Forest Mensuration and Management Collection

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    Landcover dynamics and hydological functioning of wetlands in the Usangu plains in Tanzania
    (Sokoine University of agriculture, 2006) Kashaigili, Japhet J.
    In the Usangu Plains of the Upper Great Ruaha River Catchment in Tanzania, the hydrology of the wetlands and the downstream flow regime changes in response to changes in land use and cover was investigated through analysis of remotely sensed images and modelling. A hydrological model for the Eastern wetland that accounts for the water balance was developed. This model was used to evaluate the hydrology of the Eastern wetland in response to changes in land use and cover and the amount of inflows into the Eastern wetland required to maintain a specified outflow downstream of the wetland. A small wetland locally called Ifushiro located in the upstream of the Eastern wetland was also investigated to evaluate its contribution to dry season flows. The analysis involved a detailed hydrometric monitoring and modelling using Visual MODFLOW software. The Ifushiro wetland was shown to have no contribution to dry season flow, since much of its water was lost through evaporation. The hydrology of the Eastern wetland was shown to be modulated by the changes in land use and cover on the upstream. Since 1958. increasing diversions of water has caused average dry season inflows to the Eastern wetland to decrease from approximately 15.0 mV to 4.3 mV. This has led to a reduction in the average minimum dry season surface area of the wetland from approximately 160 km2 to 93 km2. Since the early 1990s the decrease in dry season water-levels within the wetland has resulted in prolonged periods of zero flow in the Great Ruaha River, with severe consequences for the ecology of the Ruaha National Park. The wetland model enabled calculation of the inflows required to maintain specified discharges. To maintain a flow of 0.5 m’s'1, as the minimum required flow for maintenance offishiii habitat and the current ecology of the Park, requires an average dry season inflow of approximately 7.0 mV into the Eastern wetland in the dry season. The results from this research demonstrate the value of combining different research methods/approaches and the use of simple models to examine system functioning to assist decision-making.
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    Modeling aboveground biomass in dense tropical submontane rainforest using airborne laser scanner data
    (MDPI [Commercial Publisher], 2015-01-14) Hansen, Endre Hofstad; Gobakken, Terje; Bollandsås, Ole Martin; Zahabu, Eliakimu; Næsset, Erik
    Successful implementation of projects under the REDD+ mechanism, securing payment for storing forest carbon as an ecosystem service, requires quantification of biomass. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is a relevant technology to enhance estimates of biomass in tropical forests. We present the analysis and results of modeling aboveground biomass (AGB) in a Tanzanian rainforest utilizing data from a small-footprint ALS system and 153 field plots with an area of 0.06–0.12 ha located on a systematic grid. The study area is dominated by steep terrain, a heterogeneous forest structure and large variation in AGB densities with values ranging from 43 to 1147 Mg·ha −1 , which goes beyond the range that has been reported in existing literature on biomass modeling with ALS data in the tropics. Root mean square errors from a 10-fold cross-validation of estimated values were about 33% of a mean value of 462 Mg·ha −1 . Texture variables derived from a canopy surface model did not result in improved models. Analyses showed that (1) variables derived from echoes in the lower parts of the canopy and (2) canopy density variables explained more of the AGB density than variables representing the height of the canopy.
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    Charcoal potential of Mombo woodlands at kitungalo, Tanzania
    (Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 2005-04-01) Malimbwi, R. E.; Zahabu, E.; Monela, G. C.; Misana, S.; Jambiya, G. C.; Mchome, B.
    A study was carried out to determine the charcoal potential of the miombo woodlands of Kitulangalo area, near Morogoro, Tanzania. Systematic sampling design used in an inventory in 1996 was repeated in 1999 in order to determine the general current stand parameters and forest change. A total of 46 sample plots were laid out in the forest reserve. In adjacent public lands stratified random sampling was applied where a total of 30 plots were laid out. The layout was meant to study how species richness and wood stocking vary in public lands and forest reserve. Preferred tree species for charcoal making had standing wood volume of 24.5 m 3 ha- 1 and 56.5 m 3 ha-' in public lands and reserved forest respectively with corresponding basal area of 3.7 m 2 ha-' and 7.2 m2 ha- 1 . Stem numbers were 909 stems ha- 1 in public lands and 354 stems ha-'in the reserved forest. These values indicated more regeneration in public lands following disturbance than in the forest reserve. The weight of charcoal that can be extracted from the woodland at the roadside was 56 kg, equivalent to only one bag of charcoal per hectare. Similarly 54 bags may be extracted at 5 km distance while 125 bags may be extracted from beyond 10 km from the highway. With the established stand growth rate of 2.3 m 3 ha- 1 year-1' for the regrowth of miombo woodland at Kitulangalo, it will take about 8 to 15 years for the degraded woodlands to recover for charcoal production. Therefore, for sustainable charcoal production in this area, felling cycles of 8 to 15 years are recommended, provided the minimum tree size of > 10 cm dbh (diameter at breast height) for charcoal making is observed.
