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    Behavioural activities of two sympatric bird species and implications for Conservation and birding tourism in an urban landscape
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2021) Dismas, S.S; Mbilu, J.A.; Rija, A.A
    The behaviours of most Afro-tropical birds inhabiting urban landscapes are still poorly understood making species conservation and utilization challenging particularly in increasingly changing cityscapes. This study investigated activity patterns of two sympatric bird species, the Zanzibar red bishop (Euplectes nigroventris) and Black- headed weaver (Ploceus cucullatus) inhabiting urban forest remnants to provide information to improve species conservation and potential plans for avitourism in urban Morogoro, Tanzania. A total of 60 individual Zanzibar red bishop and 28 individual weaver birds were observed, for three weeks to understand their diel activity patterns. Eleven activities were displayed by the birds with the mean time budgets for some activities varying significantly between species, bird sex and habitat types. Further, birds spent significantly longer time during morning than afternoon or evening on most activities probably to offset the energy demands for the survival and reproduction. Variation in activity budgets between the two species was probably due to the species intrinsic strategies such as group foraging by the weaver that enhance easy detection and access to the food resources. These data will be useful for planning bird conservation and utilization programs especially in cities where birds are increasing threatened by human persecution
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    Human and landscape factors influencing lion mortalities in the maasai steppe ecosystem, northern Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2021) Soka, G; Lyimo, J
    The demography of the African lion is increasingly shaped by interactions with humans. Habitat fragmentation and persecution by humans are both linked to the decline in lions in most of their historical ranges such that current populations are largely restricted to isolated protected areas. This study examined the spatial and temporal patterns of lion killings in the Maasai steppe ecosystem. We used eighty-two lion mortality records for the last 13 years (2005 - 2017). Distances from the roads, river, lake, settlements, and the Normalized difference vegetation index value extracted for each lion killing location were the key landscape variables used to map the lion anthropogenic mortalities. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between female and male lions killed from 127 mortality records. The anthropogenic retaliatory killing caused 77.9% of female and 22.1% of male mortalities. About 58% of the lions killed were adults, 39.1% were sub-adults and only 2.9% were cubs. The majority of lion killings incidences took place during the wet season around the Maasai homestead. The lion killings incidences were rampant in the eastern side but slightly clustered in the northern part. Vegetation cover in the actual lion killings areas influenced lion killings incidences. Distances from the public roads, rivers, and human settlements significantly (p<0.05) contributed to lion anthropogenic mortalities. It is anticipated that retaliatory killings of lions could intensify due to growing cattle herds in the ecosystem. To promote coexistence between humans and lions, conservation authorities should invest more in awareness and sensitization programs on the conservation of lions.
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    Population and conservation status of endangered ashy red Colobus in Ufipa plateau: updates 10 years after first report
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2021) Kitegile, A.S; Mtui, A.S; Mwamende, K
    For centuries, forests in Africa have been converted into farm lands and human settlements leading into habitat loss for forest dwelling mammals especially primates. Last century witnessed an extensive decline of primate populations worldwide mostly through habitat destruction. Here we present findings on the current population and conservation status of Ashy Red Colobus monkeys in Ufipa Plateau, southwestern Tanzania after ten years of first report. Using complete animal count and plotless visual assessment, we conducted surveys in each forest assessing for presence or absence of ashy red colobus in these forests and quality of their habitats. There was much disturbance in unprotected Mbuzi forest, reducing the once continuous forest into forest fragments and patches with no primates. In Mbizi, forest has been converted into commercial forest of exotic pine trees leaving remnants of natural forests as habitat for primates. A population size of 528 individual Ashy red Colobus were counted in Mbizi forest, indicating about 56% decline in population size, and mean group size of 26.4 indicate a 35% decline in 10 years. These findings highlight threats to Mbizi population and envisage local extinction of Mbuzi population and recommend for urgent conservation interventions in the area.
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    Effects of large-scale teak plantation establishment on plant species composition and diversity in Kilombero valley, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2022) Ngatena, G.D; Soka, G; Munishi, P.K.T.
