/hotel priced at 25 608Tsh/kg. ‘Freshness’ and ‘less fat content’ were mainly preferred by household consumers; while cleanliness, safety and tenderness were mostly proffered by tourist hotels. Expensiveness, unfreshness and the misconception that QB was preserved using chemicals were major reasons limiting WTP for QB. To promote production and consumption of QB this study recommends that: (i) Investors should venture in local QB supply because it is profitable. However, efforts should be made to use low cost alternative energy sources such as biogas and solar power to make the venture more profitable (ii) Tanzania Meat Board and other stakeholders in the beef industry should promote marketing of QB through introduction of meat consumption week,advertising, training in schools and participation in trade fairs and (iii) Linkages of major importers of QB with local QB producers should be made with proper taxation of imported beef to make locally produced QB more competitive.
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    Factors limiting the adoption of animal draught technology package in Nkasi district, Rukwa region, Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2010) Mushiha, Lameck Mpumbiye
    History shows that Nkasi District farmers had been using oxen to plough for over 50 years but they have never replaced human power in other farm operations of planting, weeding, ridging and transportation. In the study area 70% of ploughed land is done by ox-drawn ploughs enabling farmers to expand area under cultivation. The adoption of the oxen for ploughing only considerably underutilizes the animals' potential and resources leading to merely shifting the labour bottleneck from tillage to weeding. The main objective of the study was to identify factors leading to low adoption of animal draught technology in planting and weeding activities, when ploughing has been highly adopted by the same farmers. The study involved two wards in Nkasi District and two villages from each ward were randomly selected. Data collected were verified, coded and analysed using the SPSS computer programme. It has been identified that extension sendees given on ADT were inadequate to influence adoption. Extension agents made few ineffective follow ups to farmers who had undergone ADT training. However it was found that groups used as contact farmers had old and related members that resulted in difficulties in groups management. It was further found that women whose principal duties in crop production are planting and weeding are denied the use of oxen by their husbands. The training approach applied in all ADT development projects was passive in which farmers provided land and accepted to use the given implements. Low availability of ox-drawn implements for planting, weeding and ridging as well as their high prices was a major problem that requires a national attention if the nation needs to alleviate rural poverty.
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    Development of weaner meal for dairy calves using fish wastes from Nile perch (lates niloticus) and cassava (manihot Esculenta) root meal
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2002) Katakweba, Abdul Ahmed Selemani
    Growth, blood parameters and in sacco degradability studies were 11m concurrently to evaluate the effects of cassava root meal (CRM) and fish waste (FW) as energy and protein substitutes for respectively hominy meal (HM) and cotton seed cake (CSC) in formulation of weaner meals for dairy calves. The FW were derived from processing of Nile perch (Leites niloticus) while CRM (Manihot esculenta) was purchased in fresh form and dried for compounding. In experiment I the effects of CRM and FW as substitutes for HM and CSC were evaluated in growth, blood parameters and intake trials lasting for 56 days using 20 Ayrshire weanner heifers ranging in weight from 88-194 kg. The heifers were allotted at random in four treatments rations (TR| - TR4) of 5 animals each. The four treatments were: TRi 66.5 % HM and 31.5 % CSC; TR2 = 50 % CRM and 48 % CSC; TR3 67.5 % HM and 30.5% FW and TR4 = 51.5 % CRM and 46.5 % FW. Data was collected on daily DM1 and weight changes were recorded fortnightly. In Experiment II in sacco degradability studies were made to assess the degradability characteristics of the individual feed ingredients as well as the compounded rations used in Experiment I. Four fistulated cows with an average weight of 314.25 kg were used. Rumen pH and NH3-N were also measured. No (P > 0.05) differences in weight gain were observed between heifers on TRi and TR3. Heifers on TR 2 gained (P < 0.05) faster than those on TRi, TR3 and TR4 (620 vs 490, 460 and 420 g respectively). TR2 had (P < 0.05) superior feed efficiency (0.129) followed in a descending order by TR15 TR3 and TR4 (0.116, 0.113 and 0.106 kg gain /kg feed respectively). Feed costs per kg gained for TRi — TR4 were $ 0.338, 0.418, 0.332 and 0.496 respectively. Blood parameters were (P < 0.05) influenced by protein and energy sources as well as their interactions. Fishiii wastes supplementation to heifers increased (P<0.05) blood plasma minerals compared to CSC for TRj. TR4 Heifers on CRM and CSC combination had (P < 0.05) higher levels of total plasma protein and plasma glucose (97.07g/l and 3.3 mmol/1) compared to those of CRM and FW (94.86 g/1 and 3.0 mmol/l) respectively. DM degradability at 48h for CRM was (P < 0.05) higher than HM (920 vs 835 g/kg) while CP for HM was (P 0.05) higher than that of CRM (946 vs 837 g/kg) respectively. Both DM and CP for CSC were (P < 0.05) higher than that of FW (739 and 887 vs 367 and 598 g/kg). Hay had DM and CP of 322 and 749 g/kg respectively. The degradability of DM and CP at 48h in TRi and TR2 were (P 0.05) higher than in TR3 and TR4 (80land 799 vs 727 and 616 g/kg DM and CP of 828 and 825 vs 667 and 605 g/kg) TR2 having apparently higher rates of DM and CP degradability. The pH and NH3-N ruminal values were (P < 0.05) different between treatment rations and treatments with FW component had (P 0.05) higher NH3-N than that of CSC (284.7 and 203.7 vs 135.8,and 183.9 mg/1). It was concluded that CRM and FW could be used cost effectively in weaners rations, but best results are obtainable where CRM is combined with CSC.
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    Growth, extracted milk yield and reproductive performance of Teso cattle and their crosses with Sahiwal and Boran at Serere, Uganda
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2005) Mulindwa, Henry Earon
    A study was earned out to evaluate growth, extracted milk yield and reproductive performance of Teso cattle and their crosses with Sahiwal and Boran at Serere Agricultural and Animal Research Institute, Serere, Uganda. Analysis of variance based on GLM of SAS 2002 was used to analyse the data. The overall means for weights at birth, weaning and pre-weaning ADG were 18.36 ± 0.076, 100.55 ± 0.48 kg and 304 ± 1.96 g/day respectively. Dry season bom calves were significantly (P<0.05) superior to wet season bom in both weaning and pre-weaning ADG. Sex of the calf was significant only for weaning weight whereby males were heavier than the females by 3.35 kg. Genetic group of the calf was significant (P<0.001) for all traits studied. Rankings of genetic groups for weaning weight and pre-weaning ADG were BiSx(SxT), F] (SxT), Bi(SxT)xT, B]Bx(BxT), F](BxT) and Teso. Influence of year was significant (P<0.01) for weaning weight and pre-weaning ADG. Heritability estimates based on sire variance components for birth, weaning weight and pre-weaning ADG were 0.41, 0.02 and 0.02 and those based on dam plus sire variance components were 0.41, 0.16 and 0.36 respectively. The phenotypic correlation between birth and weaning weight was -0.07, birth weight and pre­ weaning ADG was -0.44 while that between weaning weight and pre-weaning ADG was 0.93. The overall calving interval was 453 days. Fj(BxT) and Fi(SxT) crosses had calving intervals of 44.6 and 61.3 days longer than the pure Teso cows. The overall means for extracted milk yield and lactation length were 120 + 3.4 kg and 173.6 ± 5 days respectively. Mean lactation length for Fi(SxT), Fi(BxT) and Teso were 182.9, 165.7 and 148.7 days respectively. Fi(SxT) had significantly (P<0.05) higher extracted milk yield (178 kg) than Teso (127.2 kg) and Fl(BxT) crosses (125.9 kg). Dry season calvers had 38.5 kg more extracted lactation milk yield than wet season calvers. Extracted milk yield of the third month after calving had high correlations 0.80 and 0.93 with 100 days milk yield and extracted lactation milk yield respectively. Lactation curve parameters for partially milked cows belonging to the three genetic groups studied were also estimated. Selection of animals for improved milk production can be done using the milk yields of the first three months of lactation.