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    Governance structures for REDD+ Experiences from Tanzania
    (Climate Change Iimpacts and Adaptation and Mitigation Project (CCIAM) - Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), 2016) Vatn, A.; Kajembe, G.; Silayo, D.; Vedeld, P.
    This chapter discusses national gover­nance structures for REDD+ in Tanzania. It also docu­ments experiences from REDD+ pilot projects and discusses what findings from these imply for the national REDD+ strategy. The present strategy is advocating a national/fund whereas NGOs favour a market solution. Our research shows that establishing REDD+ will demand substantial develop­ments in local land/forest govern­ance structures including clarifying property rights and developing management plans. Capacities and competences at district, but also at national levels are weak. There are also important challenges related to ensuring participation and handling of conflicts that REDD+ implies. In this regard, a ‘fund’-based model seems favourable to ensure democratic accountability as well as national capacity buil­ding and avoidance of leakage. However, Tanzania’s public administration faces serious problems regarding transparency and managing of decentralisation. Thus, involving NGOs in the REDD+ Fund will help enhance openness. Moreover, learning from their experiences with engaging local com­munities in REDD+ is also helpful in making decentralisation effective.
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    Exploring Forest Governance in Tanzania
    (Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2012) Katani, J. Z.; Babili, I. H.
    This chapter explores forest governance in Tanzania. It is based on a literature review of the governance concept in general and an analysis of selected case studies – Suledo, Duru-Haitemba and Bereku forest reserves – in particular. We identify various types of forest governance and show how these are related to the decentralisation process in Tanzania. Our findings indicate that decentralisation through participatory forest management (PFM) in Tanzania integrates various governance types, including good governance, multilevel governance, corporate governance, network governance and global governance. We also show that community-based forest management (CBFM) and joint forest management (JFM), the two dominant forms of participatory forest management in Tanzania, have generally improved the condition of forest resources in the selected case studies. However, the contribution of CBFM and JFM to improved livelihoods of local communities is still rather low. Both CBFM and JFM still face a number of challenges, including inadequate additional income for local communities and insufficient support from external stakeholders.
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    Forests and Climate Change Mitigation
    (Mkuki na Nyota Publishers Ltd, Dar es Salaam, 2017) Mugasha, W. A.; Woiso, D.A.; Katani, J. Z.
    Forest ecosystems are increasingly being recognized for their important role in climate change mitigation because of their ability to regulate the carbon cycle. As a result, national and global initiatives such as afforestation/reforestation under CDM and REDD+ have been initiated to enhance the role of forests in climate change mitigation. Understanding the relationship between forests and climate change mitigation is necessary to enable the meaningful participation of forest practitioners in forest carbon projects and programmes. This chapter explores and highlights aspects of climate change mitigation as linked to forestry by explaining the meaning of climate change mitigation while also introducing various types of GHG sinks. Also covered in the chapter are relevant national strategies and policies in addition to available forest and non-forest based options for participating in mitigation activities. The chapter ends by giving an overview of M & E methods available for mitigation projects.
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    PFM and Climate Change: The Synergy
    (Mkuki na Nyota Publishers Ltd, Dar es Salaam, 2017) Woiso, D. N.; Katani, J. Z.; Abdallah, J. M.
    This chapter is about the concept of, current status of, and factors influencing Participatory Forest Management (PFM). The link between PFM and climate change is also described. Some examples are provided of how PFM is implemented and some illustrations of various factors influencing PFM in the country. The challenges and successes of PFM implementation in the country are also explained.
