Animal, Acqucture and Range Science Collection

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    Evaluation of invertebrates as protein sources in Nile Tilapia
    (2017) Chenyambuga, Sebastian W.; Madalla, Nazael; Ally, tausi
    The study was conducted to approximate the composition of house fly maggots and earthworms from different substrates as well as to evaluate their suitability as protein sources in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) diets. Chicken manure, cattle manure and fermented maize were used as substrates for production household fly maggots (HFM), while chicken, cattle and rabbit manures were used as substrates for production of earthworm meal (EWM). HFMs and EWMs with the highest protein content were used to formulate practical isonitrogenous diets (30% crude protein) containing graded levels of HFM and EWM meals (25%, 30%, 35% and 40%). The diets were fed to juveniles with an average weight of 2.6g in a growth trial that lasted for eight weeks. There were significant (p<0.05) differences in the crude protein contents between the HFMs as well as EWMs raised on three culturing media. Chicken manure produced HFM with significantly high protein content, while cow manure did the same for EWM. Growth and feed utilization was significantly higher in fish fed diets HFM35 and EWM35. The same diets were more cost effective to produce a unit of fish. Therefore, it is recommended to include either HFM or EWM meals at 35% in practical diets containing 5% fishmeal and cotton seedcake or any similar plant protein.
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    Knowledge and perceptions of traditional livestock keepers on tick-borne diseases and sero-prevalence of Theileria parva around Lake Victoria Basin
    (2010-07-22) Chenyambuga, S W; Waiswa, C; Saimo, M; Ngumi, P; Gwakisa, P S
    A study was conducted in three districts around Lake Victoria; Kisumu (Kenya), Kiruhura (Uganda) and Tarime (Tanzania) to assess the farmers’ perceptions on tick-borne diseases (TBDs) and resistance of their local cattle breeds to TBDs. Knowledge and perception of farmers on production constraints, tick species, TBDs and their control measures and resistance of local cattle to TBDs were assessed through individual interviews and group discussions. The extent of East Coast fever (ECF) infection in local cattle was assessed by measuring serum antibodies to Theileria parva. The prevalence of serum antibodies to Theileria parva was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay technique. The breeds kept were Nyanza zebu, Tarime zebu and Ankole in Kisumu, Tarime and Kiruhura, respectively. Livestock diseases were ranked as the most important constraints to cattle production. Tick-borne diseases ranked higher than the other diseases. Most livestock farmers knew well the signs of the TBDs. The main symptoms mentioned were circling/high stepping, red urine, hard dung and swollen lymphnodes for heart water, babesiosis, anaplasmosis and East Coast Fever (ECF), respectively. The most prevalent ticks were brown ear ticks (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) (97.5%), blue ticks (Boophilus spp) (75.8%) and bont ticks (Amblyloma spp) (81.5%). About 85, 12.5 and 7.5% of the respondents in Kiruhura, Kisumu and Tarime, respectively, knew that ECF is caused by the presence of ticks on the animals. The majority of the farmers did not associate the other TBDs with ticks. The farmers (59%) were using acaricide to control ticks. The most common method of application was hand spraying. Most farmers used Oxytetracycline to treat all TBDs, however, some farmers (20%) used local herbs. About 75 to 92.5% of the farmers considered their breeds to be resistant to ticks and ECF. The reasons given included not applying acaricide for a long time, animals always carry ticks without getting sick or dieing and ECF affects only calves and not adult animals. The serum antibody prevalence was 80.1, 78.2 and 60% in Tarime, Ankole and Nyanza zebu cattle, respectively. The prevalence of antibodies to Theileria parva did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between calves (75.5%), yearlings (80%) and adult animals (73.4%). It is concluded that Theileria parva infection in cattle around the Lake Victoria basin is highly prevalent. The farmers know the signs of ECF, but do not spray/dip their animals on a regular basis because of economic reasons and also they consider their breeds to be resistant to ticks and ECF.
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    The role of indigenous knowledge and perceptions of pastoral communities on traditional grazing management in North-western Tanzania
    (Academic Journals, 2012-10) Selemani, Ismail Saidi; Eik, Lars Olav; Holand, Øystein; Ådnøy, Tormod; Mtengeti, Ephraim; Mushi, Daniel
    Traditional forage conservation, locally known as “ngitili”, which involves retaining an area of standing vegetation from the beginning of rainy season and opening it up for grazing at the peak of dry season, has become an important strategy for rangeland rehabilitation in the north-western semi-arid part of Tanzania. The present study assessed the current rangeland management practices, the role of indigenous knowledge on ngitili conservation and perceptions of agropastoralists on communal resources management. Data were collected from a total of 10 villages of Shinyanga rural and Meatu district. Over 90% of villagers were agropastoralists, where the mean numbers of specific livestock per interviewed household were 51 cattle, 40 goats, 20 sheep and 7 horses. The two most important traditional rangeland management strategies practiced by agropastoralists in this region were ngitiliconservation and seasonal movement of livestock herds. Management of common resources was perceived to be problematic and most agro-pastoralists shifted from communal rangelands toward individual private ngitili. Interviewed agro-pastoralists claimed that, unequal sharing of benefits accrued from communal resources and poor management of communal ngitili lead to the preference of private ngitili to communal ones. The contribution of indigenous knowledge of Sukuma people lead to the success of ngitili conservation. However, the sustainability of this vital local knowledge is questionable. This paper recommends participatory management that allows integration of existing local knowledge in rangeland improvement.