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    Effect of concentrate supplementation on fattening performance and quality of carcass and meat of crossbred and small East african goats
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2011) Hozza, William Abdi
    Forty eight castrated goats (24 Small East African x Norwegian crossbreds and 24 Small East African), IS months old with average body weight of 16.7 kg were used to evaluate effect of genotype and concentrate supplementation levels on fattening, quality of carcass and meat and ultimately economics of fattening. Goats were randomly allocated into three diets varying in concentrate levels in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement fed for 84 days. The concentrate levels were; no access to concentrate (TO), 66 % access to ad libitum concentrate allowance (Tl) and 100 % access to ad libitum concentrate allowance (T2). In addition to the supplement goats were grazed, fed hay and drinking water. Diet had significant (P<0.01) effects on total DM intake. T2 goats had 145 and 110 g higher (P<0.05) total DM intake than TO and Tl goats respectively. TO goats were 3.3 kg and 2.6 kg lower (P<0.05) in final BWT than those in T2 and Tl respectively. Supplemented goats had significantly (P<0.05) higher daily gain, body condition score, better feed conversion efficiency, dressing percentage and EUROP scores for conformation than TO goats. Diet had a significant effect (P<0.00I) on all killing out parameters. Increasing level of concentrate increased (P<0.05) fatness and DM of the meat and decreased (P<0.05) water in meat, without affecting that of ash, protein and chemical fat. Although thawing loss for LD muscle increased (P<0.05) with ageing, cooking loss and WBSF improved (P<0.05) with ageing. The lowest WBSF values were recorded for M. Psoas major and Infraspinatus. Among supplemented goats the cost of 1 kg gain under Tl was Tsh 213 cheaper than T2. It was concluded that goats should be grazed and supplemented with 400 g of concentrate for satisfactory fattening performance, meat quality and higher economic return of the enterprise.
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    Evaluation of differences in feed utilization for exotic and local chickens in Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2011) Mohammed, Fatima Gubrel Ali
    The study was carried out to compare the growth and food utilization attributes of broiler and local chickens. Two experimental diets were formulated to provide a low and high plane of nutrition based on the crude protein and metabolizable energy contents of the diets. Birds were weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment. Feeds given and refused were weighed daily to determine the feed intake (FI). recorded on individual-bird basis. Feeds were given in amounts that would allow for at least 15% refusal per bird per day. Daily dry matter intake (DDMI) was calculated as the difference between food offered and food refused, and the cumulative dry matter intake (CDMI) was calculated at the end of the experiment. Samples of the diets were taken and bulked daily for both dry matter and nitrogen content determination. A parallel set of adult birds (X broiler and Y Local) were used for digestibility studies, during which birds were placed in individual battery cages. The results showed that there were significant differences (P > 0.05) between the broiler and the local chickens in Weight gain (466.6*33.2 vs. 138.1*33.23); Daily rate of gain (35.9*25.0 vs. 10.6*25.1); Daily DMI (118.4*1.8 vs. 47.6*1.81) and Feed- Efficiency (30.3*1.01 vs. 22.3*1.1). HE-HP diet produced birds with higher weights. than LE-LP. Birds on HE-HP consumed significantly more protein and nitrogen than those on LE-LP and CP digestibility was higher for birds on HE-HP. Birds on LE-LP had a higher N retention ratio than those on HE-HP. It was concluded that commercial broilers were better performers under both feeding regimes. Where good quality feed is not a constraint, keeping the commercial strain appears to be a better option than raising local chickens.
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    Grazing and feeding strategics for improving small-scale agro-pastoral livestock production in Tanzania
    (Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 2014) Selemani, Ismail Saidi
    Tanzania is highly populated with domesticated ruminant livestock, with about 3.9 % gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate. More than 70 % of the ruminant livestock population is in the north-western and central parts of the country': Shinyanga. Simiyu, Mwanza, and Manyara. Ruminant production depends largely on communal rangelands that are constrained by scarcity of forage, especially during the dry season. Growth in human and livestock populations in Tanzania has increased the pressure on grazing land and overwhelmed traditional grazing practices. Transformation of traditional land use systems to official land use policies has resulted in an expansion in cultivation and wildlife conservation areas, and thus greater pressure on grazing land. The existing grazing systems and feeding strategics were studied in order to provide information that could be used to improve agro-pastoral practices. The study encompasses four papers. In paper I. the effect of a deferred grazing system on rangeland vegetation in the north-western semi-arid regions of Tanzania was assessed using aboveground biomass, vegetation cover, and species composition as indicators of range condition. In paper II, the effects of seasonal variation in quality and quantity of pasture and management of exclosurcs (ngitili) on grazing behavior of cattle and goats were assessed. In paper III, the effect of natural pasture versus concentrate supplementation on growth performance and foraging behavior of Zebu cattle was tested. The fourth component of the study (paper IV) evaluated the effect of natural pasture versus concentrate feeding systems on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Tanzania Zebu steers. In paper I. five grazing systems (old private ngitili, young private ngitili. old communal ngitili. young communal ngitili, and continuously grazed land) were compared in terms of aboveground herbaceous biomass, vegetation cover and species composition. The herbaceous vegetation cover was significantly higher in all exclosures than on continuously grazed land, but the aboveground herbaceous biomass was only significantly higher in old private ngitili than in the other grazing systems. Neither herbaceous species diversity nor woody density were significantly dependent on grazing regimes. In paper II, the quality (i. e. crude protein content, neutral detergent fiber, and in vitro organic matter digestibility) of five important forage species and quantity of forages (i. c. aboveground biomass and bulk density) were found to be significantly belter in the rainy season than in the dry season. This was also evident from the foraging habits of cattle and goats, as both Vspent considerably more time walking around searching for high quality forage during the dry season. Similarly, the reduction in quantity of forage in the communal ngitili. as compared with private ngitHi, had a marked effect on the foraging behavior of goats, but had no significant effect on the feeding behavior of cattle. In experiment three (Paper III), the average daily gain (ADG) was significantly higher for cattle grazing on natural pasture supplemented with concentrate (PS) than those grazing on natural pasture alone (NP). This was also evident from grazing behavior. Animals on