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    Combining airborne laser scanning and Landsat data for statistical modeling of soil carbon and tree biomass in Tanzanian Miombo woodlands
    (Springer Open, 2017-04-17) Egberth, M.; Nyberg, G.; Næsset, E.; Gobakken, T.; Mauya, E; Malimbwi, R.; Katani, J.; Chamuya, N.; Bulenga, G.; Olsson, H.
    Background: Soil carbon and biomass depletion can be used to identify and quantify degraded soils, and by using remote sensing, there is potential to map soil conditions over large areas. Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager satellite data and airborne laser scanning data were evaluated separately and in combination for modeling soil organic carbon, above ground tree biomass and below ground tree biomass. The test site is situated in the Liwale district in southeastern Tanzania and is dominated by Miombo woodlands. Tree data from 15 m radius field-surveyed plots and samples of soil carbon down to a depth of 30 cm were used as reference data for tree biomass and soil carbon estimations. Results: Cross-validated plot level error (RMSE) for predicting soil organic carbon was 28% using only Landsat 8, 26% using laser only, and 23% for the combination of the two. The plot level error for above ground tree biomass was 66% when using only Landsat 8, 50% for laser and 49% for the combination of Landsat 8 and laser data. Results for below ground tree biomass were similar to above ground biomass. Additionally it was found that an early dry season satellite image was preferable for modelling biomass while images from later in the dry season were better for modelling soil carbon. Conclusion: The results show that laser data is superior to Landsat 8 when predicting both soil carbon and biomass above and below ground in landscapes dominated by Miombo woodlands. Furthermore, the combination of laser data and Landsat data were marginally better than using laser data only.
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    Barriers to and opportunities for improving productivity and profitability of the Kiwere and Magozi irrigation schemes in Tanzania
    (Taylor and Francis Group, 2016-03-15) Mdemu, M. V.; Mziray, N.; Bjornlund, H.; Kashaigili, J. J.
    Irrigation is a key strategy for food security and poverty alleviation among small farmers in Tanzania. However, the potential of irrigation to improve food security is limited by multiple barriers. This article discusses these barriers within the Kiwere and Magozi schemes. Results indicate that water supply barriers are caused by poor irrigation infrastructure and management. Lack of finance is also a critical barrier to increasing overall productivity. Finance affects farmers’ timely access to adequate supply of quality inputs and machinery and availability of transport to access inputs and profitable markets. There is evidence that these barriers have to be addressed holistically.
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    Knowledge and perception of users on ecosystem services in Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania and Taita Hills, Kenya
    (Journal of Continuing Education and Extension, 2015-12-15) Kilima, F. T. M.; Kadigi, M. J.; Kashaigili, J. J.; Abdallah, J.; Steven, C.; Shimbe, S.
    The capacity of ecosystems of Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania and Taita Hills in Kenya to continue providing vital ecosystem services is dwindling over time, mainly due to over-exploitative uses of ecosystem services and climate change. Many of the efforts to identify effective approaches for sustainable management of the ecosystem in these areas have not explicitly embraced stakeholders’ perceptions. This paper offers a comprehensive review of users’ knowledge and perception of climate change and Ecosystem services in Mount Kilimanjaro and Taita Hills. The intent is to profile users’ knowledge and perception to pin-point leverage points for future awareness creation and community mobilization strategies to hedge against negative impacts of climate change. Data were collected through interviews from 352 respondents who were randomly selected from three distinct altitude zones (low, middle and high) of Mount Kilimanjaro and Taita Hills. Descriptive statistics for socio-economic and demographic variables as well as measures of users’ perception of the ecosystems and climate related challenges were computed. None parametric statistics (Kruskal-Wallis H statistic, Mann-Whitney U test and Kendall-tau test) were performed to test whether some of the variables were correlated. Results show that users of ecosystems of Mount Kilimanjaro and Taita Hills are aware the ecosystems values to humans and the need to conserve these ecosystems in order to sustain the benefits and flow of ecosystem goods and services. However, there are marked spatial and demographic differences in their perception of ecosystems, which can potentially alter the value they attached to different ecosystem services and the spatial significance of climate change. In view of these differences there is a need to devise an effective communication strategy, which can address the users’ knowledge gap with respect to indicators in relation to the severity of climate change, and inform policy about the extent to which users of ecosystems at different altitudinal gradients can collaborate to overcome climate related challenges.