    Kilombero Teak Company (KVTC) have cleared more than 7,500 ha of natural miombo woodland since 1992, to establish a teak plantation in Kilombero valley. Currently, less is known about how this large teak plantation supports the previous existed plants species before its establishment. This study, investigated the understory plant species found in teak plantation and made reference on natural remnants around the plantation. The main hypothesis was that, natural remnants around the teak plantation would be richer and diversified in species, than teak plantation. Nested plots of 40 m x 20 m, 20 m x 10 m and 1 m x 1 m were established and used to survey plant species within plantation and natural remnants. Results showed that, natural remnants and plantation were 58% similar in plant species recorded. Natural remnants observed to have a statistically significant higher plant species richness (p = 0.043), families (p = 0.049) and abundance (p = 0.004) but lower plant species diversity (p = 0.01) than the plantation. The higher plant diversity scenario in teak plantation, shows that a plantation can support a variety of non-teak plant species that existed in the valley before its establishment in any favorable condition
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    Avifauna community in a threatened conservation landscape, western Tanzania: a baseline
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2023) Mgelwa, A.S; Mpita, M.O; Rija, A.A; Kabalika, Z.; Hassan, S.N
    Conservation of avian biodiversity in landscapes under immense anthropogenic pressures is dependent on sound population data that could guide informed conservation strategies. Using point count surveys, field observations and interviews, we assessed bird communities in Lake Rukwa, an anthropogenically threatened ecosystem in western Tanzania, to establish some vital parameters on this taxon. A total of 5840 bird individuals belonging to 85 species, 17 orders and 39 families were recorded. Of these, five were globally threatened and 19 were migrant species. Avian Shannon’s (H’) and Simpson’s (D) diversity indices were 2.936 and 0.8655, respectively. Bird species richness was different across foraging and habitat guilds (both p = 0.0001). Insectivores were the most species-rich foraging guild, while nectarivores were the least; similarly, non-forest birds were the most species-rich habitat guild, while forest generalists were the least. Grazing, bushfires, tree cutting, unsustainable fishing and bird harvesting are the major anthropogenic threats to bird biodiversity in the area. Regular provision of conservation-related education programs to local residents is a highly recommended conservation measure. This study serves as a baseline for avifaunal monitoring in Lake Rukwa and provides useful insights into the avifauna conservation planning in anthropogenically disturbed landscapes.
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    Diet composition and niche overlap of four sympatric rodent species inhabiting mount Rungwe forest nature reserve, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2022) Richard, U; Byamungu, R.M; Magige, F.
    Understanding animal feeding behaviour is key in determining coexistence mechanisms which are vital for conservation and management. The coexistence mechanisms of sympatric species in mount Rungwe are unknown. From 2020 to 2021 a study on the dietary contribution, overlap and niche breadth of four rodents in Mount Rungwe Forest Nature Reserve was conducted. Random sampling was employed with the removal method, whereby captured rodents’ stomachs were removed and their contents analyzed. Dietary contribution, overlap and niche breadth were calculated. All species consume diverse food resources and categories where Beamys hindei had a significantly high number of seeds/grains while Grammomys dolichurus and Lophuromys machangui contained a significantly higher number of invertebrates. Narrow niche breadth was observed for G. dolichurus while Praomys delectorum, L. machangui, and B. hindei had a moderate niche breadth but the dietary overlap was high in all four species. Our results conclude that L. machangui, P. delectorum, and B. hindei can coexist without competition as they have >0.5 niche breadth and high overlap, while G. dolichurus might experience competition because of low niche breadth and food diversity. Further investigation regarding seasonal diet partitioning and micro identification of food items is recommended.
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    A new diet on the menu: yellow baboon foraging on cassod tree (senna siamea), a trypsin inhibitor legume
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2022) Kitegile, A.S
    Cassod (Senna Siamea) which belongs to the family Fabaceae is the fast-growing leguminous tree with prolific seed production. The tree contains trypsin inhibitor proteins which are potentially deleterious to monogastric animals. Feeding behaviour of yellow baboons has been extensively studied in the savannah environment of East Africa. However, none of the study has reported on yellow baboon foraging on Senna siamea, this is the first study reporting on its consumption by yellow baboons in East Africa. We used focal animal sampling to collect data on yellow baboons’ consumption of Senna siamea. Finding from the study indicated that, seeds were the only food parts consumed by yellow baboons from Senna siamea; and they were consumed more in the late dry season and never in the wet season. Seeds were consumed either unprocessed or processed by removing the seed coat. Consumption of proceed seeds were done more by adult females and sub adult males (small bodied individuals) than adult males. It is considered that the climatic changes witnessed around the globe might have provided baboons with wider food choices options and adaptation. Therefore, more studies on baboons’ dietary choices are important for the understanding of their complex ecological adaptations
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    Ecological correlates of population abundance of a pest small mammal species (mastomys natalensis) inhabiting a protected area-farmland landscape in western Serengeti, Tanzania
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2023) Rwebuga, E.J; Mulungu, L.S.; Rija, A.A; Hassan, S.N.