PS were found to spend more time idling on natural pasture than those on NP. The last experiment (paper IV) revealed that Zebu cattle fed on wheal straw as a basal diet and supplemented with locally available concentrate mixture demonstrated significantly higher values for ADG. dressing percentage, and marbling scores than pasture-grazed cattle. However, post mortem carcass pH. meat tenderness, meat chemical composition (moisture contents, dry matter, ash. ether extract, and crude protein) and color was not found to be dependent on concentrate supplementation. It is conclude that: the deferred grazing system (ngiiili) is an important coping strategy that enables Sukuma agro-pastoral communities to alleviate the shortage of forage in the dry season. However, use of ngitili appears to be of limited effect for the restoration of severely degraded communal rangelands in terms of aboveground herbaceous biomass, vegetation cover, and species composition. Stocking animals in mixed herd (cattle and goats) is also beneficial due to their varying foraging habits, resulted in the resource partitioning between cattle and goats. However dietary' overlap was noted during acute shortage of forage in the dry season. Thus, concentrate supplementation is of environmental merit because resultant changes in the grazing behavior of steers reduce the defoliation pressures on vegetation on pastureland. Indeed, strategic supplementation of Zebu steers with locally made concentrate mixture has a positive effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. For further improvement of agro-pastoral livestock production in Tanzania. It is recommended that: institutions that manage communal rangelands be reorganized in order to improve agro­ pastoral livestock production. Both formal and informal rules and codes of conduct that regulate rights of common pool resource should be clearly defined. Decision-making powers be participatory and the benefits accrued from common resources be shared equally. Locally available and affordable concentrate supplementation should be used to enhance ruminant livestock viproductivity and reduce degradation of rangeland vegetation. Implementation of a well planned rotational grazing system that offers appropriate time for vegetation recovery need further investigation. Moreover, other feeding strategies such as use of crop residues treated with urea and quicklime and supplementation with fodder tree leaves need to be considered. SAM MEN DRAG Tanzania har Afrikas tredjc storstc husdyrbestand eller Sudan og Etiopia. Mcr enn 70 % av drovtyggerbestanden befinner seg i nord-vest og sentralc dcler av landct: Shinyanga. Simiyu, Mwanza og Manyara. Husdyrbestanden i landct er stor, men bidraget fra husdyr til okningen i bruttonasjonalproduklcl (BNP) er mindre enn fem prosent. Drovtyggerproduksjoncn er i stor grad avhengig av felles bcitcomrader med begrenset fortilgang. spesiclt i torkcpcriodcn. Okning i menneskc- og husdyrbestanden i Tanzania har medfort ct okt beitepress pd bcilcomrddene og tradisjoncll beitepraksis gir ikke longer tilstrekkclig beitevern. Oppdyrking av omradcr tradisjonclt brukt til beiting og utvida viltreservat i samsvar med offentligc planer har okt presset p3 beiteomradene. I denne oppgaven blir eksisterende beitesystemcr og fdringsstrategier studert med mdl om a kunne forbedre beitepraksisen innen husdyrbruk. Studien bestdr av firc artikler. I artikkcl I sa en pa effekten av a ulsette beiting pa utmarksvegetasjonen. Dette ble gjort pa steppen nord-vest i Tanzania. Biomasse over bakkeniva. dekningsgrad av vegetasjon og artssammensetning ble brukt som indikatorcr pit tilstanden til bcitcomradet. 1 artikkcl II ble cffcktcnc av scsongvariasjoner i kvalitet og kvantitet pa bcitcatferd hos geit og storfc undersokt for ulik forvaltning av avsperredc bcitcomrdder (ngitili). I artikkcl III ble effekten av kraftfortilskudd og naturlig beitc pa vckstytelse og beiteatferd hos Zebu testet. Den fjerde studien (artikkcl IV) evaluerte effekten av naturlig beite kontra kraftfortilskudd pd slakte- og kjottkvalitetcn hos tanzanianske zebukastrater. 1 artikkcl 1 blc fem beitesystemcr (gamle private ngitili, nye private ngitili, gamle felles ngitili, nye felles ngitili og kontinuerlig beitede omrader) sammenlignet. Biomasse over bakkenivd, vegetasjonsdekket og artssammensclning ble mdlt. Vegetasjonsdekket av gras og urter var signifikant hoyere i alle beiteomradene sammenlignet med i de kontinuerlig beitede omrddene. men biomassen bestaendc av gras og urter var bare signifikant hoyere i gamle private ngitili. Det ble funnel at hverken mangfoldct av gras og urter eller tettheten av tner var signifikant avhengig viiav beitcsystcmct. I artikkel II ble kvaliteten (dvs. rdproteininnhold. NDF og in vino fordoyelighet av organisk matcriale) av fem viktigc fortyper og mengdcn av for (dvs. biomasse over bakkeniva og masseletthct) var signifikant bedre i regntiden enn i torkeperioden. Dette kom ogsd fram av foringsatferden til storfc og geit siden begge brukte betydelig mer lid pa forflytning i torkeperioden for a kunne finne for av god kvalitet. Tilsvarendc hadde nedgangen av formengden i fclles ngitili sammenlignct med private ngitili markant effekt pa foringsatferden hos geit. men ingen signifikant effekt pa foringsatferden hos storfe. I forsok III ble det vist al gjennomsnittlig daglig tilvckst (ADG) var signifikant hoycrc hos storfe som gikk pa naturlig beite med tilgang pS kraftfor (PS) enn de som gikk pa naturlig beite uten tilgang pa kraftfor (NP). Dette syntes ogsd i beitcatferden: Dyr i PS var mer uvirksommc pa naturlig beite enn de som gikk i NP-gruppa. Det siste forsokcl (artikkel IV) vistc at zebu som fikk hvetehalm som primaemsering og ble supplert med lokalc tilgjengelige kraftfortypcr hadde signifikant hoyere ADG, marmoreringsscore og slakteprosent enn de som bare gikk pa beite. Kjottets morhet, pl l i slaktet. kjemisk sammcnsetning (vanninnhold, TS. askc. EE og raprotein) og farge kunne ikke sies a vaere avhengig av kraftfortillegg. Det konkhiderer at: Det ble funnet at utsatt beiting (ngitili) var en viktig mestringsstrategi som gjorde at Sukuma-Iandbrukssamfunn kunne minske mangclcn pa for i torkeperioden. Det ser ut til at ngitili har liten effekt ndr cn vil bygge opp et sterkt forringet beitclandskap mdll som biomasse av urter/gras over bakkeniva. vegetasjonsdekke og artssammensetning. En buskap med ficre arter (storfe og geit) ble funnet a vaere fordelaktig pa grunn av forskjellig beiteatferd. Ulik resursutnytting for storfe og geiter var tydelig. men under akutt mangel pa for i torkeperioden var det konkurranse om noen beiteplanter. Tilleggsforing av zebu med lokalproduscrt kraftfor hadde en positiv effekt pa tilveksten. slakte- og kjottkvalitet. Endringer i beitcatferden hos kastrater som ble tilleggsforet ga en miljofortjeneste i form av redusert press pa bladvcrket i beiteomradene. for ytterligcre Ibrbedringcr av husdyrproduksjonen i Tanzania det anbcfalcs at: institusjoncne som administrer fclles beileomrader bor omorganisercs. Bade formelie og uformelle regler og etiskc retningslinjer for bruk av fclles ressurser bor bli klart definert. De som har nylte av forvallningcn bor gis myndighet i beslutninger og nytte av fellcs ressurser bor deles likt. Et velorganisert rotasjonssystem som kan bidra til at beitene fiir nok tid til d hentc seg inn bor undersokes. Det anbefalcs bruk av lokalt og billig kraftfor for d okc produksjonen hos drovlyggcre og reduscrc viiiforringclsc av beitcvcgetasjoncn. Endrede fdringsstrategier, som bruk av avlingsbiprodukt og supplcring med bladvcrk fra trier som kan brakes som for, er ogsa a anbcfalc.
