Articles, Conference and Workshop Papers Collection

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    Evaluating a curriculum using the same style and strategy across years: lessons gained from Tanzania
    (American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, 2015) Makwinya, Noel M.
    Policy and practice in relation to curriculum evaluation systems are under review in many countries. Previous studies have indicated that, public examination system used in many countries, especially those using pen and paper to evaluate students’ mastery of the curriculum objectives can provide us with illusions regarding how best a curriculum is implemented at school. In this study, Public examination conducted by the National Examination Council of Tanzania were studied to see whether, the type and structure of exams, and coverage of such exams do not affect teachers’ curriculum implementation practice. Through content analysis of Grade twelve (form four) Public examinations offered since the year 2010 to 2014; and following an interviewing with students in grade twelve, results showed that: “what is measured” and “how it is consistently measured” through National summative examinations in Tanzania affect what is taught, what is assessed, and to a large extent, what is valued in the schooling process during curriculum implement ation.
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    Managing science teachers’ adoption of the 2005 Tanzanian Inquiry and Student-centred curriculum: revealing schoolbased leaders’ practices and achievements
    (Edith Cowan University, 2020) Makwinya, Noel Mark
    Many countries have made considerable changes to their education systems in response to the forces of globalisation. Tanzania is no exception. The most recent educational change attempt in Tanzania relates to the introduction of the 2005 Tanzanian Inquiry and Student- Centred Curriculum. Sound change-leadership is a necessary condition for the realisation of change, particularly in influencing its adoption. Within the descriptive qualitative research paradigm, this study employed a Type IV (embedded and multiple) case-study design to examine and describe science teachers’ lived experiences in dealing with this latest Tanzanian curriculum and the role played by school-based leaders in influencing such experiences. The study was carried out in three case-study schools. Data regarding change leadership were collected from both teachers and school leaders by means of personal interviews, observations, and document reviews. Data regarding science teachers’ levels of adoption of this curriculum and related concerns, all of which helped to gauge the effectiveness of change-adoption leadership provided by School-Based Leaders, were collected using semi-structured interviews and a Stage of Concern Questionnaire and were triangulated through document reviews and in- class observations. The findings show that school-based leaders in all case-study schools guided adoption of change primarily using authoritarian strategies. Nevertheless, there was some evidence to suggest that school-based leaders in the high performing and the medium performing case- study schools tended to employ additional strategies that inclined towards collective and empowering leadership approaches. This difference appeared to covary with the science teachers’ levels of use of this curriculum and their concerns about it in the three case-study schools. Adoption challenges and those affecting leadership of change are also detailed. These findings extend the ongoing academic discussion about the leadership of adoption of educational changes in schools. The understanding of pedagogical change gained through this study has implications for both policy and practice, and these are discussed in the last chapter. Leaders of these and other schools in equivalent contexts may use findings of this study to reflect upon their change-leadership practices in schools and improve the way they enhance pedagogical transformations and the professional development of their teachers.
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    Gender disparities in sciences: the question of parental influence on children’s self-concept and utility-value
    (Journal of Education and Practice, 2015) Makwinya, Noel M.; Hofman, Roelande H.
    Self-concept and utility-values are thought to influence differences in choices, participation and performance in schools-careers between students of different genders and ages. This study was investigating existence of gender differences in such constructs regarding science. Further, the study investigated whether development of such constructs is still influenced by how children feel their parents perceive them in relation to sciences. Using a 30- item, Lickert-type questionnaire, data were collected from a random sample of 184 second and third graders. Results showed that, students’ self perceptions and those of parents regarding science are positively related. Further, self-concept and utility-values were higher among boys than girls. Based on the result, it was concluded that, parents’ gender-based perceptions regarding science that are still communicated at home might be the reason for the development of children’s gender-based self-perceptions regarding sciences.
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    Does it matter the type and nature of sports and games on developing students’ sense of belonging at school?
    (International Journal of Education and Research, 2014-10) Makwinya, Noel M.
    Children’s participation in extracurricular activities is associated with numerous positive outcomes, including fostering students’ sense of belongingness. The objectives of this study were firstly, to investigate the role nature of sports/games can play in influencing students’ sense of feeling part of the playing-teams; secondly to investigate whether presence of local-based and context-specific games in school can improve general sense of relatedness among students. Using 103 sixth-primary school graders, in a pretest-posttest design, results showed that relatedness among students improved when students were given chances to play context-specific games. Following these results, teachers and other educational practitioners are recommended to allow school-children to play African-based games together with those innovated outside Africa. Since context-specific sports improved students’ sense of belonging, in a long-run, it is expected that this will help to improve students’ daily school attendance.
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    Depicting science teachers’ concerns regarding the Tanzanian inquiry-based science curriculum
    (Tailor and Francis Group, 2022) Makwinya, Noel M.; McKinnon, David H.; Lummis, Geoffrey W.
    Secondary school teachers in Tanzania have been attempting to implement the inquiry-based science curriculum since 2005. This study is descriptive and was designed within the realms of a Type IV case-study design (Yin, R. K. 2014. Case study research: Design and methods 5th ed. SAGE) to investigate their concerns in dealing with this curriculum. It employed the Concern-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) as its lens and collected data using the Stage of Concern (SoC) questionnaire. In addition, the study used background information of the participants themselves and their context collected using one-on-one interviews to enrich the interpretation of revealed concerns. The findings revealed variations in the nature and intensities of concerns amongst science teachers in the case-study schools. These variations were partly due to the differences in contextual and background characteristics of staff of the three case-study schools. The implications of these findings for both policy and practice are discussed.