    There is growing recognition of the negative impacts pest mammal species have on food security and the human health. Strategies to reduce these impacts could benefit from results of association of population of the pests to ecological aspects. We assessed how environmental and habitat attributes were associated population abundance of Mastomys natelensis in a landscape interspaced with farmland and protected areas in Western Serengeti. Rodents were trapped through Capture-Mark-Release method between April, 2020 and March, 2021 and estimated density of M. natalensis using the Minimum Number of Animals Known to be Alive (MNA) method. We found density to be significantly higher during dry season and in active farmlands; Both active farmlands and areas with sandy- clay-loam soils were strongly positively associated with higher abundance perhaps because of the increased species activity patterns during searching for food and favourable nesting soils thereby exposing the rodents to the traps. Also, the density tended to be significantly lower in areas with high plant species richness probably because M.natalensis is a pestrous species often in high abundance in areas cleared of vegetation for agricultural activities. These results provide useful inputs towards control strategies to reduce impacts associated with these pests in the rural landscapes.
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    Foraging in a 3-D world: the influence of body size and sex on vertical and horizontal foraging behaviour of yellow baboons
    (Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 2022) Kitegile, A.S; Hassan, S.N
    Foraging is among complex animal behaviours, which involve making decisions on what and where to forage, so as to maximize nutritional gain and reduce predation risk. In ungulates, it is known to also be influenced by sexual size dimorphism, however, this is not clear in sexually size dimorphic yellow baboon. Using focal animal sampling techniques, we collected data from habituated troops of yellow baboons to test whether body size and/or sex has influence on their use of vertical and horizontal strata when foraging. Results showed that, yellow baboons foraged more frequently on the ground up to 1 m than beyond this height. However, adult females foraged on the ground significantly more frequently than adult and subadult males. While, adult and subadult males used higher canopy beyond 2 m, more frequently than adult females. Moreover, adult females and subadult males foraged more frequently at the troop centre than adult males. This study concludes that sex and to some extent body size significantly influence foraging decisions of yellow baboon in the use of vertical and horizontal strata. Detailed understanding of spacing behaviour of baboons is recommended as it is important towards better understanding f their complex social life
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    Trypanosomes infection in rodents and their zoonotic potential from Ruaha ward in Kilosa district, Tanzania
    (TAJAS, 2022) Samiji, A.M; Katakweba, A.S; Phiri, E.C
    Zoonotic haemoparasites are among of the public health problems that affect human population and are capable of being transmitted from wildlife reservoirs. Study on trypanosomes infection in rodents from Ruaha ward in Kilosa district, Tanzania was carried out on March 2020. The total of 99 individuals of rodents were captured from different localities in Ruaha, using Sherman live traps. Blood samples were collected from supraorbital vein of captured individuals, both thick and thin smears were made, dried and stained with Giemsa at the ratio of 1:10. After washing and drying they were observed under microscope at 100 magnifications with oil immersion for trypanosomes infection. Out of 99 rodents captured there were, Rattus rattus 22 (22.22%), Mastomys natalensis 72 (72.73%), and Aethomys chrysophilus 5 (5.05%). Among the captured rodents, 62 (62.63%) were males and 37 (37.37%) were females. Rattus rattus appeared to be predominant species in resident areas, while Mastomys natalensis followed by Aethomys chrysophilus bieng dominant in fallow and cultivated land areas. The infectious agent (Protozoa) belonging to genus Trypanosoma was found infecting the rodent population. Rattus rattus (n=3/99, 3.03%) were shown to have high prevalence compared to Mastomys natalensis (n=1/99, 1.01%), meanwhile Aethomys chrysophilus (n=0/99, 0.00%) were found not infected with any trypanosomes. The overall prevalence of trypanosomes were (n=4/99, 4.04%), however, captured female rodents were not infected. It is concluded that zoonotic agent (Trypanosoma spp.) are prevalent to rodents in Ruaha ward, hence it is recommended that more survey of trypanosomes infections in rodents are crucial for disease surveillance as the way toward ending Trypanosomiasis by 2030.