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    Bioaccumulation and public health implications of trace metals in edible tissues of the crustaceans Scylla serrata and Penaeus monodon from the Tanzanian coast.
    (Springer International Publishing, 2017) Rumisha, C; Leermakers, M; Mdegela, R.H; Kochzius, M; Elskens, M
    The coastal population in East Africa is grow- ing rapidly but sewage treatment and recycling facilities in major cities and towns are poorly developed. Since estuarine mangroves are the main hotspots for pollut- ants, there is a potential for contaminants to accumulate in edible fauna and threaten public health. This study analysed trace metals in muscle tissues of the giant mud crabs (Scylla serrata) and the giant tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) from the Tanzanian coast, in order to determine the extent of bioaccumulation and public health risks. A total of 180 samples of muscle tissues of S. serrata and 80 of P. monodon were collected from nine sites along the coast. Both species showed high levels of trace metals in the wet season and significant bioaccumulation of As, Cu and Zn. Due to their burrowing and feeding habits, mud crabs were more contaminated compared to tiger prawns sampled from the same sites. Apart from that, the measured levels of Cd, Cr and Pb did not exceed maximum limits for human consumption. Based on the current trend of fish consumption in Tanzania (7.7 kg/person/year), the mea- sured elements (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) are not likely to present health risks to shellfish consumers. Nevertheless, potential risks of As and Cu cannot be ruled out if the average per capita consumption is exceeded. This calls for strengthened waste manage- ment systems and pollution control measures
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    Occurrences of thermophilic Campylobacter in pigs slaughtered at Morogoro slaughter slabs, Tanzania
    (Springer Science+Business Media B.V, 2010-08) Mdegela, Robinson H; Kibona, Laurence; Jacob, Petro; Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel
    Occurrences of thermophlic Campylobacter in pigs and pig carcasses was investigated in a cross-sectional study that was carried out in three selected slaughter slabs in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania. Before sampling, the slab hygiene, slaughter, carcass dressing, and meat handling was assessed. Fecal samples were collected from 66 slaughter pigs at the kill floor. After slaughter, a 100-cm 2 area on medial surface of the thigh muscles of dressed carcasses was sampled using sterile cotton swabs. Thereafter, the jejunal, cecal, and colon contents were also sampled. The samples were subjected to standard bacteriological examination using Skirrows protocol. In all slaughter slabs visited, it was found that pig slaughter, dressing, and meat handling was done on the ground under unhygienic condition. All the slaughter slab environment were dirty and had neither tap water or drainage systems. Thermophilic Campylobacter prevalence in slaugh- tered pig was 66.7% while contamination rate of dressed carcasses was 10.6%. Of the Campylobacter-positive car- casses, five (12.2%) were from the animals which were also positive to Campylobacter. The isolation rate of Campylobac- ter in the cecum was higher (34.8%) compared to the small intestines (28.8%) and colon (16.7%) although the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent species as it constituted 74% of all isolates, while Campylobacter coli was isolated at 26%. This suggests possible risks of infection to people through consumption of contaminated pork or through contact with infected pigs. Cecum was found to be the major part of intestine highly colonized by Campylobacter.
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    Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants in Northern Tanzania and their distribution between breast milk, maternal blood, placenta and cord blood. Environmental Research
    (ELSEVIER, 2019) Müller, M.H.B; Polder, A; Brynildsrud, O.B; Grønnestad, R; Karimi, M; Lie, E; Manyilizu, W.B; Mdegela, R.H; Mokiti, F; Murtadha, M; Nonga, H.E; Skaare, J.U; Solhaug, A; Lyche, J.L
    Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) begins during pregnancy and may cause adverse health effects in the fetus or later in life. The present study aimed to assess prenatal POPs exposure to Tanzanian infants and evaluate the distribution of POPs between breast milk, maternal blood, placenta and cord blood. For assessment of prenatal exposure, 48 maternal blood samples from Mount Meru Regional Referral Hospital (MMRRH), Arusha Tanzania, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), dioxin-like (DL) activity and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs). For evaluation of POPs distribution between maternal/infant compartments, breast milk, placenta and cord blood corresponding to the maternal blood were analyzed for OCPs, PCBs and BFRs. In maternal blood, p,p ́- DDE was detected in 100% of the samples ranging between 29 and 1890 ng/g lipid weight (lw). PCB-153 was the only PCB detected in maternal blood, with detection rate of 29% and concentrations up to 116 ng/g lw. BDE-47 was detected in 65% of the maternal blood samples, ranging between
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    Effects of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activities on Algivorous Cichlid Fish in Lake Tanganyika
    (IGI Global, 2021) Munubi, Renalda N.; Lamtane, Hieromin A.
    Over the last century, water temperatures in Lake Tanganyika have risen due to climate change, which increased thermal stratification and reduced the magnitude of nutrient availability. A rise in temperature increases the C:N:P ratio resulting in a poor algal diet. In addition, lake littoral habitat is experiencing increased sediment load due to deforestation of the watershed caused by anthropogenic activities. Sediments cover benthic algae and reduce its nutritional value, consequently affecting the foraging behavior, distribution, and growth performance of algivorous fish. Algae and algivorous fish are an important link in the lake food chain; therefore, if the rise in temperature will continue as predicted, then this may have a cascading effect for the rest of the community in the food chain including human being. This, in turn, may contribute to food insecurity at local and regional levels. To counteract this adaptation and mitigation measures such as environmental monitoring systems and creating new opportunities should be considered.