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    Effectiveness of health education intervention in reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2005) Ngowi, Helena Aminiel
    A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of health and pig management education intervention in reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis caused by larvae of Taenia solium in Mbulu District, northern Tanzania. A random sample of 827 pig-keeping households was selected from 42 randomly selected villages to participate in the study, which lasted for about 2 years. Baseline data were collected on the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis based on lingual examination of live pigs; history of human taeniosis, and related knowledge and practices based on questionnaire interviews and observations. The health education intervention, developed with community participation, was allocated to 21 of the 42 study villages by randomisation. A note-based analysis was used to analyse qualitative data, while quantitative data were analysed using Stata 8.0 for Windows. Knowledge of smallholder pig farmers on how a pig acquires cysticercosis and how to prevent it, improved significantly in both the intervention and control groups 6 months after the [improvement by the intervention: 27.4% (95% CI: 7.0, 48.0) and 37.7% (95% CI: 13.0, 62.0), respectively]. The effect of the intervention 10-12 months postintervention was not significant [improvement by the intervention: 0.7% (95% CI: - 11.0,12.0) and 1.1% (95% CI: -13.0, 15.0). There were no significant improvements in observed practices by the intervention throughout the study period. The incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis as measured by antigen ELISA in tracer piglets in the intervention, showing a significant effect attributable to the intervention control group was about 1.6 that in the intervention group (95% CI: 0.928, 2.707). ’I'he effectiveness of the education intervention in reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis was 35.9%. Educating pig farmers in Mbulu District on how to control porcine cysticercosis would have a significant financial benefit to them [NPV: TZS 4 034 030.4 (95% CI: 3 719 614.0, 4 368 169.0); IRR: 370%]. Health education would have an important contribution to the control of Taenia solium transmission, if implemented in Mbulu District. Demonstration studies are needed in order to educate smallholder pig farmers on how to improve the traditional pig rearing system using locally available resources
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    Evaluation of appropriate entry-age and period of stay in feedlot for optimal production of quality meat from Tanzanian long fat-tailed sheep
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture., 2013) Shirima, Eligy J.Mussa
    Tanzanian long fat-tailed sheep (TLS) is among the three indigenous sheep genotypes of which in most cases are of poor quality, hence take long time to reach slaughter weight and produce carcasses of low uniformity and meat of low tenderness. Efforts to improve the performance ofthe TLS are constrained by lack of knowledge on appropriate type and amount of feed, age and the period to keep the animals in the feedlot. To address these characteristics and distribution of main carcass tissues and meat quality of the TLS The first study was a pilot experiment which evaluated carcass and meat characteristics from castrates slaughtered directly from extensive system. In this study, a total of 40 TLS aged 9, 12, 15 and 18 months were purchased from the auction markets of Dodoma region and slaughtered at Dodoma abattoir within one week of purchase. Data were recorded on slaughter weight, carcass and non-carcass components weight, dressing percentage, tissue composition, pH, temperature, tenderness of meat. The results showed that, slaughter body weight (SBW) differed significantly (P<0.05) between the slaughter age groups of 9 to 18 months, ranging from 15.1 to 22.9 kg live weight, respectively. It was noted that, with increasing slaughter age the proportion of gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) to SBW increased (P<0.05). The older animals (15 and 18 months old), had significantly tougher meat with 69.7 Ncm-2 than younger animals that had 49.0 Ncm-2 shear force values at 6 h post mortem. The second experiment involved a 3x4 factorial experiment to evaluate the effects ofthree levels of concentrate feeding (LCF) and four ages at entry into feedlot (AEF) on growth and killing out characteristics ofTLS. The LCF points were concentrate feeding at 50 (LCF50), 75 (LCF75) and 100 (LCF 100) per cent on top of hay feeding. The age at entry to feedlot (AEF) were 9 (AEF9), 12 (AEF 12), 15 (AEF 15) and 18 issues, three experiments were done to investigate growth performance, carcass Tanzania. These animals are raised and finished on pastures under extensive system. iii (AEF18) months. Daily dry matter feed intake (DMI) and fortnightly live weight slaughtered. After slaughter, weights of carcass and non-carcass components were recorded. The right side half carcasses were jointed into seven primal cuts followed by dissection into lean, bone and fat tissues for determination of tissue composition. The DMI of hay decreased and concentrate increased (PO.OOl) with increasing LCF. There was significant interaction between AEF and LCF for feed conversion ratio where AEF18 and poorest when subjected to LCF50 (21.5 kg feed to one kg tissue gain). The hot carcass weight increased (P<0.05) with increasing slaughter age and dietary levels. The tenderness of m. Longissmus thoracic et lumborum (LL), Semimembranosus (SM) and Supraspinatus (SP) muscles increased (P<0.05) from 26.8 to 21.2Ncm-2 with aging duration from day 0 to 9 days. The findings from this study reveals that AEF 12 under LCF 100 were the optimal in terms of retail cuts size, tissue distribution and tenderness. characteristics and meat quality of one year old TLS under seven periods of stay in feedlot (DF). Seventy (70) animals were randomly allocated to seven treatments as 0 (DFO), 14 (DF14), 28 (DF28), 42 (DF42), 56 (DF56), 70 (DF70) and 84 (DF84) days of stay in feedlot, each with 10 animals in a completely randomized block design. Animals in DFO (control) were slaughtered immediately after being purchased from livestock keepers or auction markets. The experimental animals in other periods were grouped into two animals per pen and provided with ad libitum forage hay of Cenchrus ciliaris grass and molasses based diet (MBD) to provide 10.9 MJ ME/kgDM and 160g CP kg/DM. Daily feed intake and weekly live body measurements were recorded and a group of 10 Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values were evaluated from LL, SM and SP were the most efficient when subjected to LCF 100 (9.88 kg feed to one kg tissue gain) measurements were done for a period of 84 days after which the animals were The third experiment focused on evaluation of growth performance, carcass animals were slaughtered after each DF. The thaw loss (%), cooking loss (%) and iv muscles. The highest average daily gains (129.8 g/day) and lowest feed conversion ratio increased (P<0.001) from 6.5 kg in DFO to 13.5 kg in DF84 with lowest shear force results indicated that 42 days was optimal DF for production of high quality meat in one year old TLS when in access to 100% ad libitum concentrate allowance and the wisdom of aging such meat is in doubt in view of low shear force in muscles in these animals. The profitability of feedlot Tanzanian long fat-tailed sheep would be realized when animals of one year old are offered concentrate feeding above 75% level of ad libitum offer. This is a point where highest daily gain, highest break-even weight gain and lowest break-even and type and amount of feedlot diet as well as the days in feedlot will determine the size of carcass and its composition
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    Genetic characterisation of indigenous goat populations of sub-saharan Africa using microsatellite dna markers
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture., 2002) chenyambuga, Sebastian Wilson