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    Geographic biases in cane rat (thryonomyds) research may impede broader wildlife utilization and conservation in Africa: a systematic review
    (Elsevier, 2021) Kilwanila, Shadia I; Msalya, George M; Lyimo, Charles M; Rija, Alfan A
    There is a growing body of literature about cane rat species but most of the published work is patchy and current spatial distribution is unknown which limits its wide appli- cation in the utilization of the species for the broader commercial game industry and for improving wildlife conservation across Africa. We conducted a systematic review of 56 years (1964 - 2020) of cane rat research to understand existing research gaps, to analyze the spatiotemporal and thematic patterns, and investigated factors that influence the pub- lication of the cane rat research in widely recognized journal outlets. We found 308 pub- lications on the cane rat species from 14 countries authored by 39 nationalities globally. The publications increased significantly over the study period, with 97.7% of these biased geographically and thematically towards the west and central African region. Further, the published research mostly covered one species, the greater cane rat, and none had covered the biogeography, food biology, and conservation of any of the two cane rat species in situ. Also, the author’s nationality had the strongest influence on publishing the research in journals with or without impact factor. These results suggest that the financial limitation and quality of the research influenced most cane rat research published in local national or regional journals which mostly had limited accessibility for widespread research use to improve applied conservation programs. Expanding coverage of the cane rat research in other species-range countries in the east and southern African regions will be necessary to tap the species as a priority commercial game to reducing exploitation pressure on the wild mammal populations particularly in the African savannas where illegal hunting for bushmeat consumption is a growing problem.
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    Gender and socio-economic factors influencing domestication of indigenous medicinal plants in the west Usambara mountains, northern Tanzania
    (Taylor and Francis Group, 2010) Kideghesho, Jafari R; Msuya, Tuli S
    The limited capacity of governments in developing countries to service primary health care has resulted in a rapid increase in use of indigenous medicinal plants. This increase, together with other biological and non-biological factors, has rendered these plants vulnerable to over-use and extirpation. Domestication is a conservation intervention that can relieve pressure on medicinal species. In order to ensure effectiveness and sustainability of an intervention, understanding the influencing factors is imperative. We examined the influence of gender and some socio-economic factors on domestication of medicinal plants in the West Usambara Mountains of northern Tanzania. Participatory wealth ranking, structured and semi-structured interviews, botanical surveys and participant observations were employed in data collection. Results showed that domestication has played a fundamental role in conservation of medicinal plants in the study area. Forty (89%) and twelve (27%) of forty-five indigenous plant species were domesticated on farms and around homesteads, respectively. A total of 89% of respondents (n ¼ 173) had domesticated medicinal plants on their farms and around homesteads. Gender was the most important factor that influenced this practice, with more male-headed than female-headed households involved in the domestication effort. This can be attributed to social and cultural factors that, besides dispossessing women of tenure rights over resources and land, also subject them to heavy workloads and therefore diminish the time available for plant domestication. The number of domesticated medicinal plants also depended on age, affluence, farm size, household size and ethnicity. We recommend that agroforestry research should focus not only on integrating forest plants in farmlands, but also on cultural, socio-economic and institutional aspects affecting the whole system of domestication.
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    Factors and ecological impacts of wildlife habitat destruction in the Serengeti ecosystem in Northern Tanzania
    (2006-04) Kideghesho, Jafari R; Nyahongo, Julius W; Hassan, Shombe N; Tarimo, Thadeo C; Mbije, Nsajigwa E
    Despite the considerable worldwide efforts to establish the wildlife protected areas - a strategy construed as the most feasible in maintaining the high quality habitats for healthy wildlife populations - destruction of wildlife habitats has remained the leading threat to biodiversity. This destruction, taking different forms (i.e. degradation, fragmentation or outright loss) is a function of the growing human activities - prompted mainly by such factors as poverty, demographic factors, land tenure systems, inadequate conservation status, development policies and economic incentives. This paper reviews these contributing factors and presents the associated ecological impacts – manifested by a decline of wildlife populations and local extinction of species. Provision of adequate conservation status to critical wildlife habitats, addressing the problem of human population growth, adoption of poverty reduction strategies that are conservation- friendly and discouraging the destructive development policies are recommended as the measures to mitigate the problem. Other measures entail genuine involvement of the local communities in conservation, provision of adequate economic incentives, relevant research and participatory land use planning. In conclusion, the paper argues that, given the nature of the problem, if a lasting solution is to be realized, habitat loss should be viewed as a multisectoral rather than a single sectoral issue. Therefore different stakeholders should play an active role in halting and pre-empting the problem. We propose criteria for selection of the relevant stakeholders
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    Availability, preference, and consumption of indigenous forest foods in the eastern arc mountains, Tanzania
    (Taylor and Francis, 2010) Msuya, Tuli S; Kideghesho, Jafari R.; Mosha, Theobald C. E
    We investigated the availability, preference, and consumption of indigenous forest foods in Uluguru North (UNM) and West Usambara Mountains (WUM) of Tanzania. Data collection techniques involved focus group discussion, structured questionnaires, and botanical identification. Results revealed (1) there were 114 indigenous forest food plant species representing 57 families used by communities living adjacent to the two mountains; (2) sixty-seven species supplied edible fruits, nuts and seeds: 24 and 14 species came from WUM and UNM, respectively, while 29 came from both study areas; (3) of the 57 identified vegetable species, 22 were found in WUM only, 13 in UNM only, and 12 in both areas; (4) there were three species of edible mushrooms and five species of roots and tubers; (5) unlike the indigenous roots and tubers, the preference and consumption of indigenous vegetables, nuts, and seeds/oils was higher than exotic species in both study areas; and (6) UNM had more indigenous fruits compared to WUM, although preference and consumption was higher in WUM. We recommend increased research attention on forest foods to quantify their contribution to household food security and ensure their sustainability.