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    Food preferences of the multi-mammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis, in irrigated rice habitats in Tanzani
    (Taylor & Francis, 2014-10-19) Malungu, L.S; Mlyashimbi, E.C.M; Ngowo, V; Mdangi, M; Katakweba, A.S.; Tesha, P.
    We investigated the composition of the diet of the multi-mammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis, within irrigated rice and fallow field habitats at set time periods related to rice crop growth stages. In both habitats, vegetative plant material, i.e. leaves, stems and seeds, were the most abundant components of the rodent’s diet, while other food types (invertebrates, fruits) were observed only in low quantities. We conclude that vegetative plant material and seeds were the main types of food consumed not only due to their relatively higher abundance in the environments under study but also because of the highly specialised herbivorous/granivorous nature of the dominant rodent species, M. natalensis. Thus, the introduction and expansion of continuous rice-cropping using irrigation in Tanzania is likely to be severely constrained by the presence of M. natalensis. In our opinion, field hygiene, including the removal of alternative food resources and nesting sites for M. natalensis near cropping areas, may help to both lower rodent population numbers and reduce immigration potential. Non chemical rodent control methods such as trap barrier systems developed for lowland irrigated rice in south-eastern Asia should, we argue, be evaluated for their effectiveness under African conditions.
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    Effect of Sprouting on Chemical Composition and Performances of Improved Chickens Fed with Hydroponic Sorghum Fodder (HSF)
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2019) Kidulani, V. I
    Raising chickens is rapidly gaining popularity in the developing world. However, high feed costs associated with intensive poultry rearing as well as increased competition between humans and animals/chicken on feed demand have necessitated the need for exploring new options in chicken feeding. Furthermore, chickens have a limited foraging range a factor that translates in a very narrow array of feeds they can access. Sorghum is one such feedstuff which is widely grown in Tanzania and has nutritional value almost similar to maize and also drought-resistant crop. Given this, two studies were conducted to determine the effect of sprouting sorghum grain on the chemical composition of sprouted sorghum and bird performance fed on the HSF based diet. In the first study, sorghum grain was sprouted in a hydroponic system for 168 hours and sampled for proximate analysis, minerals, anti-nutritional factors and amino acids. The sprouted sorghum seeds were subjected to proximate analysis in duplicate samples at 0, 24, 72, 120 and 168 hours. Whereas, in the second study the aim was to assess the effect of sprouted sorghum hydroponic fodder-based diets on growth performance, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, carcass yield and digestibility using Sasso chickens. In the second study one hundred and forty-four, growers were allocated randomly to four dietary treatments with three replications for each diet. Each replicate had 12 chickens. The treatment diets were designated as T1: Control; formulated ration with no fodder, T2: 25% HSF: 75% formulated ration, T3: 50% HSF: 50% formulated ration and T4: 75% HSF: 25% formulated ration. The HSF used in this experiment was that which was sampled for 168 hours. The formulated diets were based on locally available low-cost ingredients. Data collected were body weight, feed intake, digestibility and mortality rate. The digestibility trial was conducted at the end of the feeding trial. Three randomly sampled birds were iii slaughtered from each treatment at the end of 13th weeks and evaluated for dressing percent, weights of components (breast, thigh, and drumstick), the weight of non-carcass components and carcass weight. The results in the first study revealed an increase in CP CF, Ash, EE and decrease in NFE from 12.47 to 17.43%; 2.42 to 5.57%; 1.8 to 2.2%; 2.03 to 2.44% and 71 to 60.77% respectively with an increase in sprouting time. However, the DM content declined from 90.56 to 88.09 % with increased sprouting time. There was a decreasing trend for mineral elements with increase sprouting time. Similarly, there was a corresponding decline for anti-nutritional factors with increased sprouting time. The decline ranged from 4.26 to 1.77 g/100g; 4.94 to1.64 mg/Kg; 6.19 to 1.17 µg/100g and 26.46 to 1.07 g/100g for tannin, cyanide, phytic acid and phenols respectively at 168 hours. The maximum reduction of tannin, phytic acid, total phenol and cyanide was achieved between 72 and 120 hours. The results further showed a corresponding increase in the percentage of amino acid, the percent increase of methionine, lysine, and tryptophan ranged from 0.12 to 0.59, 0.22 to 0.79 and 0.08 to 0.16 respectively with sprouting time. Results in the second experiment showed significant treatment effects on all measured variables. Further increase in HSF inclusion resulted in a declined in body weight gain. The decline ranged from 1970 to 1113.96 g, 6847.39 to 6153.67g, and 3.69 to 6.83 for weight gain, total feed intake, and feed conversion ratio respectively. There was a significant difference (p< 0.005) between treatments on live weight and carcass components. Apparent digestibility of sprouted sorghum decreased from 76.08% to 64.24%, while true digestibility decreased from 72.81% to 64.1%. This study concludes that sprouting increases the nutritive value of HSF and led to a significant reduction of anti-nutritional factors. However, the performance of chickens was depressed when the iv quantity of HSF was increased beyond 25%, due to the lowering of the energy: protein ratio. Thus, the use of HSF should, therefore, be limited but where maize grain availability is limited then, sprouted sorghum can be included at a rate not exceeding 25% as energy sources.