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    Impacts of elephants disturbances on local community: A case study of Sitalike village near Katavi National Park
    (Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 2014-11-15) Jilala, Z. J.; Kashaigili, J. J.
    Crop production is the principal economic activity in the local community surrounding Katavi National park. Elephant’s raids upon these crops are thought to be key constraints on income generation. This project made the first quantitative assessment of this problems .therefore this project addresses those impacts of Elephants disturbances to the local communities.Purposefully sampling were used in selecting a selected village Sitalike village and random sampling method was used for selecting the sample households(respondents) .A total sample of 32 households were interviewed in this study. The structured questionnaire and discussions were used to get information relevant to the study. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage were used to accomplish the objective and presentation of results of the study.Farmer perceptions on Elephants which induce disturbances and raids their crops were heavily influenced by farmer‘s ability to defend themselves. Common animals such as Rodents, Birds and cattle caused considerable crop damage but were not quantified in this study. Variations in crop damage were evident and are potentially related to distance of a village from the park boundaries, Elephants distribution and their movement patterns.This study documented the existence of Elephant’s disturbances in Sitalike village and has demonstrated that local community are willing and able to collaborate with any authority to address this problems .However multi year study is needed to allow a full assessment of the temporal and spatial patterns by this one year study. And assessment of the causal factors will allow the implementation of effective mitigation measures.
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    Using soil-vegetation-atmosphere models and down scaled global climate scenarios to assess the impact of climate change in Morogoro region, Tanzania
    (Tropentag, 2010) Bobert, J.; Dietrich, O.; Dietz, J.; Festo, R.; Kashaigili, J.; Sieber, S.; Tscherning, K.
    ReACCT (Resilient Agro-landscapes to Climate Change in Tanzania) aims at assessing the regional impacts of climate change on agriculture and environment in the Morogoro region of Tanzania and at designing adaptation strategies and practices for small-scale agriculture and land use. The sub-project crop-soil modelling concentrates on model based estimations of climate change impacts on current land use systems and practices. At three research sites, distri- buted over the project region and with distinct climates, field trials are conducted to assess the yield potential of widely-used maize and sorghum varieties. The data obtained from the study are used to calibrate multiple soil-vegetation-atmosphere models ranging from rather simple to process-oriented models, which are able to simulate the bio-geophysical interactions between climate, soil and vegetation. These models are sensitive to changes concerning soil hydrology, nutrient cycling, and crop response to assess combined clima- te change and management effects on crop production, water resources and soil fertility. Combined with downscaled global climate scenarios, these models evaluate the best mana- gement practices for future climatic conditions. In another approach tested at sites at the Sokoine University in Morogoro the effects of including trees into the farming systems are investigated. Here the maize and sorghum varieties taken into account are cultivated at one site under standard conditions, whereas at the second site the plants are shaded by native Acacia trees. The effects of the shading on growth and development are measured in situ as well as the water use of trees and crops to quantify water competition between the plants. The interrelationship of these processes is modelled using the Water, Nutrient and Light Capture in Agroforestry Systems (WaNuLCAS) model, which has been developed at the World Agroforestry Centre.
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    Rapid environmental flow assessment for the Ruvu River
    (iWASH, 2011) Kashaigili, J. J.
    The Florida International Research iWASH Initiative Limited commissioned this study to conduct a rapid environmental flow assessment that will inform the ongoing environmental impact assessment work in the Ruvu sub-basin, as related to the proposed Kidunda Dam. The work utilizes the historical river flow data from Ruvu River at Morogoro Road Bridge in the sub-basin. The estimates from this work are initial estimates and will be followed by a detailed environmental flow assessment thereafter. A desktop reserve model developed in South Africa that is purely hydrologic-based and which is intended to quantify environmental flow requirements in situations when a rapid appraisal is required and where there is limited ecological data was used to provide initial estimates of ecological flow requirements. Also Flow Duration Curve analysis was conducted. The flow requirements were evaluated considering the various Ecological Management Classes (A-D; A/B, B/C and C/D) at the selected site - Ruvu River at Morogoro Road Bridge. The total maintenance flow requirement was estimated at 55.62% of the Mean Annual Runoff (1951-1977) for Ecological Management Class A and decreases to 15.23% for class D. These estimates are distributed appropriately across the year and take into consideration the high and low flow months provisioning. For the most dry months (September and October), the total maintenance flow requirement is estimated to be 15.03 and 14.86 m 3s-1 respectively for ecological management class A and 3.14 and 3.23 m 3s-1 for ecological management class D. Such a wide range provides the stakeholders, managers and decision makers a better idea of the possible range of required flows to maintain the river in different conditions. This study was purely hydrological with limited social and ecological considerations. It is therefore recommended that a follow-up detailed environmental flow study should look onto the functional elements of the river ecosystem and socio-economic issues. As such, the study should established a relationship between the ecological characteristics and the river flow regimes, the geomorphological aspects, the effects of climate change on flow recommendations and the socio-economic aspect and a detailed analysis of Kidunda Dam regulation on environmental recommendations.
