ItemColloid in the anterior pituitary of helmet guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata): morphometric analysis and pattern of occurrence in relation to apoptosis(Springer, 2009-03) Luziga, Claudius; Mbassa, Gabriel; Koichi, Mamba; Kipanyula, Maulilio JohnColloidal accumulations in the pars distalis of helmet guinea fowls at various ages from 1 to 450 days were examined by Periodic acid-Schiff reaction, immunohisto- chemistry and electron microscopy. Round, ovoid and elongated colloids were observed. Colloids (69.5±2.997) with 0.169±0.014 μm mean diameter were already present in a 1- day-old bird. Numerous colloids were encountered in 450 days old birds (2931.333± 29.847) with 2.263± 0.078 μm mean diameter of round colloids. A significant difference in the mean colloidal number and diameter between young and adult birds was observed. In young birds (aged 1–30 days) both Periodic acid-Schiff reaction positive colloids and S-100 positive folliculostellate (FS) cells were found to appear first on or near the posterolateral region. In adult birds, FS cells were found to completely surround the colloids. We examined the biochemical components of colloids and the relationship with apoptosis by immunohistochemistry. Results showed that the colloids are composed of clusterin protein. Apoptotic cells detected by single stranded DNA (ssDNA) were abundant and localized preferentially near colloids. To define clearly the type of cells undergoing apoptosis in the anterior pituitary, we performed electron microscopy. Numerous endocrine cells at different stages of apoptosis were found engulfed by FS cells that were in close association with the colloidal accumulations. The occurrence of extremely large number of colloids in relation to apoptotic profiles in anterior pituitary of helmet guinea fowl is discussed. ItemLandscape Factors Associated with Livestock Disease Deaths in Idodi and Pawaga Divisions, Tanzania(Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program, University of California, 2009-05) Coppollillo, P.; Clifford, D.; Dickman, A.; Masozera, M.; Kazwala, R.; Erickson, J.; Mazet, J.In sub-Saharan Africa, livestock deaths due to disease have large impacts on household income and nutrition. As part of the larger Health for Animals and Livelihood Improvement (HALI) project assessing the impact of zoonotic disease and water scarcity on rural livelihoods, the authors examined the association between landscape factors and livestock deaths attributed to disease in pastoralist households living near Ruaha National Park, Tanzania. Preliminary results suggest that households located farther from the center of the village and farther from water sources suffered greater livestock losses due to disease. Livestock disease losses were greater in Pawaga than in Idodi Division, underscoring the importance of localized factors that may influence disease. The presence of wildlife and close proximity to roads were not associated with livestock disease losses. However, that is not to say the perception of disease from wildlife is not important, nor can it be said that interactions in the opposite direction (from livestock to wildlife) are not important. These assessments will require further investigation, which is currently underway. Study data also support the importance of water availability for livestock health and productivity. In conclusion, both local and regional strategies to increase livestock productivity should consider within-village disease variation and ensure that more remote households have access to extension and veterinary services. ItemAnti-Mycobacterial Activity on Middlebrook 7H10 Agar of Selected Congolese Medicinal Plants(American Institute of Science, 2018-12-06) Bongo, G.N; Tuntufye, H.N; Malakalinga, J; Ngbolua, K; Pambu, A.L; Claudine, T; Mbadiko, C.M; Kazwa, RIn recent years, Tuberculosis (TB) has re-emerged as a serious public health problem worldwide. The disease spreads more easily in overcrowded settings and in conditions of malnutrition and poverty. The emergence of multidrug resistant and lengthy therapy reduces the patient compliance which comprises TB control strategies. In the current study, the leaves of Terminalia ivorensis, Carapa procera, Fagara macrophylla, Anacardium occidentale, Ficus spp. and Drepanoalpha® were extracted using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol in order to assess their anti-mycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and Mycobacterium tuberculosis spp. on Middlebrook 7H10 agar using a qualitative approach where the activity was determined by the presence or the absence of growth on the plate. The phytochemical screening was used for the identification of the major groups of