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    Comparative evaluation of the performance of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) cultured under different climatic conditions in Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2019) Komba, E. A.
    Growth performance and productivity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is highly influenced by water quality in the pond. On the other hand, water quality is influenced by the climate and ecological conditions of the place. This study evaluated the growthperformance, survival rate, yield, body length-weight relationship and condition factor of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in two districts; Mbarali and Mufindiof Mbeya and Iringa regions,respectively. Furthermore, plankton biomass yield, species composition and biochemical composition of the algae collected from the ponds located in these two districts were assessed. The two districts experience different ecological conditions withhigh and low temperatures.In each district fish were raised in four earthen ponds,each with an average size of 650 m2 for six months. There were two sites per district and two ponds in each site. All ponds were initially drained, cleaned, dried and refilled with water. The ponds were fertilized seven days prior to stocking using urea and Diammonium phosphate (DAP) at a rate of 3 g/m2 and 2 g/m2,respectively.Thereafter, fertilization was done fortnightly throughout the experimental period. Sex reversed Nile tilapia fingerlings with an average body weight of 1.00 g were stocked at a stocking density of 2 fingerlings/m2. Fish were fed with supplementary diet containing 25% crude protein (CP) at 10% of fish body weight in the first month, followed by 5% for the remaining five months. Feeding was done twice daily, at 10.00 to 10.30 am and at04.00 to 04.30 pm. Body weight, length, width and water quality parameters,namelytemperature, dissolved oxygen, transparency, conductivity, salinity, alkalinity, ammonia, nitrate and phosphorus were measured biweekly. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the effect of location on growth performance and water quality parameters. Duncan’s New Multiple Range test was used to test the significance of the differences between a pair of treatment means. The relationships between fish growth and water quality parameters were assessed using correlation analysis while multiple regression analysis was used to assess the influence of water quality parameters on fish growth. All statistical analyses were performed using the General Linear Model (GLM) of the Statistical Analysis System software (SAS, 2000) for Windows. Significant differences were judged at a probability level of p ≤ 0.05. Results revealed that, the growth performance of sex-reversed Nile tilapia was higher (p<0.05) in Mbarali than in Mufindi district where there was high temperature and low temperature, respectively. The mean growth rate (1.26 ± 0.03 g/day), specific growth rate (3.12 ± 0.02%), mean final weight (228.68 ± 4.99 g) and estimated annual yield (6828.43 ± 407.95 kg/ha/year) obtained from the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured at Mbarali district were significantly higher than of those reared in Mufindi district (mean growth rate = 0.48 ± 0.03 g/day, specific growth rate = 2.52 ± 0.02%, mean final weight = 86.68 ± 4.79 g and estimated annual yield = 4465.29 ± 407.95 kg/ha/year). Mean final body length and width were also higher for the fishgrown in ponds located at Mbarali (body length = 21.87 ± 0.16 cm and width = 7.71 ± 0.07 cm) than of those grown at Mufindi (body length = 16.14 ± 0.15 cm and width = 5.55 ± 0.07 cm). The results further revealed that, water quality parameters (temperature, salinity, conductivityand alkalinity) were higher in ponds located at Mbarali than in those located at Mufindi district (p< 0.05) while water transparency was significantly higherin ponds located at Mufindi compared to that of those located at Mbarali. The mean temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, conductivity, salinity, transparency, phosphorusand nitrate in Mbarali were 27.72± 0.25 0C, 6.17 ± 0.27mg/L, 6.91 ± 0.15, 121.62 ±3.27 μS/cm, 57.35 ± 1.86 mg/L, 15.73 ± 0.56cm, 1.33 ± 0.17mg/L, and 7.72 mg/L, respectively. The mean temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, conductivity, salinity, transparency, phosphorusand nitrate in Mufindi were 21.93 ± 0.25 0C, 6.09 ± 0.27 mg/L, 6.96 ± 0.15, 31.81 ± 3.27 μS/cm, 13.18 ± 1.86mg/L, 17.25 ± 0.56 cm, 0.98 ± 0.17 mg/Land 7.71 ± 0.24 mg/L,respectively. Regression of water quality parameters on growth showed that DO and transparency had significant positive influence only for fish growth at Mbarali while temperature and conductivity had positive and significant influence on the growth of fish at Mufindi district. The correlation coefficients (r) between weight and length in both experimental locations were above 95%, indicating a strong relationship between live weight and body length of the fish. The regression coefficient (b) values in the length-weight relationships were 2.87 and 2.94 for Mbarali and Mufindi, respectively, indicating negative allometric growth. The mean condition factor (K) values ranged from 2.74 to 3.50 for Mbarali and 1.96 to 2.40 in Mufindi. The exponential value ‘b’ and the condition factor (K) differed significantly between the two experimental locations (p< 0.05). The analysis of plankton species composition revealed no significanctdifference in number of species found in experimental ponds located in the two locations (p> 0.05). Common species found in both locations belonged to the following classes; Bacillarophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Cynophyceae, Euglenoidea, Foraminifera, Heterotrichea, Monogononta, Tubulinea and Zygnemaphyceae.The class Eurotatoria was found only at Mufindi district. Algal samples collected from Mbarali had higher (p ≤ 0.05) biomass (51.74 ± 1.83 g DM/m2) and crude protein (CP) (16.46 ± 0.65%) contents compared to those collected from Mufindi (biomass = 39.25 ± 1.83 g DM/m2, CP = 14.44 ± 0.65%).From the results of this study it is concluded that, differences in climatic conditions between experimental locations influence significantly the production performance, length-weight relationship and condition factor of Nile tilapia. Plankton species composition, chemical compositions differ slightly between the two experimental locations.