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    The attitudes of tourists towards the environmental, social and managerial attributes of Serengeti national park, Tanzania
    (2011-06) Kaltenborn, Bjørn P; Nyahongo, Julius W; Kideghesho, Jafari R
    Serengeti National Park is a world class icon for wildlife tourism attracting a diverse group of tourists from all over the world. The park has played a pivotal role in protecting large populations of wildlife species of the Eastern African savannah and the globally outstanding biological phenomena such as the annual migration of wildebeest. However, the history of the park is also characterised by resource use conflicts and pressures that could threaten the current quality of the visitor environment. In this paper we examine the attitudes of international visitors toward the management and attributes of the park. Overall, the tourists report a high degree of satisfaction with most aspects of their trip. Yet, the current tourists are concerned about possible future changes that could alter the visitor environment and idealized images of the African wild lands. Basic environmental attitudes (degrees of ecocentrism) have effects on attitudes toward management of the park. Tourists expressing a high degree of ecocentrism are more likely to support management actions aimed at controlling tourism activities, access and impacts. They also express a stronger interest in experiencing nature, wilderness and local culture. The results are discussed in light of the major impact factors and conservation issues facing the management of Serengeti National Park; poaching, poverty in surrounding communities, increasing population pressure, habitat degradation, and wildlife diseases.
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    The role of traditional management practices in enhancing sustainable use and conservation of medicinal plants in west Usambara mountains, Tanzania
    (2009-03) Msuya, Tuli S; Kideghesho, Jafari R
    The study on importance of traditional practices in conservation of medicinal plants in West Usambara Mountains, Tanzania was conducted by using focus group discussions, interviews, participant observation, and botanical survey. Nine traditional practices for conservation of wild plants were identified as domestication; beliefs in sacredness of trees; beliefs in sacred forests; respect of cultural forests; protection of plants at the burial sites; selective harvesting; secrecy; collection of deadwood for firewood, and use of energy-saving traditional stoves. Through botanical surveys of sacred forests, cultural forests, farms/homesteads, and burial sites, some 1,518 wild plants belonging to 100 species were identified. A large proportion (85%) of these plants had medicinal value. Of the 173 respondents, 82%, 81%, 74%, and 71% believed that sustainable use and conservation of medicinal plants can be achieved through secrecy, plant protection at burial sites, sacredness of plants and domestication, respectively. About 89% of the respondents pursued domestication (at least five plants each) and 70% had retained sacred trees (at least one tree each), of which the majority had medicinal value. Few respondents were aware of the positive role played by sacred forests and cultural forests (38% and 21%, respectively) in conservation of medicinal plants. It is concluded that the traditional management practices have a significant role in the conservation of biodiversity. This conservation role has a direct connection with human health since most of the plant species have medicinal value, which a majority of the rural people rely on. The paper recommends that traditional management practices should be encouraged since they serve a dual purpose as important conservation strategy and as an essential component of primary health care.
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    ‘Serengeti shall not die’: transforming an ambition into a reality
    (2010-09-27) Kideghesho, Jafari R.
    The slogan “Serengeti shall not die” (German: Serengeti darf nicht sterben) is widely credited for alerting the global community to the urgency of conserving the Serengeti and its biological values for the benefit of local and global communities. The slogan has become popular since 1960 when Bernhard and Michael Grzimek authored a book, Serengeti Shall Not Die. However, despite this commitment the management challenges in Serengeti are growing, causing skepticism about the potential for realizing such a goal. These challenges include illegal hunting, habitat loss, and human-wildlife conflicts aggravated by human population growth and poverty. In addressing these challenges and therefore transforming the ambition “Serengeti shall not die” into reality, the multiple strategies required are presented in this paper. The paper starts by reviewing the challenges contradicting the ambition.