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    Effective monitoring of decentralized forest resources in East Africa
    (2000) Banana, A.Y.; Gombya-Ssembajjwe, W.; Bahati, J.; Kajembe, G. C.; Kihiyo, V.; Ongugo, P.
    There is no doubt that state control of forest resources in many countries has proved to be ineffective in solving and halting the rate of deforestation. The financial and human resources available to government forest departments are inadequate to carry out the task of policing forested areas without the participation of local communities . However, the success of decentralizing resources to local communities depends on solving three puzzles; the problem of supplying new institutions, the problem of credible commitment and the problem of mutual monitoring. IFRI, studies in Uganda have known that monitoring and rule enforcement is very important for the success of decentralized forest resources (Banana and Gombya- Ssembajjwe 1999). Trying to understand how use-groups and /or communities have monitored their own conformance to their agreements as well as their conformance to the rules in the E. African region is the challenge of this study. The study revealed that an effective monitoring strategy involves having good incentives for the monitors and a mechanism to supervise or monitor the monitors themselves. Where effective was effective, there are few illegal activities, high basal area and the physical and biological condition of the CPR was expected to improve with time.
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    Potentials of non wood forest products in household food security in Tanzania: the role of gender based local knowledge
    (2000) Kajembe, G. C.; Mwenduwa, M.I.; Mgoo, J.S.; Ramadhani, H.
    This study was undertaken to synthesize existing information on the role of gender-based local knowledge in utilization of wild foods and other non-wood forest products for household food security in Tanzania. The study aimed at generating useful knowledge for advocacy, policy making and training. The specific objectives of this study were firstly, to assess issues of accessibility and dependency on wild foods and other non-wood forest products for household food security in the country, secondly, to examine the difference between women’s and men’s local knowledge with regard to collection, processing and utilization of wild foods and other non-wood forest products, and thirdly, to identify potentials and problems/threats with regard to availability of non-wood forest products for household food security. Literature from different authorities was critically synthesized to achieve the study objectives. The available information shows that there exists a wide range of wild foods and non-wood forest products, which are important for household food security. Non-wood forest products contribute through direct consumption of harvested wild foods and indirectly through income generation. The study revealed that there exists ascribed local knowledge between men and women on selection, preparation, utilization, storage and even consumption of wild foods. Furthermore, the study has revealed that non-wood forest products are of vital importance as tools for coping with food shortage and famines. The nutritive value of most wild foods is good and sometimes better than domesticated expensive foods. Despite of all the positive attributes of non-wood forest products, sustainable use of these resources is faced with problems of deforestation, lack of proper forest management regimes and non-homogeneity of non-wood forest products users. However, there exist some opportunities to improve the use of non-wood forest products for sustainable household food security; such as the diversification of forest management systems to incorporate locally valuable non-wood forest products, encouraging fruit trees growing in farms, providing market support and supporting small scale forest based enterprises. From this study it can be concluded that gender based local knowledge is a central issue in the selection, collection and preparation of wild foods. While women are very much knowledgeable about direct food consumption activities, men are more knowledgeable and responsible with income generating non-wood forest products. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the nutritive value of wild foods is substantial and can be used as substitute to the expensive domesticated food items. It is further concluded that increasing pressure of modernization is a problem facing expansion of non-wood forest products for household food security. From the findings of this study, it is recommended that the government, non- governmental organizations and individuals should target women when committing themselves to household food security. It is further recommended that there should be policy interventions to sensitize people on the use of wild foods as substitutes for the domestic ones. Nutritive values for different wild food items be assessed and used to improve food and nutrition security. It is also recommended that detailed study be conducted on local knowledge before it is lost through mordenisation. Last but not least quantification of the contribution of non- wood forest products in food security equation should be done.