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    Cytosine DNA methylation changes drought stress responses in tissue culture derived banana (Musa AAA- East Africa) plants
    (Journal of Applied Biosciences, 2011) Msogoya, T. J.; Grout, B. W.
    Tissue culture derived plants are often vulnerable to abiotic stresses but mechanisms underlying such responses are hardly known. This study was conducted to determine mechanisms underlying drought stress vulnerability of in vitro derived banana cv. ‘Uganda’. Methodology and results: Suckers of in vitro derived off-type, in vitro micropropagation (MP) derived normal plants and conventionally propagated (CP) plants with no tissue culture history in their ancestry were collected in the field at Sokoine University of Agriculture and planted in 20-litre containers for drought stress evaluation. The mechanisms underlying the drought stress vulnerability were determined when banana plants reached 1.5 m tall based on leaf global cytosine DNA methylation, stomatal density and leaf senescence. Global cytosine DNA methylation was determined from cigar leaves by a reversed phase HPLC analysis. Leaf stomatal density was determined as the number of stomata per unit area of both upper and lower leaf surfaces. Leaf senescence was estimated as a number of leaves with dying margins when soil moisture level decreased to minus 630 millibars. The off-type and MP derived plants had lower (P < 0.05) global cytosine DNA methylation of 11.3 and 17.5 % compared with 22.5 % of the CP derived plants. On the contrary, the off-type and MP derived plants had higher stomatal density of 78.2 and 78.8 stomata per mm2 on the lower leaf surface compared to 72.0 stomata per mm2 of the CP derived banana plants. The leaf senescence of the off-type and MP derived plants was significantly (P < 0.05) higher with 87.7 and 79.5 % compared to 66.7 % of the CP derived plants at soil moisture of minus 630 millibars. Conclusion and application: These findings provide evidence that tissue culture process increases the vulnerability to water stress of in vitro banana regenerants as a consequence of increased leaf stomatal density which is possibly under the control of cytosine DNA hypomethylation. The vulnerability of the in vitro derived banana cv. ‘Uganda’ limits the use of tissue culture derived planting materials among small-scale farmers with limited water resource and irrigation facilities but provides an opportunity for further studies to minimise water stress susceptibility of in vitro derived banana suckers.
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    Altered fruit eating quality in tissue culture derived off-type banana (Musa spp.)
    (Journal of Applied Biosciences, 2011) Msogoya, T. J.; Grout, B. W. W.
    Objective: Somaclonal variation with desirable agronomic performance has extensively been reported but studies on eating qualities of such off-type banana are limited. This study was conducted to determine eating qualities of an in vitro derived off-type banana (Musa AAA East Africa) cv. ‘Uganda’ with tolerance to black sigatoka disease and a high yielder. Methodology and Results: Uncooked and cooked mature green fruits of the off-type banana were compared with those of the popular cooking banana cv. ‘Mshale’ (AA Pisane Lilin) and cv. ‘Uganda’ based on laboratory analysis and taste interviews. Similarly, ripe fruits of the off-type banana were compared with those of the popular dessert banana cv. ‘Mtwike’ (AAA Cavendish cv. Grande naine) and cv. ‘Kisukari’ (AAB/AB Silk) based on laboratory analysis and taste interviews. Results showed that the uncooked green mature fruits of the off-type banana had higher (P < 0.05) calorific value but its cooked meal was the least (P < 0.05) accepted by the taste panelists on grounds that it was hard, less sweet and less aromatic. On the other hand, ripe fruits of the off-type banana were the sweetest with the most attractive peel colour but yet the least accepted by the taste panelists for their sweetness had a fast satiating effect. The poor acceptability of the off-type banana for both cooked and ripe fruit consumption was due to differential proportions of soluble solids caused by altered fruit ripening. Conclusion and application: The undesirable quality of the off-type banana limits not only its adoption by farmers but also the use of somaclonal variation as a source of genetic improvement of banana cv. ‘Uganda’. However, as a consequence of increased sweetness, the off-type banana fruits have the potential for use as sweetener in diet drinks, ice creams, chewing gums and cough syrups.
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    Effect of seedling fibrous roots on field performance of hybrid coffee varieties
    (Academic journals, 2018) Magesa, J. M.; Msogoya, T. J.; Rweyemamu, C. L.