    Two studies were carried out to genetically characterize the sub-Saharan African goats using 19 microsatellite markers. The aims were to understand the genetic uniqueness and relationships among breeds and to quantify the level of genetic diversity within each breed. The first study investigated the genetic relationships among the major goat types in sub-Saharan Africa. Ten African breeds were sampled from eastern Africa (Maasai. Kigezi, Mubende, North West Highland, Arsi-Bale), southern Africa (Ndebele, Pafuri) and West Africa (West African Dwarf, Maure, Djallonke). Two European breeds (Grisons Striped, Toggenburg). two Asian breeds (Mongolian Cashmere, Bandipur) and one Middle East breed (Arab) were included as reference breeds. Twenty to forty eight animals per breed breed genetic diversity was determined as the mean number of alleles per locus and average gene diversity. Two measures of population differentiation, Gst and 0 were computed to measure the genetic differentiation among the breeds. Breed assignment test was performed to identify the source populations of individual animals. Three measures of genetic distances, Ds, DA, and (bp.)2 were used to estimate the genetic distances between pairs of breeds. These distances were used to construct neighbour joining (NJ) trees to assess the relationships among breeds. The genetic relationships among breeds were further assessed using principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MS). were genotyped at the 19 microsatellite loci. Within iii In total, 263 alleles were detected across all the breeds. Among the sub-Saharan African breeds, the mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 5.26 ± 0.464 (Djallonke) to 7.05 ±0.516 (Mubende). The lowest and highest average gene diversities were observed in Pafuri (0.542 ± 0.036) and Ndebele (0.672 ± 0.031), respectively. For all the breeds, the within breed genetic diversities of European breeds were slightly less than those of African and Asian breeds. Between 14.6% (0) and 15.7% (Gst) of the total genetic variation was due to differences between breeds. In the assignment test, 92.1% of all animals were correctly assigned to their original population. The three measures of genetic distances indicated that the largest genetic distances were observed between West African and southern African breeds and the lowest genetic distances were found between the pairs of breeds within the same country. The (5p)2 distances were found less effective in revealing the true genetic relationships among the breeds compared to differences, however, both grouped the breeds according to their geographic origins. The PCA and MS supported the grouping of the breeds according to their geographic origins. Unlike the NJ trees, the PCA and MS clearly separated the European breeds from the Asian breeds. Furthermore, the MS separated the Arab breed from the other breeds more clearly. Ds, and Da distances. The NJ trees constructed from Ds, and Da showed some iv The second study examined the genetic diversity and structure of Small short-eared eastern African goats as a case study. The same 19 microsatellite markers were used to genotype 13 populations. The populations sampled were Afar, North East Highland, Boran, Galla, Kenyan Small East African, Maasai, Ugogo, Sukuma, Ujiji, Tanzanian Coastal, Newala, Mbeya and Landim. The reference breeds were Tswana, Venda, West African Dwarf, Red Sokoto and Toggenburg. The Galla had the lowest (5.53 ± 0.599) mean number of alleles per locus while Afar had the highest (6.53 ± 0.646). The level of gene diversity ranged from 0.667 ± 0.035 (Afar) to 0.553 ± 0.036 (Newala). Between 11% (0) and 12% (Gst) of the total genetic variability could be attributed to differences among the populations. In the assignment test, 79.1% of the individuals were correctly assigned to their source populations. NJ tree using individual animals as the taxonomic units was constructed to study the structure of eastern African goats. Among the Tanzanian populations, only the Newala appeared to be tightly clustered together, the rest of the populations were mixed together. Among the Kenyan and Ethiopian populations, only the Afar and Kenyan Small East African featured in their distinct clusters, the rest of the populations showed unclear pattern of clustering. The NJ trees based on Ds, and Da distances, though differed in their topology, clearly marked the separation of the Tanzanian populations from the Ethiopian and Kenyan populations. The Landim was grouped together with the Tswana and Venda goats from southern Africa. The MS supported the separation of the Tanzanian populations from the Ethiopian-Kenyan populations. However, the PCA indicated that the eastern African goat populations are genetically close to each other
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    Development of dairy calf rearing strategy for smallholder farmers in Turiani division, Mvomero district -Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture., 2006) Lyimo, Hurbert Lawis Naftal
    Three studies were conducted to characterise and develop appropriate feeding strategy for the smallholder dairy farmers (SHDF) in Turiani division that will allow optimal performance of calves. Study 1 involved participatory group discussions and formal survey. These were conducted in order to identify the existing rearing systems, constraints and opportunities for improving calf rearing in the area using the available resources. In study 2, two least cost calf concentrates, concentrate A (CA) and B (CB) were formulated and compounded using different feed resources that were available in the area to supplement the milk fed to calves. The two concentrates were tested on station by feeding them to 30 Zebu x Exotic factorial arrangement The levels were three diets (DI, D2 and D3) x two weaning ages (9 and 12 weeks). Diet 1 was hay, CA and whole milk. Diet 2 was hay, CB and whole milk, while diet 3 was hay and whole milk only. The performance of the calves in terms of feed intake, digestibility of the diets and growth rate were followed from birth to 28 weeks of age. In Study 3, one strategy among those tested on station was selected by the farmers and tested on their farms against their common practices. Twenty seven crossbred calves were randomly allocated to three strategies. Strategy 1 (SI) was that selected by farmers from those tested on station, which involved feeding CA and wean at 12 weeks. SI was tested against Strategy two (S2), that was feeding the common dairy cow concentrate of the area and wean at 12 weeks and Strategy three (S3), that was allowing the farmers to rear their calves as they normally do without intervention. Feed intake by the calves including milk, forage and concentrate and growth performance of the calves were followed for 28 weeks. crossbred male calves reared in six different starategies in a Hi The surveys in study 1 revealed that restricted suckling was the common calf rearing method practiced by 97% of the interviewed farmers and 80% of let the calves to suckle milk left in the dam's udder after hand milking (residual milk). The residual milk supplied only 56 and 41% of the required milk during the first and second month of age, respectively. Concentrate feeding to calves started late, at the age of 4-6 weeks by 73% of the respondents. Major identified constraints in calf rearing were labour deficit, poor calf growth, diseases and low milk production from the dams. Improvement options from the farmer's perspective included strategic feeding of calves by combining milk, concentrate and forage and appropriate management and supervision on the calf rearing. A proposed intervention was to leave one teat un-milkcd for the calf to suckle together with the residual milk and start feeding calf concentrate from the 2nd week of age. On station study showed that total dry matter intake was significantly higher (PO.05) for supplemented than unsupplemented calves at the ages of 9, 12 and 28 weeks. Supplemented calves had similar concentrate dry matter intake (P>0.05) and significantly (P<0.05) higher growth rate (0.33 kg) compared to 0.27 kg/day for unsupplemented calves at 12 weeks. At 28 weeks, the growth rates were 0.29 and 0.31 kg/day for calves on DI and D2 and were higher (P<0.01) than those of unsupplemented (0.18 kg/day) counterparts. Early weaning (at 9 weeks) resulted into significantly (P<0.05) lower growth rates (0.28 and 0.25 kg/day) compared to late weaning (0.34 and 0/28 g/day) at the dry matter digestibility and nitrogen retention between the two diets (DI and D2) and weaning ages. age of 12 and 28 weeks, respectively. There were no significant difference (P>0.05) in iv The on farm results showed that pre-weaning growth rate ofthe calves under SI was 0.4 kg/day and was significantly (PO.05) higher than 0.35 and 0.32 kg/day for S2 and S3, respectively. Post weaning growth rates were 0.46, 0.35 and 0.27 kg/day for SI, S2 and S3, respectively. The weight of the calves in S3 surveys from the 12th week of age despite having no intervention. The study concluded that an appropriate strategy for calf rearing for the SHDF in Turiani division would be to practice calf teat system, supplemented with CA from 2 weeks of age and wean at 12 weeks. In this case, forage should be introduced from the 2nd week of age and post weaned calves fed a mixture of forages and supplemented with 1 kg of CA. It was also concluded that, researching with farmers have positive impact o
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    Studies on the prospects of improving the performance of the local chicken population in Tanzania by crossbreeding
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 1990) Katule, Andalwisye M.