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    Community participation in the management of protected forest areas in East Africa: opportunities and challenges
    (2006) Kajembe, G. C.; Kihiy, V.B.M.S.; Banana, A.Y.; Gombya-Ssembajjwe, W.; Ongugo, P.
    There is a move in East Africa from centralized and state-driven forest management regimes towards decentralized and mainly community-based regimes. The paper points out some of the opportunities and challenges. Structural changes in forest policies are seen as a contributing reason that decentralization is more in tune with the prevailing ethos of governance. Similarly, economic and political crises have now discredited service delivery systems based on central bureaucracy, forcing theorists of development administration to shift their focus from hierarchy and control to participation and empowerment. Moreover, the accelerating retrenchment during the 1990s, often to comply with structural adjustment policies, occurred together with the realization that centrist management strategies need reformulation. Erosion of the legitimacy of local institutions has been cited in the paper as one of the challenges. Local institutions have no real authority to decide on the management of forest resources. Another challenge is with regard to the stratified communities. In all stratified communities, interests of some actors are represented only inadequately. Lack of political will at the centre to give powers to communities and grassroots organizations is also a challenge to community based forest management initiatives in the region. It is also important that benefits must be significant if the community is to go to the trouble of establishing and enforcing the rules about resource use. This begs the question on whether community based forest management programmes/projects in East Africa have sufficient value to stimulate community participation. This remains a puzzle. The paper concludes by pointing out that “Rural communities in the region are undergoing rapid social, economic, and political change, as the development and modernization process spreads and deepens”. Even if effective and viable user groups exist or can be put in place today, will they survive and persist in the face of modernization pressures? Much more need to be known about the institutional context in which users now find themselves and the type of support that will increase the probability of sustainable management of our forest resources.
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    Empowering communities to manage natural resources: where does the new power lie? A case study of Duru – Haitemba, Babati, Tanzania
    (SUA, 2000) Kajembe, G. C.; Monela, G. C.
    Recent approaches to community – based natural resource management appear diverse as their varied implementing agencies and natural resource settings; yet they rest on a set of common assumptions about community, natural resources and the relationship between them. This paper focuses on power relations between actors and how these set the framework for resource management in Duru – Haitemba. As one of the few remain ing tracts of miombo woodlands, Duru – Haitemba woodlands had been targeted for gazettement. However the exercise faced “local discontent”. The discontent has its origin in the “generalised narrative”. Before the coming of colonial powers the community lived in balanced harmony with nature. But when this harmony was disrupted, it led to disequilibria and hence degradation. A range of factors may be called to account, including: technological change; the breakdown of traditional authority; social change; urban aspirations and the intrusion of inappropriate state policies. What is required is to bring community and environment back into harmony. This requires either the discovery and rebuilding of traditional collective resource management institutions or their replacement by new ones. At the local level there are two factions competing for power: the elites and the traditionalists. The primary concern of traditionalists is “ritual”. Elites tend to hijack community based processes and forcefully occupying the political space opened by decentralization. Besides of the power struggles at the micro level another challenge is on the part of the government leadership at the macro level. Government officials usually have very mixed feelings about community actions. Increasingly though, these officials have come to realize that community action can substitute for the expensive need to put government officials into the field. The paper points out the fact that, community-based natural resource management seems plausible way to cut down public costs of managing resources. However, it remains an arena of power struggle between three actors: Local Communities, Field Agents and Supervisors. This “triangle” of relationships constitute the social arena marking out the actual “locale” of community based natural resource management in Duru – Haitemba.
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    REDD and sustainable development – perspective from Tanzania
    (International Institute for Environment and Development (UK), 2011) Mwakalobo, A. B. S.; Kajembe, G. C; Silayo, D.S; Nzunda, E.; Zahabu, E.; Maliondo, S.; Kimaro, D. N.
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    Allometric tree biomass and volume models in Tanzania
    (Department of Forest Mensuration and Management Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation Sokoine University of Agriculture, 2016) Malimbwi, R.E.; Eid, T.; Chamshama, S.A.O.