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of number of fibrous roots per seedling on plant growth and yield components of hybrid coffee varieties. A split plot experiment in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications was used. The main factor consisted of five varieties (N39-2, N39-3, N39-7, KP423-1 and KP423-2) whereas the sub-factor consisted of four types of roots (seedlings with 1-9 fibrous roots; seedlings with 10-17 fibrous roots; seedlings with ≥ 18 fibrous roots and control). Plants were evaluated for vegetative growth and yield components 14 months from the date of planting. The data were subjected to analysis of variance using CoStat software version 6.311 and treatment means were separated based on Tukey’s test at P ≤ 0.05. Results indicate that coffee varieties N39-3, KP423-1 and KP423-2 were significantly (P = 0.00) taller than varieties N39-1 and N39-7 while coffee variety N39-2 significantly produced a larger number of fruit clusters per plant (P = 0.00) and higher seed yield (P = 0.00) than the rest of coffee varieties. Results also show that seedlings with at least 18 fibrous roots per seedling highly significantly increased plant height (P = 0.00), stem internode length (P = 0.00), number of fruit bearing primaries per plant (P = 0.00), number of fruit clusters per plant (P = 0.00), number of berries per plant (P = 0.00) and total seed yield (P = 0.00) of hybrid coffee varieties. The interactions between variety N39-3 and seedlings with at least 18 fibrous roots per seedling only significantly increased (P = 0.00) the internode length compared with the interaction between variety N39-3 and seedlings with 10-17 fibrous roots per seedling, and variety KP423-2 and seedlings with 1-9 fibrous roots per seedling. It is concluded that coffee growers should use seedlings with at least 18 fibrous roots per seedling in order to increase plant growth and total seed yield of improved hybrid coffee varieties. Further studies are required to determine propagation technologies which can increase the number of fibrous roots to at least 18 per stem cutting of hybrid coffee varieties.
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    Effect of benzylaminopurine on in vivo multiplication of French plantain (Musa spp. AAB) cv. ‘Itoke sege’
    (Journal of Applied Biosciences, 2014) Kindimba, G. V.; Msogoya, T. J.
    Objective: In vivo macropropagation is an alternative simple and cheap technique for banana multiplication. However, the response of cv. “Itoke Sege” to in vivo macropropagation combined with different benzylaminopurine (BAP) concentrations is not known. This study was conducted to determine the appropriate concentration of BAP for enhancing in vivo macropropagation of French plantain cv. ‘Itoke Sege’. Methodology and results: Sword suckers of about 70 - 80 cm tall and 14 -16 cm collar diameter were obtained from farmers’ fields in Rungwe district in Mbeya, Tanzania. Moistened sawdust was steamsterilized for 45 minutes and then filled for cooling in wooden propagators of 1.5 m x 2.20 m x 0.3 m dimension. Suckers were partially peeled, washed to remove roots and surface-sterilized for 15 seconds by dipping them in hot boiling water. The sterilized corms were desheathed to expose axillary buds and decorticated to suppress the apical meristems. Fifteen corms in three replications were each dipped in BAP at 0.0, 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 mg/l for 12 hours and then planted into sawdust media. Irrigation was done immediately but subsequent watering was carried out when necessary. In vivo multiplication response was evaluated based on number of days to first shoot emergence, number of shoots per corm, number of roots per shoot and shoot size. Results showed that BAP concentration at 1.5 mg L-1 significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the number of days to first shoot emergence of 15.78 days followed by BAP at 3.0, 6.0 and 0.0 mg L-1 with 25.18, 28.39 and 36.43 days, respectively. Similarly, BAP concentration at 1.5 mg L-1 significantly (P < 0.05) increased sucker productivity with 17.11 suckers per corm followed by BAP at 0.0, 3.0 and 6.0 mg L-1 with 15.23, 13.08 and 12.96 suckers per corm, respectively. Corms treated with BAP at 1.5, 3.0, 6.0 mg L-1 significantly (P > 0.05) produced taller shoots with length of 27.0, 27.3 and 26.7 cm followed by corms treated with BAP at 0.0 mg L-1 with shoot length of 22.7 cm. Conversely, corms treated with BAP at 0.0 and 6.0 mg L-1 produced suckers with larger collar diameter of 3.4 and 2.4 cm followed by suckers from corms treated with BAP at 3.0 and 1.5 mg L-1 with collar diameters of 2.2 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Suckers from corms treated with BAP at 0.0 and 3.0 mg L-1 had larger number of leaves of 4.8 and 4.6 per sucker followed by suckers from corms treated with BAP at 1.5 and 6.0 mg L-1 with 4.0 and 3.8 leaves per sucker, respectively. Conclusion and application: Based on these findings, it is concluded that in vivo macropropagation combined with BAP at 1.5 mg L-1 is a suitable technique for improving multiplication and sucker growth of French plantain cv. ‘Itoke Sege’. The findings of this study provide an opportunity for the use of in vivo macropropagation coupled with BAP at 1.5 mg L-1 as an alternative simple and cheap technology for rapid and mass production of planting materials for recalcitrant plantain varieties. Further study is recommended to evaluate the response of cv. “Itoke Sege” to in vivo macropropagation combined with other cytokinebased growth regulators. Research is also required to test the responses of other recalcitrant plantain cultivars to in vivo macropropagation in combination with different BAP concentrations.
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    Effect of thidiazuron on in vivo shoot proliferation of popular banana (Musa spp. L) cultivars in Tanzania
    (Journal of Applied Biosciences, 2014) Msogoya, T. J.; Mwakisitu, J.