compounds found in the extracts. The methanolic extract displayed a good activity on both strains than the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, anthocyanins, quinones known to be of medicinal importance points out a possible source for anti-mycobacterial agents to address the problem of multidrug resistance. The in vitro findings of this study provide a partial support for the use of these plants in the management of various infectious diseases as lead to drug discovery and should be reiterated and recommended for a clinical trial using an animal model. ItemAssessment of health status, handling and management of working animals in Tanzania: A case study of Donkeys in Kilosa district(TANZANIA VETERINARY ASSOCIATION, 2017) Kimaro, W. H.; Kipanyula, M. J.The use of donkeys as drought animal has been a tradition in various parts of Tanzania. Donkeys transport goods to markets, children to schools, sick people, women in labor and water and supplies to remote communities. Despite the importance of donkeys in the community, little is known on the common diseases affecting donkeys in Tanzania. In addition, there is no structured management systems, handling, reproduction and/or disease control programmes. According to a report by ministry of Livestock development and Fisheries, the number of donkeys is decreasing. Several measures have been undertaken to save these animals including stopping of the slaughter operations which were carried out in Dodoma municipality. However, to fulfill the demand, capacity building on proper management system, handling, disease surveillance and control systems is important. This study therefore assessed the health status of donkeys, handling and management system practiced in Kilosa. Field visits, interviews, structured questionnaire and focus group discussion were used to gather information. Clinical examination was undertaken and samples collected for disease diagnosis. Sick animals were treated. The observation showed that donkeys suffer several ailments including poor management systems (housing, feeding, and manure disposal), infectious diseases, overworking, injuries and inbreeding. Community training, empowerment and veterinary service provision is recommended to improve the health and survival of donkeys in Kilosa. ItemCitrobacter as a gastrointestinal pathogen, its prevalence and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistant isolates in food-producing animals in Morogoro, Tanzania(TANZANIA VETERINARY ASSOCIATION, 2017) Medardus, J. J.Citrobacter is a gastrointestinal commensal of man and animals. The zoonotic Citrobacter spp. infection can occur if food products of animal origin are not hygienically handled. Therefore, the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance profile and resistance transmission mechanism of Citrobacter spp. in food-producing animals in Tanzania needs to be understood. Citrobacter isolates were recovered from 2.4% of the total of 1099 samples from apparently healthy animals. Citrobacter isolates were detected in 3.0% and 1.9% of the swine and the cattle samples, respectively. Over 80% of food products contamination with Citrobacter isolates originated from slaughtered cattle carcasses just before meat is transported to retail stores. About 62% of the isolates detected were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, whereas, 38.5% of the resistant isolates were exhibiting resistance to three or more antibiotic classes. All 26 presumptive Citrobacter isolates were screened for invA, intI1 and 16S rRNA. None of the isolates carried invA. Nearly 19% of the MDR Citrobacter isolates were found to carry an intI1. All intI1-positive isolates contained resistance gene cassettes dfrA1, dfrA7 and dfrA15. Detection of resistance gene cassettes in the MDR Citrobacter isolates in animals and animal products represents a potential source for horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes and mobile genetic elements between pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria in the microbial population. The findings indicate that animal feces could one of the potential sources for contamination of animal products along the food production chain. ItemThe acute effect of methyl-2-benzimidazole carbamate on haematological parameters in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)(2015) Kimaro, W. H.; Kipanyula, M. J.Methyl-2-benzimidazole (carbendazim) is widely used fungicide in the field and post-harvest crops for control of fungal diseases. It inhibits microtubule assembly by binding to the β-tubulin sub-unit of the microtubule. This study was carried out to assess the effect of carbendazim on haematological parameters in the Japanese quails. Carbendazim