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    Seasonal fluctuations in photochemical efficiency of symbiodinium harbored by three reef-building corals that differ in bleaching susceptibility
    (2015) Chauka, Leonard J.; Mbije, Nsajigwa E; Kangwe, Simon J
    Coral reefs are amongst the most vulnerable ecosystems to climate change. This study was conducted to evaluate the fluxes in the adaptations of reef-building corals to climate change. In order to explore this, chlorophyll a fluorescence, Symbiodinium abundance and types were monitored in nursery-reared corals for two years in three species that differ in bleaching susceptibility. The species were Pocillopora verrucosa, Porites cylindrica and Acropora formosa. Internal transcribed spacer two (ITS-2) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA genes (rDNA) was used in monitoring the Symbiodinium types associated with the studied coral species. Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry was used to determine seasonal changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence. In this study, it was found that A. formosa, P. verrucosa and P. cylindrica maintained their Symbiodinium types; C3u, C1h, and C15 respectively throughout the seasons. A. formosa and P. verrucosa responded significantly to seasonal fluctuation in both solar radiation and sea surface temperature by regulating their Symbiodinium cell density and photochemical efficiency whereas P. cylindrica did not. However, such seasonal fluctuations in these environmental parameters are not accompanied by acquisition of foreign Symbiodinium types from the environmental pool. It is concluded that seasonal fluctuations in both solar radiations and sea surface temperatures are not intense enough to effect acquisition of foreign Symbiodinium types by reef building corals in Zanzibar waters
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    The potentials for co-management approaches in western Serengeti, Tanzania
    (2008-12) Kideghesho, Jafari R; Mtoni, Paul E
    Co-management arrangements are increasingly gaining popularity as an intervention to overcome the shortcomings of centralized management that impede harmonization of conflicting interests among the diverse stakeholder groups. The success of these arrangements depends, among other things, upon capitalizing on potentials existing in the area where they are intended to be implemented. This study was conducted in the western part of Serengeti National Park to analyze some potential for adopting the co-management approaches. We employed local communities’ opinions, experience, knowledge, and attitudes to analyze these factors. The paper is framed around the premises that, among other things, co-management arrangements have the potential to work if: (i) the local communities have an outstanding level of awareness on the rationale of, and legal aspects pertaining to, wildlife conservation; (ii) the traditional institutions for management of natural resources exist and local communities have the ability to evaluate their performance, establish causes for inadequate performance and propose some workable solutions; (iii) local communities have the ability to evaluate different options for resource ownership and give valid reasons for opposing or supporting them. In conclusion we underscore the need for co-management approaches as an alternative intervention and a complement for current resource management approaches. We recommend promotion of local awareness on legal aspects of resource management, strengthening of traditional institutions for resource management and honoring people’s choices of the types of resource ownership or rectifying the situations making them unpopular.
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    Will Tanzania’s wildlife sector survive the covid-19 pandemic?
    (Sage, 2021) Kideghesho, Jafari R.; Kimaro, Houssein S; Mayengo, Gabriel; Kisingo, Alex W
    The COVID-19 pandemic presents a potential threat to wildlife resources in Africa. In this review, using Tanzania as a case, we examine the impacts and risks that wildlife sectors in Africa are facing or are likely to face as a result of this pandemic.We recognize loss of revenues from tourism as a major impact that could negatively influence the management of wildlife species and habitats. Loss of tourism revenues reduces capacity of the conservation agencies to fund conservation operations and support the benefit sharing schemes. Furthermore, it undermines the efficacy of conservation to compete with alternative economic activities which are ecologically damaging. Increased unemployment and household poverty due to closure of businesses may exacerbate wildlife crime and unsustainable activities. Additionally, contributions from donor-funding organizations and development partners cannot be guaranteed as revenues may be diverted to support other sectors including health. In order to address and minimize the impacts and reduce the risks to the wildlife sector, the following policy measures are recommended: ensure adequate budget for conservation; develop a crisis management plan; reconsider protocols for conducting wildlife trade; develop a comprehensive tourism recovery plan; promote scientific studies focusing on zoonoses and adopt a One-Health Approach as a matter of urgency in dealing with COVID-19 and future pandemics.