    Objective: Thidiazuron (TDZ) is a diphenyl urea-based cytokinin, which is non-degradable and persistent in plant tissues. The effect of these TDZ properties on in vivo banana proliferation when deshealthed corms are temporarily dipped in such growth regulator is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of temporary treatments with TDZ of deshealthed banana corms on in vivo sucker multiplication. Methodology and Results: The study was comprised of a split plot experiment in a randomized complete design with three replications each replication with 15 corms. The main plot factor was banana cultivars (Mtwike, Mzuzu and Bukoba) while the sub-plot factor was TDZ concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/l). Moistened sawdust was steam-sterilized for 45 minutes and then filled for cooling in wooden propagators. Banana suckers were cleaned to remove roots and surface-sterilized for 15 seconds. The sterilized corms were deshealthed to expose axillary buds and decorticated to suppress the apical meristems. These corns were each dipped in TDZ at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/l for 12 hours and then planted into the sterilized sawdust media in the propagators. Results showed that the number of shoots per corm significantly (P < 0.05) increased as TDZ concentration increased from 0.0 to 2.0 mg/l but decreased as TDZ increased to 3.0 mg/l. The number of leaves per sucker significantly (P < 0.05) decreased as TDZ concentration increased from 0.0 to 3.0 mg/l. Conversely, corms treated with TDZ at 2.0 mg/l produced suckers with the largest number of leaves of 4.9 per sucker followed by corms treated with TDZ at 1.0, 3.0 and 0.5 mg/l with 4.5, 4.3 and 3.3 leaves per sucker, respectively. Banana cultivars had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on the number of shoots per corm where banana cv. Bukoba produced the largest number of shoots of 6.4 per corm while banana cv. Mtwike and Mzuzu produced 2.3 and 2.9 shoots per corm, respectively. Conclusion and Application: The findings from this study provide evidence that in vivo shoot multiplication rates and sucker growth of banana cv. Mzuzu, Bukoba and Mtwike can be increased by dipping for 12 hours deshealthed corms in TDZ solution at 2.0 mg/l. The low in vivo multiplication rates of banana cv. Mtwike and Mzuzu underscore the need for further studies to determine alternative best cytokine-based growth regulators.
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    Diversity and genetic identity of pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] in Tanzania based on microsatellite markers
    (African Journal of Biotechnology, 2018) Makaranga, A.; Seth, M. S.; Ndee, A.; Mneney, E. E.; Mbwambo, G.; Lema, K.; Godfrey, A.; Mrema, L.; Kachiwile, A.; Mrema, E.; Msogoya, T. J.
    Pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] is an important fruit crop cultivated in Tanzania. However, the knowledge on genetic diversity of the pineapple cultivars grown in Tanzania is limited. This study was aimed at determining the genetic diversity and identity of pineapple cultivars from different growing regions in Tanzania using microsatellite markers also known as simple sequence repeat marker (SSR). Ten of the 18 microsatellite markers were polymorphic and generated a total of 22 distinct reproducible bands with an average of 2.2 bands per primer pair. The number of polymorphic bands detected with each primer pair ranged from 1 to 3 with an average of 1.5 per primer pair. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values of each primer pair ranged from 0.17 to 0.79 with an average of 0.41. Two microsatellite loci TsuAC010 and TsuAC039 revealed PIC values higher than 0.50 thus suggesting that such primers have high discriminatory ability. The consensus tree derived from the unweighted pairgroup method with arithmetic means (UPGMA) revealed four different groups. Kinole-SCT subpopulation formed a distinct group from Madeke-SCT and MD2 hybrid cultivar. Kinole-SC, Mukuranga- SC, and Kiwangwa-SCcultivars were closely related on the cluster analysis. This study demonstrated the existence of low genetic diversity in pineapples cultivated in Tanzania implying that a well-thoughtout breeding strategies should be employed for genetic improvements of pineapple. Introduction of exotic clones and employment of modern breeding strategies such as marker assisted selection (MAS) and genetic engineering technologies is recommended. This will widen the current genetic pool of pineapple in Tanzania.
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    Knowledge assessment on the effects of climate change due to keeping livestock in urban and peri-urban areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    (Academic Journals, 2013-01) Mlozi, R.S.M; Lupala, A; Chenyambuga, S.W; Liwenga, E; Msogoya, T
    This paper discusses assessment results of the respondents who kept livestock in urban and periurban areas in the three municipalities of Kinondoni, Ilala, and Temeke in Dar es Salaam city region, if they had knowledge that their activities had an effect on climate change. Data show that over two thirds of the respondents did not think that the presence of solid waste, liquid waste, and pollution resulting from keeping livestock would have an effect on climate risks in the future. However, the respondents thought that presence of chemical pollution and land degradation due to keeping livestock in urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) would have an effect on climate change. Furthermore, the article stipulates actions that urban livestock keepers would take in the future for mitigating climate risks. In addition, the respondents in UPA thought that people keeping livestock would in the future incur additional costs because of climate risks. The respondents indicated that most livestock types kept in UPA would be vulnerable and sensitive to climate risks and proposed adaptation options to take in the future. It is paramount that time has come for the three Dar es Salaam municipalities of Kinondoni, Ilala and Temeke through their relevant departments (agriculture and livestock, health, planning, community development), among other things, to educate livestock owners on climate risks due to livestock keeping and how to lessen them in the future. Other municipalities in Tanzania and elsewhere could use these results.
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    Tick burden and acquisition of immunity to Theileria parva by Tarime cattle in comparison to Sukuma cattle under different tick control regimes in the Lake Zone of Tanzania
    (2016-03) Laisser, E. L. K.; Chenyambuga, S. W.; Karimuribo, E. D.; Msalya, G.; Kipanyula, M. J.; Mwilawa, A. J.; Mdegela, R. H.; Kusiluka, L. J. M.; Gwakisa, P. S.