    The present study was initiated to explore the possibilities for developing high performing dual purpose strains of chickens adapted to low input production conditions in Tanzania. Exotic meat type, egg type and local chickens were compared for performance along with the crosses between these breeds in one year. In the following year the comparison involved the three basic breeds, the second generation crosses (F ), backcrosses, and three breed crosses of these breeds. Additional data were acquired from a crossbreeding experiment in Egypt, in which two Egyptian breeds, two White Leghorn lines from Norway, and crosses between Egyptian and Norwegian stocks were involved. Constant estimates of various genetic components (additive genetic, heterosis and reciprocal ) were obtained as coefficients of a multiple regression equation, in which the observation on each individual for a given trait was the dependent variable. The independent variables consisted of coded values ranging from 0 to 1. The general superiority of the germplasm from exotic breeds to that of indigenous breeds was demonstrated for nearly all traits considered. However, there was an indication for this superiority to decline as environmental conditions deteriorated.•Important heterosis effects were revealed-, mainly for juvenile body weights and egg production traits, including the age of sexual maturity. Evidence was revealed to suggest the existence of negative heterosis for body weights and egg size in some crosses. Reciprocal effects were found to be important in crosses involving heavy breeds and light breeds, as well as in crosses involving crossbred parents. It is concluded from these results that the high potential inherent in exotic breeds for productive traits would not be fully realized under environments pertinent with low input production systems. Some adjustment in the genetic content of the stocks would be necessary in order to make them adaptable to less optimum conditions. One of the most prospective approaches is to make some kind of crosses between exotic and indigenous chickens, followed by selection for high productivity under the sub-optimum conditions. Selection for specific adaptive qualities would be carried out if such qualities were detected.
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    Studies on preparation and use of bovine pepsin from adult cattle Abomasa as rennet substitute for small scale cheese processing
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 1999) Ryoba, Ruth Nnala Z.
    World-wide shortage of rennet has stimulated interest in the search for rennet substitutes. In order to overcome the scarcity and high price for rennet in Tanzania, studies on preparation of a rennet substitute from cattle abomasa were undertaken in three experiments Experiment one dealt with investigations into the optimisation of pepsin extraction conditions i.e. on regions of abomasa, extraction of dry versus fresh material, drying methods, ionic strength, extraction pH, temperature, time, activation pH and clarification methods. Results showed that the fundic region, sundrying, 10% salt, extraction with HCL at pH 3 fbr 3 days, at 37° C, activation pH 2 fbr 30 min and clarification using NazHPC^.H?。produce an extract with maximum milk clotting activity (MCA). Optimum conditions were applied to extract pepsin with dilute HCL, vinegar and lemon juice. Vinegar (VP) and HCL (HP) gave better yield, shelf-life, proteolytic activity, chymosin:pepsin ratio, microbial quality and formagraph characteristics than lemon juice. Concentrating VP extract lead to greater loss in MCA than for HP extract. In experiment two, HP extract was purified by DEAE cellulose chromatography, gel filtration, mono Q and phenyl sepharose chromatography. Studies on the purified enzyme with regard to formagraph characteristics, molecular mass, sodium dodecylsulphate gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and N-terminal amino acid sequence showed that pepsin was homogenous with fold purification of 366, recovery rate of 32.7%,Ill Specific activity 3920 MCA (units/mg), molecular mass 34,500 Da. The N-terminus of purified pepsin contained no lysine and the MCA decreased with enzyme purity. In experiment 3, HP and VP extracts were mixed with rennet at 0, 25, 50, 75, 100% and used for making three types of cheese. Renneting time (RT) for cheese milk, butterfat (%BF) and total nitrogen (%TN) in whey, chemical composition and microbial quality of cheese samples obtained at different storage time intervals, sensory evaluation at maturity and overall quality assessment were determined. RT and TN losses increased with level of pepsin; chemical composition of all cheese types were significantly different (Pv.001). The pH in SUA Pastafilata and SUA Alpine and TN in Tilsiter cheese were not significantly different (P>0.05). Sensory evaluation was not significantly different (P>0.05) in smell, taste, appearance and bitterness, however, bitterness in SUA Pastafilata and appearance in SUA Alpine were significantly different (P<0.05); appearance in SUA Pastafilata and village Alpine were significant different (P<0.01). Bitterness, taste in SUA Alpine and bitterness in Tilsiter cheeses were highly significant different (P<.001). Overall quality assessment of cheese did not show significant differences (P>0.05). Therefore all enzyme combinations were suitable for all types of cheese implying that pepsin was an appropriate rennet substitute.
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    Effect of milk preservation by activation of lactoperoxidase system on the quality and shelf life of pasteurised and fermented milk products
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2001) Mwaikambo, James Joseph
    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of milk preservation by the use of activated Lactoperoxidase system (LPS) on fresh, pasteurised and fermented milk quality. Fieldwork was done at Mwakaleli, Mbeya region, while the laboratory work was conducted at Sokoine University of Agriculture. After collection, milk LPS was activated by addition of sufficient amount of thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide followed by milk shelf life determination under different storage conditions. The best LPS holding time before pasteurisation was found to be 3 hours followed by 6 hours, whereas the holding time above 6 hours performed poorly. The effect of LPS activation on fermented milk quality was also investigated. No significant (P>0.05) difference in pH between treated and untreated milk was observed on the milk that had a holding time of less than 9 hours, above this period milk recorded significantly (P<0.05) low pH. Likewise was the pH of the yoghurt with more or less similar trend. The analysed natural Thiocyanate content of the test milk was within normal range (4.09±l・l ppm). This indicates the test milk could accommodate recommended external addition of thiocyanate for LPS activation without raising SCN- content above the physiological limits. The LPS carry over effect on milk inocula could not be detected due to the LPS inactivation by pasteurisation (80° C/1 min.). This explains the absence of any noticeable physical, chemical or organoleptic abnormality on milk and milk products final quality. In the field, activated LPS prolonged morning raw milk shelf life for more than 15 hours as compared to less than 12 hours registered by the untreated milk, whereas throughout the experiment under all storage conditions LPS treated pasteurised milk performed significantly (P<0.001) better than the control. In order to solve the problem of raw milk short shelf life in the remote rural tropical environment a cheap and convenient charcoal cooler box was designed, constructed and tested with encouraging results in the storage of raw milk. The cooler performance was 8.94° C and 5.45° C below the environmental maximum and minimum temperatures respectively. When compared to the room temperature storage conditions, the cooler performed significantly (P<0.001) better than the room temperature. Therefore, under any tropical environmental condition accompanied with the absence refrigeration or cold room facilities, the application of both activated LPS and charcoal cooler box for raw milk storage is strongly recommended for the fresh milk shelf life extension to enable the marketing functions to operate.