in sunflower oil was administered orally to mature Japanese quails at dosages of 0 mg/kg (control), 25mg/kg, 100mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg. Blood samples were analysed for total plasma protein, total red blood cell count (RCC), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), haematocrit (PCV), total white cell count (WCC) and differential white cell count. Carbendazim generally decreased the mean values of total plasma protein, RCC, WCC, as well as differential white cell count. In addition, carbendazim significantly decreased mean values of PCV and MCV (P < 0.05). The results of the current study indicate that carbendazim has a potential effect on haematological parameters in exposed birds. The use of this chemical should be monitored to reduce environmental contamination which might be the source of exposure to wild animals ItemA tsetse Glossina pallidipes harbors the pathogenic trypanosomes circulating in Liwale district, Tanzania(ELSEVIER, 2017-06-03) Luziga, C.; Muya, C.; Mramba, F.; Byamungu, M.; Mbata, G.African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) is among several constraints hindering development of the livestock sector in Tanzania. A survey was conducted in Liwale district located in southern Tanzania in 2013 to determine the population density of Glossina species, distribution pattern and Trypanosome species infection rate in tsetse flies. A total of 200 flies were collected from the study area and three Glossina species were identified. The proportional abundance of all trapped flies was 90% (180) for Glossina pallidipes, 6% (12) for G. brevipalpis and 4% (8) for G. m. morsitans with apparent densities (fly/trap/day - FTD) of 0.44. Higher density of Glossina pallidipes was observed in villages closer to than those far from the Selous game reserve. Trypanosomes were detected and identified by microscopy and ITS1 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay on DNA purified from 200 flies. Glossina pallidipes was the only fly found infected by three Trypanosoma species, namely T. vivax (60%), T. simiae (10%) and T. brucei (30%) with an overall infection rate of 10% (20/200). A higher proportion of trypanosome infections were observed in female tsetse flies than in males. Results of this study show that G pallidipes is the major Glossina species harboring pathogenic trypanosomes in Liwale district and that the Selous game reserve is a potential reservoir of trypanosomes in terms of parasite abundance and species diversity. ItemRodents and Shrews as Vectors of Zoonotic Spirochetes and Trypanosomes in Tanzania(African Journals Online (AJOL), 2013-12) Katakweba, A. A. S.; Kipanyula, M. J.; Hamphi; Durnez, L.; Mhamphi, G.; Luziga, C.; Mgode, G. F.; Machang'u, R. S.Clinically healthy wild rodents and shrews (Crocidura spp.) were captured from different localities in Morogoro, Tanga, Dodoma, Singida, Mbeya, Kilimanjaro and Mtwara regions of Tanzania. Blood samples were collected from the captured animals and screened for infectious agents of public health importance, including; Trypanosoma spp., Plasmodium spp., Borrelia spp. and Bacillus spp. Out of 4,963 blood smears examined, 424 (8.5%) were from shrews and 4,539 (91.5%) were from rodents. Trypanosoma spp. were demonstrated in 198 (3.9%) and 7 (0.1%) blood smears of rodents and shrews, respectively. Borrelia spp. were demonstrated in 6 (0.2%) and 5 (1.2%) rodents and shrews, respectively. Bacillus spp. were found in 149 (3.6%) and 27 (6.4%) rodents and shrews respectively. Mastomys natalensis, Rattus rattus and Crocidura spp. were found to host all of the five haemoparasites detected. The public health significance of this study is notable from the fact that haemoparasites that were demonstrated in apparently healthy rodents are potential human pathogens. ItemIn vivo effect of Commiphora swynnertonii ethanolic extracts on Trypanosoma congolense and selected immunological components in mice(BMC Complementary and alternative Medicine, 2017-05-23) Nagagi, Yakob; Silayo, Richard; Luziga, Claudius; Eliningaya, KwekaABSTRACT Background: The search for alternative trypanocidal compounds which can be available at affordable price is of paramount importance for control of trypanosomosis in human and animals. The current study evaluates the in vivoactivity of ethanolic stem bark extracts on Trypanosoma congolense and selected immunological components in aninbred Swiss albino mouse model. Methods: Groups of mice infected with T. congolense were treated with the stem bark extracts at a rate of 1000 mg/kg,1500 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg, twice a day in one set and thrice a day in another setting for three days consecutively.Negative (infected and untreated) and positive (infected treated with diminazene diaceturate at 3.5 mg/kg) control groups were used. Levels of parasitaemia were monitored daily for the first 10 days and thereafter 2–3 times per week to the end of experiment. In the other setting, uninfected mice, randomized in groups were treated with the extract but categorized as: thorough mixed extract (TME) and supernatant extract (SE) each at 500 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg, in 8 hourly intervals respectively for three days consecutively. Control group was administered with phosphate buffered saline with glucose at 0.1 ml/10 g in a similar manner as for the extract. Whole blood and spleen were taken 24 h after the last treatment for hematological and histopathological analysis. Results: The groups that received the extracts at 8 hourly intervals drastically reduced the parasitaemia. The higher dose of SE significantly reduced the percentage of lymphocytes (P < 0.05). Both high and low dose of TME significantly reduced lymphocytes percent (P < 0.05) while percent of neutrophils and monocytes increased significantly (P < 0.05). Histopathological changes of the spleen in the mice treated with higher concentrations of the extract of C. swynnertonii were suggestive of lymphocytes toxicity. Conclusion: The current study has provided evidence that, in vivo trypanocidal activity of ethanolic bark extracts of C.swynnertonii is probably affected by its negative effect on humoral mediated immune response. Further studies are recommended to determine its potential as an alternative source of lead compounds for trypanocidal drug discovery ItemIdentification and characterization of the interactive proteins with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-2α(2014-12-17) Luziga, C.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Nga, B. T.; Kusakabe, K. T.Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-2α (CTLA-2α) is a potent inhibitor of cathepsin L-like cysteine proteases. Recombinant CTLA-2α is known to be a potent, competitive inhibitor of cathepsin L-like cysteine proteases. In this study, cathepsin L, cathepsin C, and tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen-related protein 1 (TINAGL1) were identified as novel interactive proteins of CTLA-2α by the yeast two-hybrid screening system. The direct interactions and colocalization of these proteins with CTLA-2α were confirmed using co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. The disulfidebonded CTLA-2α/cathepsin L complex was isolated from mouse tissue. CTLA-2α was found to be specific and consistently expressed on the maternal side of the mouse placenta. Double immunofluorescence analysis showed that CTLA-2α was co-localized with cathepsin L, cathepsin C, and TINAGL1 in placenta. A simple cell-based fluorescence assay revealed that CTLA-2α exhibited inhibitory activity toward cathepsin C in live cells, which indicated that CTLA-2α is a novel endogenous inhibitor of cathepsin C. ItemLocalization profile of cathepsin L in the brain of African giant rat (Cricestomys gambianus)(2016) Luziga, C.; Nga, B. T. T.; Kashoma, I.; Katakweba, A.; Yoshimi, Y.Cathepsins, are members of the papain superfamily of mammalian lysosomal cysteine proteases. Among others there are two prominent members with broad substrate specificity, these are cathepsin B and cathepsin L that are known to be involved in the process of intra- and extra-cellular protein degradation and turnover. However, the in vivo targets of cathepsin L in nervous tissues are yet to be identified. We examined by immunofluorescence studies the distribution pattern of cathepsin L protein and determine the specific cell types synthesizing the enzyme in the brain of African giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus). Results showed that Cathepsin L protein was localized in various brain regions of the giant rats. In the telencephalon, immunoreactivity was identified in cerebral cortex and subcortical structures, hippocampus, amygdala and basal ganglia. Within the diencephalon high density of positive signals was observed in mediodorsal and lateral posterior thalamic nuclei and medial habenular nucleus. In the mesencephalon, cathepsin L was detected in the substantia nigra and cerebral peduncles. Strong labeling in the hypothalamus was present in the anterior commissure and median eminence while in the cerebellum cathepsin L was observed in the deep white matter, granule cell layer, stellate, and basket cells of cerebellar cortex and in the Purkinje neurons. The distribution pattern and functional implications of cathespin L in relation to spatial memory establishment, learning coordination and disease mechanisms is discussed.