    This study was conducted to determine tick burden and immunological parameters of resistance to East Coast fever (ECF) in Tarime and Sukuma cattle. Tick load, packed cell volume (PCV), Theileria parva (T. parva) specific antibody percent positivity (PP), and prevalence of T. parva parasites were studied in relation to dipping regime, strains, and season. A total of 50 experimental cattle were included in this study. Tick load was determined by whole body counts, antibody percent positivity was determined by the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM)-based T. parva enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and prevalence of T. parva parasites was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the p104 gene. Dipping frequency on tick burden showed no statistically significant differences when cattle of either strain were dipped either once every 2 or 3 weeks in the dry and wet seasons. However, Tarime cattle had higher (p<0.05) tick count than Sukuma cattle and non dipped groups maintained high tick infestation throughout the experimental period. The PCV values were within the physiological range, although this parameter was lower in Tarime cattle (p<0.05). All cattle regardless of strain were seropositive, although Tarime cattle maintained higher PP compared to Sukuma by 15%. Conversely, the prevalence of T. parva parasites was lower in Tarime (38%) compared to Sukuma cattle (38.5%), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05). During the study period, 20% (5/25) of Sukuma cattle contracted ECF, but none of the Tarime cattle showed clinical signs for the disease. The differences between the two strains shown in terms of PP and T. parva parasite prevalence may indicate the ability of individual cattle to resist tick infestation and ECF infection under natural challenge. Higher antibody levels but lower parasite prevalence attained by Tarime cattle, suggests inherent ability of Tarime cattle to resist clinical development of ECF infection, but to remain as T. parva carriers.
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    Investigation on copper levels in and around fish farms in Kitwe, copperbelt province, Zambia
    (Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2015) Nalishuwa, Lusebo
    A study was conducted to assess possible risks of copper contamination in fish farmed in copper mining areas of Zambia. Nine fish farms were selected within and around Kitwe district for the study. The farms drew water from different sources – dam, river and spring. Five types of samples were sampled, i.e. soil, sediment, plant, fish and water at each farm. Three fish ponds were sampled at each farm. Copper determination in each sample was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results revealed that there were significant differences between farms receiving water from different sources with respect to copper concentration in soils, sediment, plant and fish but not in water. The soil and sediment samples taken from around Mindolo Dam had the highest concentration of copper, while those taken from around Kafue River had the lowest copper concentration. The mean copper concentrations in soil and sediment samples taken from around Mindolo Dam were 91.09 and 41.71 ppm while those from around Garneton spring were 30.36 and 36.47 ppm and around Kafue River were 13.55 and 24.43 ppm respectively. From the three sources of water the mean copper levels in plant, fish and water samples ranged from 13.93 to 26.12, 8.68 to 13.25 and 0.14 to 0.39 ppm respectively. Furthermore, farms receiving water from same sources differed significantly with respect copper concentration in soil, plant, sediment and fish, but not in water. From the results it can be concluded that the relatively high levels of copper in soils and sediments from Mindolo Dam and Garneton Spring were due to their natural presence there and had not been deposited from anywhere else. The relatively much higher levels of copper observed in fish than in water mayii be attributed to the build up of mineral in the fish with time. More studies are needed to establish the origin of copper in and around the fish ponds in the study area.
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    Short-term effects of cow manure on above ground growth characteristics of Brachiaria ruziziensis in tropical sub-humid environment, Tanzania
    (SCIENCEDOMAIN international, 2015-03-24) Maleko, David; Kileo, Naiman; Abdul-Rahman, Yusuph; Sangeda, Anthony
    Aims: The study assessed the effects of different levels of cow manure application on above ground growth characteristics and herbage production of Brachiaria ruziziensis (Congo signal grass) in tropical sub-humid environment on arable land. The rationale behind being contribute to better understanding of how the growth and yield components of B. ruziziensis respond to varied levels of cow manure application Study Design: Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD). Place and Duration of Study: Field experiment was conducted at Magadu Dairy Farm, located in Morogoro, Tanzania, from February to June, 2014. Methodology: Three (3) blocks (replications), 4 treatments (0, 5, 10 and 15 t/ha cow manurelevels), 3 m inter-block distance, 12 plots and 0.5 m inter-plot distance. Pre-plant spread of manure into plots at varying levels followed by planting of B. ruziziensis stem cuttings. Repetitive measurement of several above ground growth parameters at 2 weeks interval post planting up to the 10th week. At the end, the pasture stand was harvested and the above ground dry matter (DM) yield was estimated. One way ANOVA under SAS computer program was used to test if there was significant difference among the treatments at P =.05. Results: Cow manure application had a significant effect on stem height, tiller and leaf number perplant (P < .0001), in which each subsequent increase in manure application was increasing growth of these parameters. Moreover, the DM yield differed significantly across all treatments (P < .001). However, there was no significant difference in DM yield between 10 and 15 t/ha manure application rates (P = .76). Conclusion: Cow manure was found to improve productivity of B. ruziziensis by increasing stem growth, tiller and leaf numbers, thus DM. Moreover, cow manure application rate of 10 t/ha was found to be ideal level for maximum DM yield (13.5 t/ha) under the conditions of this study.