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    The use of leucaena leucocephala (lam.) de wit forage as a feed supplement for dairy goats
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 1996) Ndemanisho, Edith Eliakim
    THE USE OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA (LAM.) DE WIT FORAGE AS A FEED SUPPLEMENT FOR DAIRY GOATS Six experiments were conducted to evaluate Leucaena leucocephala (LL) as protein supplement for dairy goats. In Experiments 1 and 2 an appropriate feeding level of dry LL leaves as substitute for cotton seed cake (CSC) fed to lactating does was investigated. A total of 82 docs randomly allocated to four treatments with LL inclusion at levels of 0 (treatment 1), 180 (treatment 2), 360 (treatment 3) and 540g (treatment 4) substituting cotton seed cake at levels of 300, 200,100 and 0 g per day of the concentrate. Basal ration contained elephant grass and Rhodes grass hay ad libitum, supplemented with maize bran. Daily milk yield was sampled twice a week for chemical analysis. Fourtnight body weights and daily feed intake were recorded. In Experiment 3 comparison between fresh LL and CSC on milk yield and composition was made. Twenty eight docs were subjected to four treatment diets as follows: No LL and No CSC (treatment 1), restricted CSC (treatment 2), restricted LL (treatment 3) and LL offered ad libitum (treatment 4). The basal ration composed of Hyparrhenia rufa hay ad libitum supplemented with maize bran. Milk and FCM yields, fat, protein, total solids, solid not-fat, ash and mineral contents did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between treatments in Experiments 1,2 and 3. In Experiment 4 a total of 20 males and 20 females (weaner goats) were randomly allocated to four treatments. Dry LL inclusion levels varied from 0 (treatment 1), 100 (treatment 2), 200 (treatment 3) and 300g (treatment 4) of feed whilst those for CSC were 150, 100, 50 and 0 g per day for their respective four treatments. Basal diets included 5% urea treated maize stover sprinkled with molasses and supplemented with maize bran. Weekly body weights and daily feed intake were recorded. Liveweight changes were not significantly (P>0.05) different between treatments. Two in sacco experiments were carried out to measure the degradability and rumen parameters (pH, NH^-N, VFA) of the feed components used in Experiments 1,2, 3 and 4 in the rumen of bucks fed a standard diet (Experiment 5) and treatment diets ““Ct (Experiment 6). The fitted exponential equation (P=a+b(l-e ) was used to calculate the degradation kinetics. Results of Experiment 5 showed that maize meal was most degraded followed by maize bran, CSC, dry LL leaves and Chloris gayana. Results of Experiment 6 showed that when the bucks were fed treatment diets from Experiments 1 and 2 protein solubility of LL (intercept) was highest (P<0.05) for treatment 3 followed by treatments 2, 4 and 1. The potential degradability of DM (b) was highest (P<0.05) for CSC in treatment 2 followed by treatments 3,4 and 1. It is recommended from these studies that up to 32% of dry LL and 17% of fresh LL of total diet can be offered to dairy goats. Areas of further research are suggested.
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    Prospects for improving performance of two Tanzanian chicken ecotypes through selection
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2007) Lwelamira, James
    A study was carried out to evaluate the possibility of improving the performance among two chicken ecotypes of Tanzania viz. Kuchi and Tanzania Medium through selection. The study involved evaluation of their genetic potential, estimation of genetic parameters for various traits, and determining optimal breeding strategies for their improvement through selection, furthermore, prospects for using Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) for some trails were also investigated. Results indicated that Kuchi had significantly higher body weights (l’< 0.001), better feed conversion ratio (P<0.05), and laid eggs with higher weights (P< 0.05) than Medium ecotype. On the other hand. Medium ecotype was superior in terms of egg production and attained sexual maturity earlier than Kuchi (P< 0.05). However, differences between ecotypes with respect to other egg quality traits and primary antibody response (primary humoral immune response) against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine were not significant (P> 0.'05). Moderate to high hcritability estimates were obtained for various trails in both ecotypes. 1 he estimates varied from 0.22 to 0.53 fbr Kuchi, and 0.23 to 0.61 for Medium ecotype. with most of the corresponding estimates between the two ecotypes being close to each other. Genetic (rg) and phenotypic (rp) correlations in both ecotypes were highest among body weights (i.c. rg = 0.60 to 0.93 and rp = 0.54 to 0.78; rg = 0.53 to 0.80 and rp= 0.44 to 0.72. under intensive and extensive management systems, respectively), and were lowest (i.e. around 0.10 and below, ranging from negative to positive) among primary antibody response against NDV" vaccine and production trails, and among eggshell thickness, egg shape index and other production traits. The magnitude of- herilability estimates obtained in this study permit improvement of performance of these ecotypes through selection. As Kuchi chickens were shown to be superior to Medium ecotype in terms of body weight, and converse was true foregg production. Therefore, it was recommended to put emphasis for further improvement in body weights in Kuchi, and egg production in Medium ecotype. Depending on a breeding scenario, results from simulation studies indicated that it w'ould take between 5 to I I generations of selection for achieving pre-defined desired gains in various trails. The corresponding years of selection varied from 3 to 12 years. There were some LEI0258 microsatcllitc alleles (a microsatellile located within MHC B region) which had significant effect on primary antibody response against NDV vaccine (alleles of 205 and 307bp) and body weight (allele of 307bp), hence showing good prospects for using MAS for further improvement of these trails.
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    Assessment of reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cattle in Rungwe district, Tanzania and possible interventions
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2006) Gimbi, A A
    A study was conducted aimed at establishing causes for suboptimal reproductive performance in smallholder dairy cattle and investigate on possible interventions. Experiment 1 was carried out to identify management, productive and reproductive status of the animals. The data were analysed using descriptive and Chi-square test. Monitoring was done (Experiment 2) to evaluate nutritional, productive and reproductive status of animals. Body weight (BWT), body condition score (BCS), plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and copper (Cu) were determined. Several reproductive performance indices were calculated and association between them and the nutritional parameters were determined by Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Effect of supplementation on productive and reproductive performance was evaluated (Experiment 3) using similar parameters as in experiment 2. General linear model was applied for analysis of variance of variables in experiments 2 and 3. Chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between proportions of animals in categories of reproductive parameters and diseases in different seasons and treatment groups. Experiment 1 showed that most respondents practised zero grazing, bred animals by natural mating and dried cows 1-3 months precalving without steaming up. On average farmers fed 1.9 kg of concentrate per day for 19.2 days in a month with 23.8 g/day of minerals included in 13.7 days in a month. The observed (Means ± SD) ages at puberty, first mating, first calving (AFC) and CI were 20.5±1.0, 21.5±1.8,30.8±1.8 months and 526±123 days, respectively. In experiment 2, BWT and BCS (Means ± SEM) were 320.8 ± 3.9 kg and 2.2 ± 0.0, respectively. Concentrations (Means ± SEM) of PUN, plasma Ca, P and Cu were 8.4 ± 0.2, 7.7 ± 0.1, 4.3 ±0.1 mg/dl and 0.44 ± 0.01 pg/ml, respectively. Ovarian cyclicity resumed before 90 days postpartum in 29.4% of the animals and days to first visual oestrus (DPO) were 178.7 ±19.6 (Mean ± SEM) with 22.9% of cows showing visual oestrus before 90 days postpartum. Mean (Mean ± SEM) SC and CI were 1.5 ± 1.2 and 485.7 ± 20.1 days, respectively. The DPO was significantly correlated with BWT (r = -0.315; P<0.05), BCS (r = -0.424; P<0.01) and body condition score at calving (BCSC) (r — -0.348; P<0.05) while CI was significantly correlated with BCS (r = -0.394; P<0.05). Supplementation significantly (P<0.05) reduced DPO by 43.6 days and significantly (P<0.001) improved BWT, BCS, PUN, and milk yield by 37.9 kg, 0.3, 2.2 mg/dl, and 2.5 L/day, respectively. In addition, supplementation significantly (P<0.05) increased BCSC, plasma P, Cu, and calf birth weight by 0.4, 0.6 mg/dl, 0.07 pg/ml, and 2.6 kg respectively. Reproductive performance of the cattle was suboptimal and was attributed to nutritional deficiencies. Concentrate supplementation and body condition scoring were recommended but further research is needed to refine the feeding strategy in relation to plasma P and Cu and to establish the optimum body condition score for daily cattle production and reproduction in the area. More research is also needed to identify risk factors that contribute to cattle dystocia in Rungwe district.
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    Performance of exotic dairy cattle in the southern highlands of Tanzania and prospects for genetic improvement
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 1995) Kifaro, G C
    Th i s study aimed was at evaluating the performance of exotic dairy cattle in five large farms in Iringa and Mbeya reg i ons. Mai n aspects stud i ed i ncluded calf mortality rates, reproductive traits, milk yield, milk composition, and lifetime performance traits. Rates of abortion ranged from 1.8 to 9.5% while rates of stillbirths varied between 3.4 and 9.8%. Death rates ranged from 9.3 to 25.5% for unweaned calves and from 13.2 to 29.6% for weaned calves. Diarrhoea/ scours, pneumonia and nutritional problems were the main causes of calf deaths. Mean ages at first calving and calving intervals for the five farms ranged from 33 to 39 months and 375 to 489 days, respectively. Overall mean lactation milk yield, lactation 1 engt-h, dry period for individual farms ranged from 2197 kg, 270 to respective!y. The most to 2642 affecting calvi ng, 1actati on and pari ty days 321 and i mportant performance current 86 to 165 non-geneti c traits calving were days, factors year i nterval . of Milk production in most farms was declining, a trend attributed to deterioration estimates calving were i n management. 0.14±0.01, i nterval, Weighted 0.21±0.02 1actati on length and and repeatabi1ity 0.37±0.01 lactation for milk yield, respectively. Mean percentages of milk components on test-days did not differ much from those recorded for Friesians elsewhere in the tropics. Stage of lactation, calendar month, parity and year of recording highly influenced their variations. Milk yield on test-days had strong negative correlations with BF% (-0.47) and protein percent (-0.53). BF and protein percentages were positively correlated (0.59). Day-to-day variation of milk yield was higher at Uyole than at Thimbu and was associated with level of milk production and inaccurate recording. The most variable milk component was protein whose variation was ascribed mainly to errors of determination. Part and cumulative milk records were highly influenced by parity, year and season of calving. Effect of calving interval was noticeable from the sixth month of lactation. Records in mid-1actation had the highest correlation with 305-day yield. Ratio and regression extension factors were derived based on findings from this study. Performance in 1i feti me traits were similar to those reported elsewhere in the tropics. Age at first calving and first lactation yield had high association with lifetime traits used in this study and were important estimators of lifetime milk production. Several options of culling procedures were proposed and discussed. It was concluded that there is great opportunity for genetic improvement of dairy cattle in the southern calves i s highlands of i mproved, the downward trend in performance is reversed, Tanzania provided viability of recordi ng is improved and a culling procedure is adopted.
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    Chicken feed formulation at farm level in Ajmer district of Rajasthan
    (S.K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, 2015) Longo, Joseph
    Poultry farming is a significant sector in Indian economy at large and Ajmer district in particular. Feeding is the costliest aspect in poultry farming. Feed costs accounts to over 70% of broiler and layer production costs. This report presents the result of study titled ‘Poultry Feed Formulation at Farm Level in Ajmer District of Rajasthan*. The research was guided by three objectives as follows; to study the chicken management practices in general, to study the feeding management practices in particular and to formulate balanced least cost chicken feeds from locally available ingredients for different chicken classes. The study found that farmers are doing well in chicken management practices. The research considered 21 management aspects namely; cage size, number of birds in each cage, space of layer birds in deep litter system, space of broiler birds in deep litter system, space of birds feeding in a round feeder, space of birds feeding in a rectangular feeder, space of birds in a round drinker, space of birds in pipe drinkers, quantity of feed provided to pre starter birds, quantity of feed provided to starter birds, quantity of feed provided to finisher birds, quantity of feed provided to chicks, quantity of feed provided to layers, quantity of water supplied to pre starter birds, quantity of water supplied to starter birds, quantity of water supplied to finisher birds, quantity of water supplied to chicks, quantity of water supplied to layers, light management for broiler birds, light management for chicks and light management for layers. Out of these factors, farmers were found to be doing in accordance to specified standard management practices in 15 factors, equivalent to 71%. Farmers had a negative gap in only 6 factors, equivalent to 29%. The practices where they fell short were; cage size - had smaller cages than standard ones, number of birds in each cage - had more birds than the recommended number, quantity of feed provided to pre starter birds - provided less quantity than the recommended amount, quantity of feed provided to starter birds - provided less quantity than the recommended amount, 149quantity of feed provided to chicks - provided less quantity than the recommended amount and quantity of feed provided to layer I birds - provided less quantity than the recommended amount. Concerning the feeding management practices, the study found that feeding of pre starter, starter, finisher, chick and growers was totally dependent on readymade complete feeds. The feeding of laying birds was based on concentrate based complete feeds. Farmers were not formulating farm based own feeds. The concentrate based complete feed was found to cost ? 15.16per kilogram. Lastly the study found that by adopting the proposed farm based own feeds farmers would reduce feed costs in the following proportions; > Pre starter feed - 24.40% cost reduction relative to readymade complete feed > Starter feed - 26.80% cost reduction relative to readymade complete feed > Finisher feed - 27.10% cost reduction relative to readymade complete feed Chick feed - 16.35% cost reduction relative to readymade complete feed Grower feed - 30.20% cost reduction relative to readymade complete feed Layer I feed - 21.30% cost reduction relative to readymade complete feed. > Layer II feed - 24.50% cost reduction relative to readymade complete feed. > Layer III feed - 24.50% cost reduction relative to readymade complete feed. Comparing proposed farm based feed with the concentrate based complete feed, the results were; > Layer I farm based own feed - 3.90% more costly than concentrate based complete feed > Layer II farm based own feed - 0.4% less costly than concentrate based complete feed > Layer III farm based own feed - 0.4% less costly than concentrate based complete feed In all cases, farmers are advised to adopt the farm based own feeds as they will be exactly sure of the kind of ingredients included as well as the levels of inclusion, something which will benefit them in terms of production performance of the birds.